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d took the degree of M.D. from the Cleveland edical College, Ohio, in 1848. Before beginning the actice of medicine, which he intended to be his occution in life, he spent two years in Europe. During his y at that time in Paris he acquired a good knowledge the French language, and had many opportunities of ltivating a love of science, which soon manifested elf as one of his distinguishing characteristics. Returnto his native country, he began practice as a medical in at Cleveland in 1851. Even at the outset of his ofessional work he contrived to find time also for entific enquiry. His first published paper appeared the same year in which he started in his medical prosion. It is devoted to the geographical distribution of d and fresh-water shells.

But he soon entered upon the two branches of geoical investigation in which he was to make his name miliar all over the civilized world-the study of fossil any and of fossil fishes. As early as the year 1853 he de his first contribution to the history of Carbonrous plants, and three years later his earliest memoir fossil fishes was published. By this time his scientific quirements and enthusiasm were widely known. Hence en an expedition under Lieutenant Ives was organized the exploration of the Colorado River of the West, wberry was selected to accompany it, and to take arge of the observations to be made in natural history. s geological contribution to the famous Report at once ced him in the very front rank of American geology. s account of the geological structure of the region versed by the expedition, and of the marvellous denuion of the cañons, will always remain as one of the dmarks of geological progress.

le had now been touched by the fascination of exration in the far west. The drudgery of medical prac: became irksome to him, so that when in the year owing his return from Colorado the offer was made to to take part in another expedition, he gladly availed self of the opportunity. He accordingly accompanied ptain Macomb in an exploring expedition in the nmer of 1859, from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the ction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the Grand lorado. This journey forms the subject of another sterly report by him, which, however, was not published some sixteen years.

The shadows of the coming great Civil War were eady falling on the United States, when Newberry was work on the preparation of the record of the results of western journeys. The storm at last burst in 1861, same year in which his Colorado report was issued. ong the many scientific men who placed their services the disposal of the North, Newberry took a foremost ce. His medical skill and wide general scientific owledge enabled him to be of great use to the ariny. specially distinguished himself in the organization I administration of the hospital department. Among reminiscences of his not uneventful life he had many phic tales to tell of his experiences during that mentous epoch in the history of the United States. er the close of the war in 1865 he returned with ewed ardour to his scientific labours, and specially oted his energies to the study of the ancient floras and -faunas of North America. Among his numerous noirs on these subjects the two large monographs ning vols. xiv. and xvi. of the series published by the ited States Geological Survey are specially worthy of ice. But they represent only a part of the enormous is of material which he had worked over.

'rof. Newberry early in his career saw how great the aid which geology could afford in the developit of the mineral industries of his native country, he gave himself with great energy to the practical lications of the science. He became one of the hest authorities on mining matters in the country,


and he was mainly instrumental in the equipment of the great mining school of Columbia College, New York. He occupied the Chair of Geology in that establishment, and threw himself heart and soul into its duties. last, in the midst of his work and honours, a stroke of paralysis disabled him from active duties, and he grew gradually feebler until his death. With him American science loses one of its most honoured and distinguished cultivators. His piercing eyes and well-cut features made him a marked figure in any assembly, while his courtesy and gentleness, and his unfailing helpfulness and serenity, gave him a charm which will endear his memory to a wide circle of friends. A. G.


ALL entomologists in the country will learn with great satisfaction that the Treasury has consented, on the recommendation of the Trustees of the British Museum, to make provision in the estimates for the coming financial year for the purchase of Mr. Pascoe's well-known collection of insects. The importance of the acquisition of this collection by the nation is very great, as it contains an immense number of types, especially of the families Longicornes and Curculiones, to which Mr. Pascoe devoted so much attention for a period of more than forty years. Its dispersal or removal to a foreign country would have been an irreparable loss to British entomologists.

