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observed, credits the primitive reasoner with such an amount of intellectual acumen as would entitle him to rank with the foremost thinkers of the twentieth century." In refuting the assertion that the alliance of morality and religion belongs to religions above the savage level, he shows in striking contrast the ethics of the lowest tribes of humanity and the orgies of classic culture. In fine, he insists that in treating of the evolution of religion, we have not a shadow of direct evidence, and that it would be well to throw theories aside and go to the heart of the question, by asking: Is there a spiritual soul in man? Is there a God ? If the answer must be negative; then is the time to consider theories to explain the

error.- Scotland and John Knox,” is a criticism by Rev. M. H. McInerny, O.P., of two articles by Mr. Rait, which appeared in the Fortnightly Reveiw for July, 1905 and 1906. The extravagance of the eulogies on John Knox is shown, and the want of a Catholic historian, to do for Presbyterianism and Knox what Denifle and Janssen have done for Lutheranism and Luther, is deplored. - Rev. J. Ferris, B.D., has a dissertation on right and wrong. He reduces the schools of ethics to two; namely, order and utility; but these, though distinct, are not opposed to one another. Substituting “beautiful” as a synonym for "order" and “good” for “ useful," metaphysicians make them identical. Taking, however, the idea of utility as more primitive, and consequently more simple than that of order, he confines himself to it in the body of his paper.

. Under the heading “ Proscribed and Non-Proscribed Actions," seeming objections to utilitarianism thus understood are shown to be false. That the notion of retrib. utive punishment is entirely consistent with utilitarian principles is proved by showing that retributive and preventative punishment are in reality the same thing viewed in different aspects. The notion that utilitarianism imposes on men unbearable burdens, by bending them always to do their best, is not so chimerical when we consider that we are constantly, though perhaps unconsciously, doing our best. The paper closes with an ardent plea for utilitarianism as a new natural revelation of God's will, for it is the sure passage to man's perlec

tion and happiness. The Examiner, Bombay (27 July): A correspondence, arising

from a demonstration held by Bombay Catholics to express sympathy for their French brethren in the present crisis, is reprinted from the Times of India. The first correspondent makes an effort to point out to the "simpleminded Catholics of Bombay ” the ludicrousness of the movement. He asserts that the Church of Rome is now reaping in France what she has been sowing there for the past hundred and fifty years. He also suggests that if Catholics were allowed free inquiry they would see conditions in France in a different light. Fr. Hull, editor of the Examiner, in answer, declares the first accusation false and to the second responds with a more just presentation of the Church's attitude on the ques.

tion of freedom of inquiry. Le Correspondant (10 Aug ): The letters of Sainte-Beuve to

Madame de Solms are published in this issue. — M. E. Grassi contributes an article on Siam, its king, its court, and its government.

—The works and life of Nicolas Poussin, the great French painter, receives a lengthy notice at the hands of Jean Tarbel. The attitude of the critic is that of an enthusiastic admirer. —M. Béchaux criticizes a recent law of the Minister of Labor in France, which makes it necessary for all manufacturers or employers of labor, who employ a hundred men or more, to hire inspectors to look after the wellbeing of the employees. These inspectors are elected by the employees themselves. It signalizes the end of authority and liberty on the part of the employer.— Lately the Belgian government submitted to all employers of labor, and also to working men, the following question: Is, in your opinion, a reduction in the hours of labor followed by an appreciable diminution in production and in salaries ? As might be expected, the employers answered that it did mean a diminution in

both, while the employees replied negatively. Études (5 Aug.): Opens with the sixty-five propositions of the in the “New Philosophy.” In this number he discusses the evolution of truth according to the modern scheme, and expresses his strong doubts of its success. This month brings A. d'Alès, in his series on the witness of tradition in history, to the nineteenth century. This article is mainly a sketch of the writers, on the one hand, who have shown excess in traditionalism, and of those on the other side who have been excessive in idealism, and finally, of the exponents of the via media.

new Syllabus.-J. de Tonquédec adds another installment to his criticism of the notion of truth as contained

-Eugène Portalié congratulates the Holy See on its latest work, the Syllabus. After mentioning in general the systems and theories which fall under condemnation, he proceeds to apply the decree to certain Catholic writers, notable among them being M. Loisy and M. Fogazzaro. He rejoices because this decree is a "great act of religious progress, and will give a new impulse to profound studies." (20 Aug.): Pierre Suau writes on Madagascar, giving a history of its discovery, its first settlers, and its early missionaries. It is a custom among unbelievers, Lucien Roure states, to regard Kant, Spinoza, Darwin, and others as lay saints, men devoted to the seeking of truth, but men without religion. Lately, in an autobiography, Herbert Spencer was referred to as one of those lay saints. M. Roure has doubts whether he may be given this title, and in doing so criticizes his philosophy, his motives, and his mental attitude. — A. Brou indulges in a comprehensive study of the history of the efforts made to form a native clergy in China and India. Such a clergy, the writer points out, would not be a universal panacea for all the ills that befall the Church in the orient. More enthusiasm is wanted in Europe. — M. Louis Chervoillot notices a book of recent publication, entitled A History of Japanese Literature, by Dr. Karl Florenz BungakuHakushi. The work is a serious effort, and bears all the marks of erudition. The reviewer recommends it to

