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In the posterior region of the thorax the central and lateral cavities are similar to those of the anterior region, whilst dorsal to them the pericardial chamber lies. This chamber is separated from the central body cavity by the pericardial septum. genital organs are situated immediately below the front end of this septum.


A comparison with the body cavity of Peripatus suggests the following relations. In the anterior region of the thorax of Palamonetes the dorsal sac is homologous with the dorsal por. tions of the mesoblastic somites of Peripatus, and its cavity is a true cœlom. The central and lateral cavities, together with the cavities of the legs, represent the pseudococele. In the posterior region of the thorax the cavities are all pseudocoelomic, and agree with those of the adult Peripatus.

December 15.-" Preliminary Note on the Relation of the Ungual Corium to the Periosteum of the Ungual Phalanx." By F. A. Dixey, M. A., M. D., Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. Communicated by E. A. Schäfer, F.R.S.

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Chemical Society, December 1.-Prof. A. Crum Brown, President, in the chair.-The following papers were read :The isolation of two predicted hydrates of nitric acid, by S. U. Pickering. The author announces the isolation of two crystalline hydrates of nitric acid: the monohydrate and the trihydrate, melting at 36.8° and 18 2° degrees respectively. In the case of either the melting-point is lowered by the addition of acid or water. The existence of these compounds was foreseen from an examination of the curves plotted from Bertholet and Thomsen's heat of dissolution values. This result is an important confirmation of the author's views. -Anhydrous oxalic acid, by W. W. Fisher. The best method of obtaining crystallized anhydrous oxalic acid is by allowing the hydrated acid to remain in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid for some months in a sealed glass tube. Oxalic acid is soluble in about 30 parts of cold sulphuric acid; the anhydrous acid dissolves with absorption of heat, whilst the reverse is the case with the hydrated acit. Anhydrous oxalic acid may be crystallized from nitric acid of sp. gr. 15. Oxalic acid may be completely dehydrated in a vacuum at 60°; the anhydrous acid is soluble in ethyl oxalate or glacial acetic acid, and separates from these solvents in a powdery form.-The production of orcinol and other conden-ation products from dehydracetic acid," by N. Collie and W. S. Myers. The authors have obtained orcinol by the action of barium hydrate on dehydracetic "acid" or di methylpyrone; on boiling a mixture of syrupy caustic soda and dehydracetic acid," a true carboxylic acid is first produced, and, losing carbonic anhydride, yields orcinol. Among the pro fucts of the interaction of barium hydrate and diacetylacetone bright yellow needles melting at 180-181° are found; these probably consist of a naphthalene derivative C11HO3. Amidodehvdracetic acid," obtained in long needles melting at 192196°, by the action of strong ammonium hydrate on dehydracetic "acid," readily yields dehydracetic "acid," on acid or alkaline hydrolysis.-Ob-ervations on the origin of colour and on fluorescence, by W. N. Hartley. It cannot be stated in general terms that colour is due to special methods of atomic arrangement; the statement may, however, be applied in a restricted sense to certain organic compounds, especially to those included in the class to which organic dye-stuffs belong. It is pointed out that all open chain hydrocarbons exert a continuous absorption, the extent of which depends on the nu nber of carbon atoms in the molecule. The condition of strain and instability existing in many coloured substances has been remarked by Armstrong; the author points out that all organic colouring matters are endothermic compounds, and considers this to be the physical cause of what Armstrong terms “reactivity” or “high potential.” It is shown that anthracene is not clou-less, but has a true greenish-yellow colour in addition to its fluorescence. A number of experiments on fluorescence are detailed, and the following conclusions drawn from them: -(1) Alcoholic solutions of quinine exhibit a beautiful, bright violet fluorescence. (2) Hydrochloric acid is not fluorescent. (3 and 4) Quinine hydrochloride and chloroform are feebly fluorescent, but without distinct colour. (5) Both hydrochloric acid and chloroform can extinguish those rays which are the cause of fluorescence in quinine. (6) Some alkaloids may be recognized by the degree and colour of their fluorescence. (7) Normal alcohols of the ethylic series and the fatty acids are fluorescent. (8) Glycerol has a violet fluorescence. (9) Benzene has a pale blue fluorescence, azobenzene a greenish-blue. (10) Rock crystal has a