THE medals and funds to be given at the anniversary meeting of the Geological Society of London on February 17 next have been awarded as follows: The Wollaston Medal to Prof. N. S. Maskelyne, F. R.S.; the Murchison Medal to the Rev. O. Fisher, the Lyell Medal to Mr. E. T. Newton; and the Bigsby Medal to Prof. W. J. Sollas, F. R.S.; the balance of the proceeds of the Wollaston fund to Mr. J. G. Goodchild; that of the Murchison fund to Mr. G. J. Williams; and that of the

Lyell fund to Miss C. A. Raisin and Mr. A. Leeds.

BETWEEN June to and 18 the University of Montpellier will celebrate the third centenary of the foundation of its Botanic Garden, on which occasion it is intended to invite a general congress of the botanists of all nations.

A MEETING of the Association for the Improvement o Geometrical Teaching was held on January 14, at University College, Gower Street, the chair being taken by the Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. The reports of the Council and treasurer having been read and adopted, Dr. Wormell was elected President for 1893, the hon. secretaries (Mr. E. M. Langley, 16, Adelaide Square, Bedford, and Mr. C. Pendelbury, 4, Glazbury Road, W. Kensington), and the other members of the Council being re-elected. Dr. Wormell having taken the chair, Mrs. Bryant gave a model lesson on geometry to a class of about twenty ladies. After an adjournment papers were read by Mr. G. Heppel on the use of history in teaching mathematics, and by Mr. F. E. Marshall on the teaching of elementary arithmetic. The attendance was larger than usual, and interesting discussions followed the lesson and the papers.

A DEPARTMENTAL committee, consisting of officers of the Charity Commission, the Education Department, and the Department of Science and Art has been appointed by Mr. Acland, Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, to consider the question of the organization of secondary education in England and Wales, and the relation of the De

partments among themselves in connection with this subject. The Committee consists of the following members :-The VicePresident of the Council (chairman), Sir H. Longley, K. C.B., Chief Charity Commissioner, Mr. T. E. Ellis, M. P., Parliamentary Charity Commissioner, and Mr. Fearon, Secretary to the

Charity Commissioners, representing the Charity Commission; Mr. Kekewich, C.B., Secretary to the Committee of Council on Education, and the Rev. T. W. Sharpe, her Majesty's Senior Chief Inspector of Schools, representing the Education Department; and Major-General Donnelly, C.B., Secretary of the Department of Science and Art, Captain Abney, C. B., F.R.S., Assistant-Director for Science, and Mr. Armstrong, Director for Art, representing the Department of Science and Art, Mr. H. W. Simpkinson, Examiner in the Education Department, acts as Secretary to the Committee.

On the 25th inst. an influential deputation will wait upon the President of the Board of Trade to urge the adoption of the

decimal system of coinage and weights and measures in Great Britain. Among those who propose to form part of the depu tation are the Agents-General for Victoria, Queensland, and the Cape, and several prominent members of the various chambers

of commerce.

THE Infant University of Chicago seems to be resolved to arrange its staff of teachers on a scale commensurate with the size of the North American Continent. Thus, the Department of Geology is placed in the hands of no fewer than seven distinct professors and two assistant professors, each taking some special branch of this wide science under the competent leadership of Prof. T. C. Chamberlin. Three of the professors are non-resident, but they will probably give occasional lectures, and will at least direct the studies in their own branches of research.

MR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, who had already presented the University of Chicago with 2,600,000 dollars, has now given it another million. The university owns land, buildings, and other property valued at £1,400,000 sterling, and the principal is ambitious enough to hope that in course of time it may have "such an array of magnificent buildings as one sees at Oxford or Cambridge.'

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A BOTANICAL laboratory has been established at Eustis, Lake co., Florida, chiefly for the investigation of diseases of the orange and other species of Citrus, under the direction of Prof. W. T. Swingle. The anatomy, physiology, and pathology of other sub-tropical economic plants will also be investigated.


