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Crystal vision, to which allusion has also been made, is a special form of this. It is practised by steady gazing into some polished or reflecting surface, as that of a crystal, a mirror, or a liquid, and very remarkable results are sometimes obtained.

The difficulty about this matter of clairvoyance is, of course, somewhat lessened by the "astral body” hypothesis, as this supposes an actual transference of the astral body forming the apparition of the person to whom it belongs, to some other location than that occupied by his ordinary material one. If this astral body, so transferred, can produce impressions of sight or hearing on others, why, it may be asked, cannot it also receive them, or receive them without producing them ? Apparitions seem sometimes to hear and answer what is said to them; if they can receive auditory impressions, why not also visual ones; and why can it not do so without being itself visible or in any way perceptible to the persons from whom it receives them ? Similarly, why can it not receive them from inanimate objects, houses, rooms, or furniture, for instance, near the location to which it is transferred? That it should be perceptible to persons near that location, indeed, may require special conditions in their own organism.

But the astral body hypothesis, after all, is only a hypothesis. The phenomena of spiritism indeed seem to indicate that a spirit may form a visible and even tangible figure out of some unknown form of matter, as we have seen; but it does not follow that this figure, as such, is possessed of senses of sight or hearing such as an ordinary human body would have. In these cases of "materialization,” as in those of spontaneous apparitions, it may just as well be supposed that telepathic communication is established between the appearing spirit and the one to whom it appears, each acting both as agent and percipient. This would not enable the appearing spirit to perceive articles of furniture, or other inanimate objects; indeed it does not need to, as it is seemingly able to pass through them, as has been noted.

Still, it must be acknowledged that apparitions often do appear to be conscious of material and inanimate things around them. As a rule, they do not pass through walls or doors; they stand on the floor or ground; they may make audible footsteps on it. And their actions, sometimes, are perceived, in the case of phantasms of the living, by the persons whom they represent. In one case, for instance, a gentleman dreams of visiting the house where his fiancée lives. He follows her up the stairs, probably feeling the stairs under his feet (at any rate, it is not so uncommon in dreams to have such sensations); overtaking her, he puts his arms round her. At the same moment, as stated independently by her, she was going up the stairs, hears his footsteps behind her, and then feels his arms round her. The hour when he woke from his dream, and when she heard and felt his presence, was carefully ascertained as being the same. Still, the argument for the astral body is not so strong in this as it may at first appear. For telepathy will really suffice to explain it, to a great extent, at any rate. His mind, in the dream, is fixed on her, and he is, no doubt, familiar with the house; her sensations are simply what he expects her to have, and may telepathically transmit to her. Of course the question remains how he gets the impression that she is actually going up the stairs at that moment; for it does not seem that she has any idea of transmitting that fact to him.

Cases, however, sometimes occur in which telepathy, as we use the term, seems to play no part.*

The following is a remarkably good and well-attested case of this kind, there having been apparently no attempt to send a message or image, one way or the other. It was reported by an excellent authority, Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C., in 1889. He says:

The case is simply this: In Washington, D. C., January 14, 1889, between 2 and 3 P. M., Mrs. C— is going up the steps of her residence, No. 217 Delaware Avenue, carrying some papers. She stumbles, falls, is not burt, picks herself up, and enters the house.

At or about the same time-certainly within the hour, probably within 30 minutes, perhaps at the very momentanother lady, whom I will call Mrs. B—, is sitting sewing in her room, about it miles distant. The two ladies are friends, though not of very long standing. They had walked

* It may be remarked, by the way, that the word telepathy" does not etymologically convey the idea which it is used to express. The original term " thought-transference," is better. For "telepathy" ought to mean, hy its Greek derivation, "perceiving at a distance," whereas it really means acting at a distance; the acting of a spirit on another when the material bodies of the two, if they have them, are distant and without material means of communication. Telepathy, in the sense of its Greek words, would cover clairvoyance, of course. What is wanted is a word signifying action rather than perception, at a distance.

together the day before, but had not met this day. Mrs. B-“sees the little accident in every detail. The vision or image is minutely accurate (as it afterwards proves). Nevertheless, it is so wholly unexpected and unaccountable, that she doubts if it were not a passing figment of her imagination. But the mental impression is so strong that she keeps thinking it over, and sits down and writes a letter to Mrs. C-, which I enclose. The letter is written, of course, without any communication whatever between the two ladies. Mrs. Creceives it next morning, Tuesday the 15th. (The postmarks on the letter, shown to Dr. Coues, verify this.) I happened to call on Mrs. C— that day, on another errand, when she hands me the letter and verifies it in every essential particular to me verbally, from her side of the case.

Mrs. B- describes in her letter the dress and hat worn by Mrs. C—, the papers which she carried in her hand, and Mrs. C—'s fall on the front steps of her own house, the hat going in one direction, and the papers in another.