pale bluish-violet fluorescence, flint glass a strong blue, and cr glass a very brilliant blue fluorescence. (11) Substances wh are not fluorescent in strong solutions may become so on diles particularly if they exert a very powerful absorption of the al violet or invisible spectrum.-The origin of colour, v. colou hydrocarbons and fluorescence: a reply to Prof. Hartk observations on the origin of colour and of fluorescence, by E. Armstrong. If attention be paid to visibly-coloured org substances, it is a most remarkable fact that in those cases which the "constitution" is fairly well established colca substances are found to be all of one type. The author st from this basis to inquire whether all coloured organic s stances are not similar in type. Hartley's remark that organic colouring matters are endothermic compounds has i importance in the present connection, inasmuch as the conve does not hold. The author contends that before admitting fluorescence of many substances, e.g. alcohol and its homolog every precaution must be taken to ensure their purity; insti in which easy explanation of the fluore-cence of cer substances is possible are given. Hartley's observation anthracene is coloured strongly confirms the author's hypothe Anthracene is fluorescent, and may be represented by a quint formula, whilst its isomeride phenanthrene, which cannot be represented, is colourless and non-fluorescent. Further whilst intense colour is produced by "weighting" wha author terms the " quinonoid radicles" of anthracene b placing the central hydrogen atoms by a halogen, no such e attends the similar treatment of phenanthrene, dibromophe threne being colourless like the hydrocarbon. And yet quinone and phenanthraquinone are coloured yellow and m orange respectively. Reference is made to other cok hydrocarbons, viz. carotin and the red hydrocarbon, C recently investigated by Graebe. The formula assigned t latter by GraebeC6H4 H1C6 C&H

C = C


-is an improbable one; such a substance would be coloca The author gives a possible constitution, and, for the pro proposes to call the compound "erythrophene." The ye hydrocarbon, Call16, obtained together with this, is poss diphenyla ed anthracene, and may be termed "xanthope The "quinonoid radicles" in both hydrocarbons are ba "weighted," hence their strong colour. With referen Hartley's statement that a very little shifting of the reg absorption determines the presence or absence of colour 4 compound, it is contended that this shifting may be du special character of structure. The author then explai views as to the manner in which the "quinonoid mechan conditions colour. He suggests that in quinonoid compa there are two "colour cent es "corresponding to and expe by the symbol in formulæ such as he has used in represe coloured substances. These centres co-operate in pract colour through interaction of the light waves which tr them. Substances in which there are no such co-ope centres may absorb generally and selectively in "u "infra" regions of the spectrum, but without exhibiting colour."-The origin of colour, vi. azobenzene, by Armstrong. Azobenzene, a highly-coloured substa generally represented as Ph. N: N. Ph, a formula in dis with the author's hypothesis explained in the preceding Moreover, the formula usually attributed to the colourless salts (Ph. N: N. Cl, for example) represent them as co in constitution with azobenzene. The behaviour of azo towards bromine and other reagents leads the author t the correctness of the conventional formula assigned to to consider the following a more probable one:—

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The products of the interaction of zinc chloride or sulphuric il and camphor (third notice), by H. E. Armstrong and F. Kipping. The authors have previously shown that the crude oduct btained on heating camphor with sulphuric acid or ic chloride contains I: 2: 4 acetylorthoxylene. On oxidizing e oil remaining after the separation of the latter substance, methylglutaric acid is formed. This acid being the characistic oxidation product of the phorone obtained by distilling Icium camphorate, it is probable that a homologue of this orone is present in the camphor product.--The Griess-Sandyer interactions and Gattermann's modification thereof, by E. Armstrong and W. P. Wynne. In employing the less-Sandmeyer methods for displacing the amido-group by logens, the authors find that, in very many cases, much tter results may be obtained by operating at relatively low nperatures instead of at the boiling point. It appears also at the Gattermann process affords a larger yield than the ndmeyer process, only because it is carried out at a lower aperature.-Methods of observing the spectra of easily volatile tals and their salts, and of separating their spectra from those he alkaline earths, by W. N. Hartley. Persistent flame ourations of easily volatile metals, such as lithium, potassium, idium, cæ iu n, and thallium, may be obtained by heating ds of their fluo-ilicates, borates or silicates, on platinum es in the Bunsen flame. If the substance to be spectroscoply examined be converted into a borate, the spectra of the li metals may be first observed, and on subsequently ing hydrogen chloride into the flame, the spectra of the line earth metals may be rendered visible.-Manganese te, its constitution and properties, by W. N. Hartley and Ramage. Manganese borate, after drying in vacuo over huric acid has the composition MnH(BO3)2. H2O. On ing at 100° it loses one molecule of water, and at a red heat molecules more of water are lost, leaving a salt of the comion Mn(BO). From the rate of loss of water with rise of

erature the existence of a number of intermediate salts is pered. Manganese borate possesses a maximum of solubility ater at 18°, and a minimum at 80°. This is probably due ehydration of the compound having the composition (BO3). H2O.