ON Saturday last Prof. Flinders Petrie delivered his first lecture as professor of Egyptology at University College, Gower Street. In the course of the lecture he said that, besides more than a thousand photographs and various impressions or squeezes" of sculpture, a collection of original objects would be exhibited for the close examination of students. Miss Edwards had formed a collection with much care-as complete and typical as possible. He hoped also to place on loan his own collection, and to have a series of annual loan exhibitions drawn from the many valuable private collections in England. There would thus be found a collection of deities, the most complete collection of scarabs, the only chronological collection of beads, a dated series of pottery, the largest collection of funeral cones, and also of Egyptian weights. In certain lines of study their museum would not be merely supplemental, but would be in advance of any historical museums. posed to give a series of lectures in the autumn and spring, and would prepare students who might wish to undertake practical work in Egypt, where he would spend the time before Christmas to Easter.

He pro

MR. ROWLAND WARD is exhibiting in his studio a valuable collection of African trophies and curiosities, most of which have been brought to England by Captain Lugard and Mr. F. C. Selous. Besides natural history specimens, the collection includes many weapons and products of native art.

ANOTHER Severe loss has been sustained by science in Ar through the death of the well-known mineralogist, N Ivanovitch Koksharoff. He died at St. Petersburg on Janus He was born on December 2, 1818, in West Siberia, inav near which at that time was the fort of Ust-Kamenog and he made his studies in the Mining Institute at St. Per burg. In 1841, when he was a mining engineer in the U he accompanied Murchison on his journey to Russia and t Urals, and the intercourse with the great geologist led hin adopt a scientific career. He spent the next three years 5.7 ing in Western Europe, and on his return he devoted hin entirely to minerology, and especially to goniometric me

ments of minerals, in which he was so much aided by his that his numerous writings on this subject are as much hersas his. He lectured in his early years on geology and phy geography, but later on devoted himself almost entirely description of Russian minerals, of which he discovered described many new ones. His chief works are embode eleven large quarto volumes of "Beitrage zur Minera Russlands," illustrated with numerous plates. The twe volume was in type when he died. In 1866 he was maz member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and scientific bodies of Western Europe elected him correspond, or honorary member.

DURING the past week the weather has been of a very settled character; at first an anticyclone lay over the grea part of these islands, while areas of low pressure were s over the North Sea and to the west of Norway. With conditions the weather became warmer in this country, the maxima varying from 40° to 46°, but over the Continent low temperatures continued to be registered, the mai | Sweden varying from 60° to 65° below the freezing point, ** exceptionally severe weather also prevailed over France Germany. On Sunday a depression was passing to the s ward of these islands, and under its influence northeas gales were experienced in the eastern and southern par England; a sharp frost occurred over this country, a panied by snow in most parts, while a thaw set in over 2 land and rapdidly spread southwards, accompanied by the maximum temperatures reaching from 45° to 50 quently the conditions were again becoming anti-cyclonii » companied by a return of colder weather, but they were all settled; snow was falling on Tuesday in the south of 21 land. For the week ending the 14th instant the temper was everywhere below the mean, the deficit ranging from: 5°. The amount of bright sunshine exceeded the average north and west of Scotland and in the south-west of Eng elsewhere the amount recorded was very small, being only. cent. in the north-west of England.

Das Wetter of December last contains an accou heavy thunderstorm which occurred at Paderborn on A 1892, in which a number of living pond mussels were with the rain. The observer who is in connection w Berlin Metereological Office sent a detailed account strange occurrence, and a specimen was forwarded t Museum at Berlin, which stated that it was the anatina (L.). A yellowish cloud attracted the atte several people, both from its colour and the rapidity motion, when suddenly it burst, a torrential rain fel rattling sound, and immediately afterwards the pavem found to be covered with hundreds of the mussels. F details will be published in the reports of the Berlin Of the only possible explanation seems to be that the wate river in the neighbourhood was drawn up by a passing. and afterwards deposited its living burden at the place tion.

