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I submit berewith a map of the route from about one and a fourth mile below Empire City, westward, embracing the pass, giving a very fair representation of the topography of the country in the vicinity of the pass, with the relative elerations at certain points as ascertained by the levels. Upon this map I have drawn a proposed location of a railroad line, which, in my opinion, will be near the most practicable route for the real location. The length of the tunnel I make three and a half miles. I have made this length by supposing an up grade of fifty feet to the mile, running westward in the tunnel from the entrance for two miles, and thence running a down grade of ten feet to the mile to the exit.
An up grade in the tunnel of 100 feet to the mile for the first two miles, instead of 50, would shorten the tunnel about one-fourth of a mile. The grade, as you will notice, is less than 1:16 feet to the mile from the forks below Empire Çity to the tunnel, but the equation for curvature on the line I have drawn would probably bring the grade up to this maximum.
This range of mountains, on its eastern slope, being subject to a very considerably less fall of rain during the year than the Alleghanies or New England mountains, are much less disiniegrated, and are fitly called “ Rocky mountains." The mountains on either side of the valley of Clear creek are “rugged," with frequent points of rocks projecting into the valley. For this reason I have drawn the lines so as to get down into the valley with the grade as soon as possible. Yet, let me say here, that the granite of these mountains is of a very different quality from the eastern granite. It is very much softer, and, in cuts near the surface, could be removed without blasting. Experience in mining for gold has shown that the granite 200 feet below the surface is also of a much softer quality than the eastern granite.
I might say in this connection that there would be a possibility of striking rich gold lodes in the construction of the tunnel, for it is in the “gold belt," there being lodes on each side of the pass; yet I should not like to undertake the construction of the tunnel with the understanding that I should take this “possibility” in “part pay.” Of the western approach to the pass I will hazard no opinion as to gradients
The western slope of the range seems to be covered with a much deeper soil, as it is covered with a much denser foliage, which is doubtless owing to the arrest and precipitation of the spring and summer rains by the snow of the range, the prevailing winds being northwesterly. This fact, in case of having to keep the mountain sides to get down to the valley of the Grand river, would render the cost of construction much less than upon the eastern slope.
I have made considerable ivquiry as to the winter snows in the neighborhood of the pass, and find that at Empire City they have wintered cattle every winter without hay. From all the statements of settlers, on the experience of three winters, I am of the opinion that the winter snows would form no serious obstacle to the running of railroad trains from the tunnel eastward. About threefourths of a mile from the pass, on the western slope, we passed a camp where a family were snow-bound, last winter, for some weeks, and, judging from the height of the stumps of trees cut by them while they were there, should think the snow must bave been 5 or 6 feet deep. This depth, from all the information I can glean, would be a fair average for about 15 or 20 miles west of the range in the vicinity of the pass. The prevailing winds being from the northwest, the snow piles in immense drists ou the southeastern slopes of the range. These slopes, in the vicinity of the pass, being very precipitous near the summit, arrest the snows before they reach the valley of Clear creek. This fact may account for the light fall of snow near Empire City.
In this connection, let me call your attention to another fact, resulting from our peculiar climate. The streams, in the mountains, are not subject to the sudden rise and fall of eastern streams. Fed, as they are, by the meltivg snows
and regular diurnal rains, they rise gradually until they reach their maximum height. usually about the middle of July, and then as gradually recede. This known fact might materially lessen the expense of construction of a railroad up the valley of Clear creek, in keeping the grade nearer the surface of the water, and in not having to guard against the sudden rise of the stream.
I also submit a sketch of the valley of Clear creek, from Empire City to near its junction with the Platte, which, I think, is approximately correct, showing the general course of the creek, and the relative position of the different points at which elevations were taken. I have copied part of this sketch from my official maps, part from a survey of the first 10 miles of the cañon of Clear creek, above Golden City, made by Mr. F. J. Ebert, of this place, and the balance from a map of Mr. E. L. Bertheud, of Golden City.
The following table will show very nearly the distances between the points at which I have ascertained the elevations above the Platte and Denver, along the proposed route from Denver, westward to the pass :
In entering the cañon of Clear creek, either from Denver or the mouth of Clear creek, the road can go into the cañon from one to five hundred feet above the water of the creek, if a better line can be found at such elevation.
Of the cost of construction of a railroad from Golden City to the entrance of the tunnel, I cannot, of course, make an estimate upon this reconnoissance, but should say the expense would not be greater than the average of eastern mountain roads for the same distance.
In making this reconnoissance, I am under obligations to Mr. John Pierce, of Denver, a railroad engineer of many years' experience, for his volunteer services on the survey. Mr. F. W. Beebe, of Idaho, another very good engineer, and former acquaintance of mine in Ohio, ran the levels from Empire City over the pass. Mr. W. L. Campbell, of Empire City, formerly an engineer on the Clinton Line railroad, in Ohio, ran the transit line over the pass.