nthropological Institute, December 13.-Edward B. , President, in the chair.-Mr. Arthur J. Evans read aper on the prehistoric interments of the Bahi Rossi s near Mentone and their relation to the Neolithic caveils of the Finalese. He described the recent discovery of skeletons in the cave of Barma Grande, and showed that haracter of the sepulchral rites practised, the relics found, he racial type of the human remains agreed with the earlier veries made by M. Rivière and others in the same caves. Ivans, however, opposed the theories that had been put rd as to the Paleolithic date of "Mentone Man." The

of extinct Pleistocene animals and implements of the ier and Magdalenian types found in the cave earth above terments proved nothing, for the simple reason that they interments. No remains of extinct animals had been in actual juxtaposition with the skeletons. On the other he complete absence of pottery, of polished implements, bones of domesticated animals in this whole group of ents and the great depth at which they occurred proved e remains belonged to a very early period. Evidence ere supplied of an earlier Neolithic s age than any yet icated. Still the remains belonged to the Later Stone d to the days of a recent fauna. Mr. Evans compared ɔne ornaments found with the so-called hammer-heads of ambered barrows of Scandinavia and the decorative with that found on Neolithic pottery in northern Europe. her showed that interments of the same tall dolicho: race in a more advanced stage of Neolithic culture were and in the cave-burials of the Finale district further up arian Coast. The physical form and the character of Ichral rites was essentially the same. Only the skelee here associated with polished axes, pottery, and bones sticated animals. The direction from which the new influences had come was indicated by imported shell

ornaments from 'he southern and eastern Mediterranean; in the Mentone caves the imported shells were from the Atlantic. In conclusion Mr. Evans showed that the latter Finale interments exhibited forms of pottery and implements identical with those of the Italian terremare of the other side of the Apennines, and included ceramic shapes which seemed to be the prototypes of vessels found in the early Sikel tombs of Mycenaean age. The Italic culture here revealed fitted on not only to that of the early pile-settlements of the Po Valley and the Lake-dwellings of Switzerland, but might be traced to the Danube valley, to Thrace, and the Troad. Amongst other parallel forms owllike idols bearing a strong resemblance to those described by Dr. Schliemann from the site of Troy had been found by Padre Morelli of Genoa in one of the Finale caves. -Dr. H. Colley March read a paper in which he sought to prove that the peculiar features of Polynesian ornament are due to a mythography which is, in the main, a symbolism of origin and descent. Thus regarded, unattractive and bewildering designs are resolved into emblems of divinity and demonstrations of lineage. He traced the evolution and defined the attributes of Tiki, explained the nature of oromatuas and the meaning of unus, described the various methods of recording pedigrees, whether along a male or along a female line, and illustrated the mythical use of tapa and sinnet. He discussed, as modes of origin, totemism, gemmation, and generation, of which Polynesian examples were given, tabulated the kinship of the superior gods, set forth in full the Tane cult, especially in relation to the axe and the drum, and endeavoured, in conclusion, to account for the development of the complicated Mangaian adze.


Royal Society, December 5.—Sir Douglas Maclagan, President, in the chair. After an introductory address by the President, a note by Prof. Cayley, on uniform convergency of series, was read.-Prof. Tait communicated a note by Prof. P. H. Schoute, of Groningen, on the locus of a uniformly revolving line, which always passes through a point moving uniformly round a circle, and which always lies in a normal plane passing through the centre of that circle. The degree of the locus is found by an elegant and very simple method.-Dr. C. Hunter Stewart gave notice of a paper on the further development of Kjeldahl's present can be determined by the same analysis in the developed method of organic analysis. The carbon, as well as the nitrogen, method, and much smaller quantities than formerly of the substance analyzed lead to results as accurate as those previously obtained.-Prof. Tait read a note on the division of space into cubes. He gives a different, and more direct and short, solution by quaternions than that given by him some years ago.