was nothing in the whole of scientific art, nothing in the results of mechanics applied to the useful purposes for mankind, that was a more splendid success than the science of watchmaking. He had been all his life engaged more or less with scientific experiments, with measurements, and with instruments which their French friends would call instruments of precision. They knew something of instruments of precision in electricity, and they were thankful if they could make a measurement which was accurate to one-tenth or one-twentieth per cent. But what did watchmaking do? The commonest cheap watch cheap but good-which would issue from the Prescot works would

Mr. C. F. MAXWELL writes to Science from Dublin, Texas, that on the night of November 29, about 8 o'clock, a very large meteor was seen passing westward, a little to the south of that place. Just as it seemed to be passing the body exploded, producing a sound that was distinctly heard, resembling that of a rocket explosion or a pistol-shot. After the explosion a body half as large as a full moon moved away to the westward, making a hissing or frying sound. Mr. Maxwell has seen no one who saw the meteor before the explosion. The whole country was brilliantly lighted for a moment as if by a continued electric discharge, but at the time of the explosion the light was red and blue, or perhaps violet. The sound of the explo-keep time to a minute a week. Now a minute a week, if they sion was heard by parties five miles west and seven miles east of Dublin, who could not have been less than ten miles apart on an air-line, and they report the sound together with the other phenomena to have been about the same as they were at Dublin.

WHEN Commanding the Naiade during the cyclone of November 6, 1891, Rear Admiral Cavelier de Cuverville had the opportunity of testing the efficiency of oil in calming the troubled waves of the North Atlantic. The last number of the Revue Maritime contains an account of his experiences and conclusions. When the waves threatened to become dangerous he gave orders to fill two coal sacks with tow steeped in oil, one of them to be suspended freely at the extremity of a spar spanned to the cat-head, the other near the bridge. The effect was excellent. No seas were shipped, and the vessel escaped without breaking a spar. It appears that the oil takes effect upon the "breakers" due to horizontal translation produced by the wind, leaving the orbital motion or "swell" unaffected. The former is the only element of danger in a rough sea. It was found that two sacks, filled with 5 kgr. of tow, holding 5 litres of colza or machine oil each, were sufficient to protect a vessel 75 m. long. The oil had to be renewed every six hours. Too much oil has the disadvantage of spreading more slowly, and theoretically the best system of distribution would be one in which the oil would reach the surface from below in a large number of small drops.

It was

HERR J. NAUE has been fortunate enough to discover at a prehistoric station near Schaffhausen a piece of limestone, on both sides of which are drawings like those which have been found in caves in France and in the cave at Thayngen. found in the lowest part of the yellow "Kulturschicht" among bones and teeth of reindeer, horses, and other animals. On one side are a horse, a foal, and a reindeer, while several horses appear on the other. The style is not so fine as that of the Thayngen drawings, but, according to Herr Naue, they display a power of keen observation, and he points out that it was more difficult to work on stone than on a bone still fresh.

THE remarkable address delivered by Prof. Virchow on his assumption of the office of Rector of the University of Berlin has been issued by the German publisher, August Hirschwald, of that city. The title is "Lernen und Forschen."

THE Pharmaceutical Journal of the present week prints the first of what promises to be a good series of papers, which are intended to make bacteriology intelligible and interesting to students, and to be of some practical value to pharmacists in business. The Journal rightly thinks that the time has come when pharmacists ought to make themselves familiar with the principles of "this newest department of experimental science."

LAST week Lord Kelvin delivered an interesting speech at a dinner given to the members of the new watch factory at Prescot. He said it was something to be proud of that the article they were making was a triumph of mechanism. There

made a little calculation, was something like one-hundredth per cent. of accuracy, or just about ten times as accurate as they considered exceedingly good work in electrical measurements.