all students of Japanese literature. La Revue Apologétique (July): H. Dutonquet, S.J., gives a brief

review of the Scriptural evidences of our Lord's resurrection.-L. Méchineau, S.J., concludes his series of articles on "The Idea of the Inspired Book," with a

sketch of the opinions of Catholic theologians, from the
middle of the nineteenth century to the present day, re-
garding the manner of the inspiration of the Holy Scrip-
tures; the exact part played by the sacred writers them-
selves in the composition of these books; and just how
far, and in what way, divine assistance was extended to
them.-Dr. J. Lenssens brings to a close his criticism
of M. Lameere's History of Humanity, by refuting his
proofs for the thesis that man has ascended from lower
orders of creation through merely natural forces. He
mentions, in particular, the ethical objection that a man
would be no more responsible for his actions than a
stone if he were the product of blind forces of nature.

Abbé Nève continues his historical sketch of Church
Decorations; this article embracing the thirteenth, four-
teenth, and fifteenth centuries.- Henri Mainde, writing
Apropos of a Commission of Inquiry,” speculates on
the possible outcome of the movement of High Church

Anglicans towards Roman practice and belief.
Revue Pratique d'Apologetique (15 Aug.): J. Rivière retraces the

chief points of the recent controversy between MM. La-
berthonnière and Paul Allard on the value of the testi-
mony of the early martyrs.-J. Cartier believes that
scientific morality or pragmatism is legitimate. He shows
the reasons for this belief, basing his arguments on a
work of M. Bureau, La Crise Morale des Temps Nouveaux.
-Eugène Griselle describes the co-ordination which
should exist between the catechism and apologetics. —
A. Poulain writes of the religious societies among the
Mussulmen.-Fénelon Gibon laments the alarming increase

in juvenile criminality.
Annales de Philosophie Chrétienne (Aug.): M. Dimnet, continu-

ing his discussion of M. Baudin's views concerning New-
man's system of theology, comes to the constructive side
of M. Baudin's work, in which he opposes his own the-
ory of faith to that of Newman. But after a careful
study M. Dimnet finds M. Baudin's system inconsistent
and unsatisfactory. He thinks that M. Baudin so fre-
quently makes concessions that interfere with a purely
intellectualistic systematization of faith that he becomes
much less rationaliste than he would appear. M. Baudin


admits the existence of entirely new problems in philosophy and theology, and hopes to see the day when a "future synthesis from a future St. Thomas," shall see the light. But M. Dimnet complains that M. Baudin's school does little to create such a synthesis. Finally, the writer hopes that M. Baudin will make a broader study of Newman, and will thereby find that Newman's system, while not rationalism in the odious sense, is Christianisme raisonné, and not mere " fideism." -M. E. Jordan contributes his second article on the “Responsibility of the Church in the Repression of the Heresies of the Middle Ages.” He blames Mgr. Douais who, in attempting to apologize for the Inquisition as an institution, does not seem to realize that he thereby throws back the blame of the abuses of inquisitorial procedure upon the Church. Likewise, M. Jordan thinks it folly to try to defend torture, confiscation, examination, and the other barbarities of the Inquisition. A wiser apologetic, he maintains, would aim to show that the Church was not responsible for them, or that her responsibility was secondary to that of the Inquisition itself. In general, it would be well if the Holy See had always been as high-minded in its teaching concerning torture as was Nicholas I., who, in his excellent “Consultatio ad Bul. garos," declares that "neither the divine law nor the human law admit of torture, confession of guilt should

be spontaneous and voluntary, not extracted by force. Revue du Monde Catholique (1 Aug): M. Dapoigny denies the

right of the doctors of the immanence theory to claim confirmation for their doctrine in the Fathers. In quotations from the writings of the latter, he points out a sentiment which he thinks is antagonistic to the thought of this school. —M. l'Abbé Barret's “Study in Jewish History” continues through this and the following number.The six biblical days of creation, and the literal interpretation of such like texts of Scripture, occupies

the attention of M. l'Abbé Chauvel. La Démocratie Chrétienne (Aug.): In the exposition of Paul

Lapeyre's doctrines of social morality, continued in this issue, the mutual duties of children and parents are dis

cussed. M. Decurtius' famous “ Letter to a Friend, VOL. LXXXYI.-9

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