Academy of Sciences, December 26.-M. d'Abbadie in the chair.-Thermal elevation under the influence of injections of soluble microbian products, by MM. Bouchard and Charrin. An elevation of temperature recalling that observed by Koch is produced in a marked degree in tuberculous patients by injections of the toxic substances secreted by the pyocyanic bacillus. -Vessels and clasmocytes of the hyaloid in the frog, by M. Ranvier. Observations of Holmes's comet (November 6, 1892) made with the great equatorial of the Bordeaux Observatory, by MM. G. Rayet and L. Picart, report by M. Kayet. -Observations of Swift's comet (1892, 1.) made with the great equatorial of the Bordeaux Observatory, by MM. G. Rayet, L. Picart and F. Courty, report by M. Rayet.-On the laws of dilatation of fluids at constant volume; c efficients of pressure, by M. E. H. Amagat.-Observations of Holmes's comet, made with the equatorial coudé (32 cm.) of the Lyon Observatory, by M. G. Le Cadet. New experimental researches on the personal equa tion in transit observations, by M. P. Stroobant.--On conjugate systems and couples of applicable surfaces, by M. A. Petot. On infinitesimal deformation and Bianchi's associated surfaces, by M. E. Cosserat.-On contiguous surfaces relative to the hypergeometrical series with two variables, by M. Levavasseur.-Test for the convergence of series, by M. A. de Saint-Germain.-Criterion of divisibility by any number, by M. Fontés. On the motion of a particle in the case of a resistance proportional to the velocity, by M. Elliott.-General form of the law of vibratory motion in an isotropic medium, by M. E. Mercadier.-Employment of springs in the measurement of explosive pressures. If errors due to the inertia of the moving parts of the indicator are to be avoided, the amplitude of the

tracing point must not exceed I mm. in the case of pressures used in modern firearms. This necessitates careful reading with a microscope.-On the decrease of temperature of the air with the elevation, by M. Alfred Angot. Experiments conducted on the Eiffel Tower indicate a decrease for each 100 m., between the soil and a height of 160 m.. ranging from o'6° in December to 1'46° in June. Between 160 m. and 302 m. the decrease per 100 m. ranges from o'64° in February to o'96° in October. At 300 m. the decrease per 100 m. is on the average 0.5° in winter, o6° in autumn, o7° in spring, and 0.8° in summer. On the temperature of the electric arc, by M. J. Violle. From calorimetric measurements made with a portion of the arc light carbon detached from the hottest part during the passage of the current, the temperature of the arc, i.e. that of the volatilization of carbon, appears as 35c0°, assuming the carbon to have its theoretical specific heat, o'52, at the higher temperatures. This temperature of volatilization is constant, whatever the power employed.-Remarks on high temperatures and the vaporization of carbon, by M. Berthelot. The vapour tension of carbon is quite appreciable even below volatilization, which involves the reduction of a polymer to the monomolecular state, thus in reality representing a chemical process. Higher temperatures than that of the arc can be attained by purely chemical means, such as the explo-ive combustion of a mixture of oxygen and cyanogen.-On the equality of velocities of propagation of electric waves in air and along conducting fibres, verified by the example of a large metallic surface, by MM. Ed. Sarasin and L. de la Rive.-On nets of electric conductors; reciprocal properties of two branches, hy M. Vaschy. -On the enfeeblement of electromagnetic oscillations with their propagation and their subsidence, by M. A. Perot.Determination of the coefficients of self-induction by means of electrical oscillations, by M. P. Janet.-Doppler-Fizeau's method, exact and approximate formulæ, evaluation of the error involved, by H. de la Fresnaye.-Magnetic properties of A series of oxygen at different temperatures, by M. P. Curie. measurements with oxygen compressed to 5 and to 18 atmospheres respectively gave identical results at temperatures between 20° and 450°. Within this range, the volume coefficient of specific magnetization of oxygen varied inversely as the absolute temperature. The volume coefficient of magnetization of air at the ordinary pressure and at temperature is given by 10k 2760 x T-2, where T is the absolute temperature.-On the rotatory power of quartz at low temperatures, by MM. Ch. Soret and C. E. Guye. On the fusion of carbonate of lime, by M. A. Joannis.Ammoniacal compounds derived from ruthenium sesquichloride, by M. A. Joly.-On an iodo-sulphide of phosphorus, by M. L. Ouvrard.-Action of bismuth on hydrochloric acid, by MM. A. Dite and R. Metzner. -Action of potash and soda on the oxide of antimony, by M. H. Cormimbœuf.-Relation between the heats of formation and the temperatures of the point of reaction, by M. Maurice Prud'homme.-On the study of the chemical reactions in a liquid mass by the index of refraction, by M. C. Féry.-On a propylamidophenol and its acetyl derivatives, by M. P. Cazeneuve.-Quantitative determination of impurities in the methylenes, by M. Er. Barillot.Separation of micro-organisms by centrifugal force, by M. R. Lezé.-Loss of nitrogen in manures, by MM. A. Müntz and A. Ch. Girard. - Fermentation of manure, by M. A. Hébert. Drying-up of marshes in Russia, by M. Venukoff.-Chemical conditions of the action of ferments, by M. J. Effront.-On trichophytia in man, by M. R. Sabouraud.-Evolution of the functions of the stomach, by M. J. Winter.-On the histology of the organs attached to the male apparatus in Periplaneta orientalis, by M. P. Blatter.-On the presence of a fossil Araliacea and Pontederiacea in the coarse Parisian limestone, by M. Ed. Bureau.-On a new geological map of the French and Spanish Pyrenees, by MM. Emm. de Margerie and Fr. Schrader. -Differential motion of the ocean and the atmosphere; wa'er tides and air tides, by M. F. de Saintignon.-On the perforation of the basaltic rocks of the Gulf of Aden by shingle; formation of a Giant's Kettle, by M. Jousseaume.