At a recent meeting of the College of Preceptors, Mr. Foster Watson read a remarkably interesting paper on Richard Mulcaster, who was head-master of St. Paul's School from 1596 to 1598. The paper is printed in the current number of the Educational Times. Mulcaster's ideas were in some respects far ahead of those of his time. The following, according to Mr. Watson, were his "main educationa! contentions" :-(1) Culture and learning for those who have the wit to profit by it, whether rich or poor. Adequate knowledge for those who go into trade. (2) Education for girls and women, as well as boys and men. Higher education for girls who have good abilities. (3) Training colleges for teachers. (4) Physical training for all-boys and girls, teachers and pupils, and this to be continued in after-life. (5) Liberal education, with disinterested aims for the elementary schools. (6) The best masters to take the lowest classes. (7) Drawing and music to be taught in every school, not as "extras," but as essentials. "You will notice," says Mr. Watson, "that the last-named five aims are only within the field of discussion even yet; they are not faits accomplis. All this time they have been in Mulcaster's book, and Mulcaster's book-a few copies of it, very few-have been gathering dust."

THE Association of Officers of Colleges in New England have recommended the gradual adoption of the following changes in the curriculum of New England grammar schools :(1) The introduction of elementary natural history into the earlier years of the programme as a substantial subject, to be taught by demonstrations and practical exercises rather than from books. (2) The introduction of elementary physics into the later years of the programme as a substantial subject, to be taught by the experimental or laboratory method, and to include exact weighing and measuring by the pupils themselves. (3) The introduction of elementary algebra at an age not later than twelve years. (4) The introduction of elementary plane geometry at an age not later than thirteen years. (5) The offering of opportunity to study French, or German, or Latin, or any two of these languages from and after the age of ten years. (6) The increase of attention in all class-room exercises in every study to the correct and facile use of the English language. In order to make room in the programme for these new subjects, the association recommends that the time allotted to arithmetic, geography, and English grammar be reduced to whatever extent may be necessary. The association explains that it makes these recommendations in the interest of the public school system as a whole, but that most of them are offered more particularly in the interest of those children whose education is not to be continued beyond the grammar school.

MR. WALDO DENNIS gives in Science a minute and very interesting account of a snake which he watched for an hour in the woods one morning in July last. It went straight up a tree "without crook or turn," and by-and-by lay still for a while,

basking in the sun. Mr. Dennis notes that while in this position it lifted up its head four or five inches and gaped. Its mouth opened very wide; and when the mouth was closing, the nervous spasm, only half expended, again seized upon the jaws, whereupon they went wider than before, the spasm exhausting itself at last in a parting wriggle or two to the head. "So natural," says Mr. Dennis, "was this novel performance, that I involuntarily listened for that characteristic accompani

ment, the little agonizing whine so common with the dog, and and not uncommon with us."

FEW things are more frequently said than that diseases of the nervous system, especially those of a hysterical character, have increased with the growth of civilization. Dr. de la Tourette has been trying to show, in the Journal de Médecine, that this is an error, and Dr. D. G. Brinton, in Science, expresses cordial agreement with him. Travellers who give the soundest information on the subject, says Dr. Brinton, report that in uncultivated nations violent and epidemic nervous seizures are very common. Castren describes them among the Sibiric tribes. An unexpected blow on the outside of a tent will throw its occupants into spasms. The early Jesuit missionaries paint extraordinary pictures of epidemic nervous maladies among the Iroquois and Hurons. During the Middle Ages there were scenes of this kind which are impossible to-day.