In the questions asked of Mrs. C— by Mr. Myers, he does not seem to have thought of inquiring whether at, or shortly after, the accident, she was thinking of Mrs. B-, wondering what she would think of it, whether she would laugh at it, etc. It should be remarked, however, that Mrs. C- had not come from Mrs. B—'s, but from the Congressional Library, where she had been writing, and was not very likely to think of her friend at the moment of her fall, or to wish to communicate it to her shortly afterward, as it was not dangerous. Indeed it does not seem likely that she would have mentioned it to Mrs. B— at all, had not the latter inquired about it.

Telepathy, or the sending of thought messages, in this case and in others which might be adduced, does not seem a probable explanation of the phenomenon. That is to say, it does not seem likely that either of the parties acted telepathically on the other.

But there is a possibility of a kind of telepathy, in all cases of seeming clairvoyance, which has not been much attended to by psychical investigators. And that is the telepathic action of a third party, aware of the occurrence, or of the objects or places, “clairvoyantly " seen. This kind of action is what spiritism itself obviously suggests.

There is a well-known, and we think well-attested case, in which the captain of a ship, going into his cabin, finds a man writing there, who is unknown to him, and unlike any one aboard. He goes away to make inquiries, and on returning finds the man gone, but a sheet of paper on the table, on which are the words: “Steer N. W.As it is not much out of his course, he thinks he will try and see if there is anything in the warning, and finds a burning ship, the crew of which he saves.

Now if the captain had seen a vision of a burning ship to the N. W., beyond the range of ordinary vision, it would be taken as a case of clairvoyance on his part, or on the part of some one on the burning vessel, who clairvoyantly saw his own, and sent a message to him in the form of a phantasm of the living."

But evidently it is explicable by an angelic intervention; and this is the view which would very probably occur to Catholics, or to any one believing that there are angels, and that they take an interest in our affairs, and may visibly appear to show that interest, and to instruct or help us.

The same explanation may readily occur in other cases, in which human telepathy seems inapplicable. But it may be very well asked: “Why should angels concern themselves with things of no importance, such as the fall on the steps of Mrs. Cin the case just described ?"

It is probable that an answer to this question will readily occur to those who believe that there are evil angels, as well as good ones. And it seems, from what we read in the lives of the saints, that these evil spirits, beside their more important attempts against our welfare, do sometimes amuse themselves so to speak— with very unimportant and trivial ones, like those narrated in the life of St. Anthony of the desert. And, indeed, in winning our confidence, and making us believe that we can, by certain practices, obtain information as to what is going on in the world, and more particularly as to future events, their time would not be wasted. If they can persuade us that we have occult powers, by which we can read closed books, understand languages which we have not studied, etc., and, more particularly, can foretell the future, it is a means of getting control of us which it is well worth while for them to make the most of.

That they are able to give us accurate information as to the present and the past, if they choose, must be obvious to any one who believes in their existence at all. And if, by thus

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winning our confidence, they can make us believe them when they give false information as to things not humanly ascertainable, their object is still more fully accomplished than by simply getting more or less control over our actions and our time.

They may even, to some extent, foretell the future better than we can, by greater sagacity, and more complete knowledge of the present circumstances on which the future largely depends. As for precise or definite foretelling of it, except in so far as it depends on natural laws, of course that belongs to God alone, or to those whom he may inspire for the purpose. Premonitions, therefore, whether clairvoyant or otherwise, cannot come under the head of law, and are not subjects of scientific research.

It is equally plain that such warnings or encouragements as God may choose to give us cannot be obtained by any processes that we may adopt. Clairvoyants who pretend ability to tell the future, who are not saints, and give us no signs of a Divine commission, are either simply impostors, or must be referred to the diabolic order. Of course, serious endeavors to ascertain the future by their help is, therefore, strictly prohibited by the Scripture and by the Church.

And it is also obvious that crystal-vision and the like performances, even when nothing but the present or past is sought for, are practices fraught with grave danger, so that no one can safely or lawfully indulge in them. The same, apparently, must be said of any kind of clairvoyance, in all cases where human telepathy, inter vivos, will not account for it. As for palmistry, astrology, and the like, they hardly deserve serious mention, at any rate in connection with our general subject, they being so evidently simply superstitions.

There is, however, another practice which has considerable vogue lately, known as “psychometry.” This consists in sending to the “psychometrist " articles belonging to the sender or some friend (usually something which he or she has worn), that he may determine, or “sense,” as the slang is, something with regard to the character or future of the person owning them. The possibility may be conceded that some influence may proceed from such things in some way indicating the owner's personality or character; but that anything of the future can be indicated by them, except as a consequence of his or her present qualities, is evidently sheer nonsense. It may be imagined that the psychic influence proceeding from them in some "oc

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