Hoping these few facts may be of service to you and the board of corporators of the Pacific railroad, I am, very truly, your obedient servant,
FRANCIS M. CASE,
Surceyor General of Colorado and Utah. Hon. John Evans,
Gorernor of Colorado Territory.
Executive Committee.—Major General John A. Dix, chairman ; Thomas C. Durant, C. S. Bushnell, George T. M. Davis, George Opdyke, A. G. Jerome, E. W. Dunham.
Finance Committee.-J. F. D. Lanier, chairman; J.J. Blair, Charles Tuttle, J. E. Thomson, E. T. H. Gibson, C. A. Lambard, Thomas C. Durant.
Committee to memorialize Congress.-William B. Ogden, chairman; H. V. Poor, E. H. Rosekrans, J. J. Blair, H. S. McComb, Č. A. Lambard, J. H. Scranton.
The stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad Company :
The proceedings of the incorporators and commissioners appointed by the charter of the company for its organization, and of the officers of the company in procuring subscriptions, the election of directors by the subscribers to its capital stock, the action of the directors after their election, the measures adopted by the executive committee for commencing the work of construction, and for pushing it on with all possible despatch, have been printed for your information, together with the reports of the engineers in regard to their examination of the different routes for the purpose of selecting the one most eligible.
The information presented on all these points will show you that no time has been lost, and no exertion spared, to respond to the wishes of Congress and the country that this great national enterprise should be commenced and prosecuted with all practicable vigor.
The eastern termination of the road having been fixed by the President of the United States in the township of which the city of Omaha is a part, directions were given to break ground on the 2d of December last. These directions were carried into execution, and the commencement of the work was inaugurated with appropriate ceremonies.
The directors of the company have followed up these preliminary measures by contracting for rails, ties, locomotives and cars, and have commenced in earnest the work of grading. The expenditures for these objects within this and the ensuing two months, including the work already done, will not fall short of $800,000.
Five corps of engineers have been organized, one of which is employed in the construction of the road, and four others are ordered to the mountains to complete the preliminary surveys.
Your careful scrutiny of the recorded proceedings of the company is earnestly invited, not only that you may be satisfied as to the strict conformity to the requirements of the act of Congress providing for its incorporation, but with the zeal and determination with which the directors have entered upon the work of construction.
JOHN A. DIX, President. New YORK, April 2, 1864.
Annual report of the Union Pacific Railroad Company to the Secretary of the
Treasury, made in pursuance of section 20 of an act of Congress entitled "An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes," approved July 1, 1862.
Annual report of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, 8c.-Continued.
Officers.—General John A. Dix, president, New York; Thomas C. Durant, vice-president, New York; John J. Cisco, treasurer, New York; Charles Tuttle, secretary, New York.
Directors.-George Opdyke, New York; John A. Dix, New York; Thomas C. Durant, New York; Corn's S. Bushuell, New Haven; Brigham Young, Salt Lake City ; C. H. McCormick, Chicago; John F. Tracy, Chicago; Ebenezer Cook, Davenport; John J. Cisco, New York; Enoch H. Rosekrans, Glenn's Falls; H. S. McComb, Wilmington, Delaware; Pickering Clark, New York; Charles Tuttle, New York; C. A. Lambard, Boston ; John E. Henry, Davenport.
Government directors.—Springer Harbaugh, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania ; T. J. Carter, New York; George Ashmun, Springfield, Massachusetts; C. T. Sherman, Mansfield, Ohio; J. L. Williams, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
The total amount of stock subscribed to January 1, 1866, was 28,570 shares, on which there has been paid from 10 to 20 per cent., amounting to four hundred thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars, (say $400,950.)
1st. The line from station 150 west of Omaha to station 900 was changed from the location as filed and approved by the President of the United States, in order to reduce the maximum grades from 80 to 30 feet per mile.
2d. A located line was run from the end of the first 100 miles over the second 100 miles to the vicinity of Fort Kearney.
3d. Experimental lines were run in both directions, obliquely across the divide between the valley of the Platte river and the valley of the Republican river, east of the 100th meridian of longitude.
4th. An experimental line was run from the west end of the second 100 miles np the valleys of the Main Platte, South Platte, and Cache-la-Poudre rivers to La Porte.
5th. The line of 1864, from La Porte up the valley of the Cache-la-Poudre to Antelope Pass, was resurveyed.
6th. An experimental line was run from Camp Walbach, in the valiey of Lodge Pole creek, along the divide between the Lodge Pole and Crow creeks, to an intersection with the Cache-la-Poudre line on Laramie plains.
7th. The line of 1864, around the sand-hills on the south side of Weber river, was resurveyed and thrown further up on the northwestern slope of the Wabbatch mountains.
Sth. The line of 1864 was also revised at the head of Echo creek.
9th. An experimental line was run from station 7,461, of the survey of 1864, in the valley of Black's Fork, thence up the valleys of Harris's Fork, the Sandy and Pacific creeks, to the South Pass, and thence down a small stream to the valley of the Sweet Water.
10th. An experimental line was also run from station 8,201, of the survey of