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ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Astronomy: Sir Robert S. Ball, F.R.S.


SUNDAY LECTURE SOCIETY, at 4-In Search of Pharach-A Egypt: it Temples. Pyramids, Mnuments, and Mummies (with hydrogen Lantein Illustrations): Whitworth Wallis

MONDAY, January 9.

SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-Qualitative Analysis of Cela ing Matters: A. G. Green.- The Proportion of Free Fatty Acids Cakes: Dr. B. Dyer.-Further No es on Nitrous Oxide: Was ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.-1 he Psychology of the Subconsci A. Boutwo d.

LONDON INSTITUTION, at 5.-Social Pictorial Satire (Illustrated): G Maurier.

TUESDAY, JANUARY 10. ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTF, at 8.30 - A Contribution to the F logy of Jersey: Dr Andrew Dunlop - Pints of Contact been? World Myths and Customs and the Navajo Myth, entitled "The h tain Chant": Miss A. W. Buckland.


GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- Varilite of the 1 leynard Associate z
Rocks: Miss Raisin. (Communicated by Pr. f. 1. G. Bonney
On the Petrography of the Island of Capraja: Hamilton En
(Communicated by Sir Archibald Geikie, For. Sec.R.S.

THURSDAY, JANUARY 12. MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 8.- On the Application of Clifford's to Ordinary Binary Quantics, 2nd Part, Seminvariants: The he INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Experimental Res on Alternate-Current Transformers: Prof. J. A. Flen ing (Discussion.) LOND N INSTITUTION, at 6 - Electric Lighting (1) Generation of L Currents: Prof. Silvanus Thompson, F. R.S.


PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5. Upon Science Teaching: F. W. Sandest AMATEUR SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, at 8. Grology in 1892 A M. D Recent Developments in the Metallurgy of Gold: T. K. Rose. SATURDAY, JANUARY 14.



Scientific Worthies, XXVIII. -Sir Archibald Geikie
(With Portrit.) By Prol. A. de Lapparent.
Shaking the Foundations of Science
Sound and Music.

Gerland's Ethnological Atlas. By Dr. Edward B.
Tylor, F. R. S..
Our Book Shelf:-
Martin: 66
Castorologia; or, The History and Trad
tions of the Canadian Beaver'
Ball: "An Atlas of Astronomy'

Letters to the Editor :

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Vector Analysis.-Prof. P. G. Tait
Measurement of Distances of Binary Stars.-Pro
Arthur A. Rambaut.

December Meteors (Geminids).-W. F. Denning
The Earth's Age.-Bernard Hobson; Dr. Alfred
Russel Wallace

Ancient Ice Ages.-J. Lomas

Printing Mathematics. -Dr. M. J. Jackson The Teaching of Botany.-Dr D. H. Scott. The Origin of the Year. IV. By J. Normat Lockyer, F. R. S. Proposed Handbook to the British Marine Fanta By Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S.. Notes

Our Astronomical Column:

Comet Holmes (November 6, 1892)
Comet Brooks (November 20, 1892).
The Spectrum of Comet Holmes
The Recent Opposition of Mars.

Geographical Notes.

The International Zoological Cor gress at Mesc
A Botanist's Vacation in the Hawaiian Islands
Prot, D. H. Campbell.
Societies and Academies
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