THE question as to whether electrification is produced by the friction of gases has been exhaustively dealt with by Mr. Wesendonck, who gives an account of his results in Wiedemann's Annalen. The apparatus resembled that employed by Faraday with negative results, in the case of dry air. Mr. Wesendonck used air compressed to 100 atmospheres in Elkan steel bombs of 1000 litre capacity. This was passed through a brass tube widening out into a cone into which a similar cone could be screwed from the opposite direction, so as to leave a conical path for the air issuing from the bomb. The second cone was connected to a delicate electrometer, which indicated any electrification produced by the impact of the air. Ordinary air was thus found to give considerable negative charges, up to 1 volt, if the cones were far apart, and positive charges if they were screwed up close. But no electrification was produced when the air had been previously freed from dust and moisture. Oxygen behaved in the same way. Carbonic acid, evaporated from the liquid state, imparted a strong positive charge to the brass, which was, however, reversed as soon as the cold led to the precipitation of water vapour. Ordinary atmospheric dust was found to electrify the brass negatively, the charge being increased by previous drying. It seems, therefore, that pure gases are incapable of producing electrification by friction, and that the effects observed are conditioned by the presence of minute solid or liquid particles.

FISHES in badly-ventilated aquaria give various signs of oppression, such as restlessness, frequent gasping, mounting to the surface, leaping into the air, &c. Experiments have been recently made by Messrs. Duncan and Hoppe-Seyler (Zeitschrift für Phys. Chemie) to ascertain to what point the oxygen-content of the water may be lowered before fishes indicate uneasiness. They were made with tench, trout, and crayfish in an elliptical glass vessel, with pipes for injecting and removing water and air, &c., in one case a pipe communicating with a chamber in which was a live rabbit, conveyed to the fishes air impoverished by the latter's breathing, while the behaviour of rabbits and fishes in the same air could be compared. With 4 to 3 cubic centimetres O in the litre of water, the fishes seemed well and content, and with the corresponding O tension in the air (8 to II volume-percentage) the rabbit was in no difficulty. With 17 to 0.8 cubic centimetres O in the water, the trout were evidently ill at ease, and, if it continued, they died. The tench

and crayfish, however, stood still further reductions, the ferr finding relief at the surface. Reduction of the O to zens produced the worst symptoms.

IT was long ago shown by Sir J. B. Lawes that plat ground that has been long without manure evaporate more w than those on good ground. Further research has proved transpiration is not proportional to leafy development, ⠀ ⠀ largely depends on the activity of the roots, as well as en ative surface. M. Dehérain has lately (Ann. Agr.) been le investigate the influence of manure on the development of and he finds that roots in unmanured ground have a muchly growth than in manured, having to spread more in sentä the scanty nutriment. If, then, a plant with small growth, evaporates more water relatively than one with h it is probably due to large root-growth procuring more w The observation of Volkens is cited, that desert plants br extraordinarily long roots. Further, M. Dehérain points = the solar rays falling on a plant have a twofold work to do assimilation and transpiration. And these are complemen In strong leafy plants there is vigorous assimilation, transpiration is limited; while in the leaves (with little sh phyll) of an "anæmic" plant a larger fraction of the s energy is given to transpiration.

IN the American Geologist an account is given of 1 liminary examination of some specimens of a coaly having the general properties of a cannel, from the Ko and Lower Cretaceous of British Columbia. Their ex tion was of more than ordinary interest on account of peculiar physical constitution and the great difficulty of a taining their connection with any of the materials ord known to contribute to coal formation. The main character of the mineral are the total absence of structure, and the pre of tubular ramuli resembling fungus mycelia, as well as om cavities. Angular fragments of material of the same tatos the larger rod-like bodies appear in the sections, amorphous substance either occurring in distinct flakes ing as a cement to unite the rods. Mr. Penhallow's ex tion has made it probable that the origin of these coals sought in some other direction than modified vegetable


It is suggested that they represent a form of fossil accumulated during a period when resin-bearing trees were abundant, and possessed a structure favouring the r integration of organic tissue.

A YOUNG lady in America seems to have the pow awakening not only the intelligence but the affections of 22Her experiences are recorded in Science by a friend 4 who signs himself "B." In September some one gave beetle, which is described as a specimen of Pelidnota pas Linn. At first she kept it in a small box, feeding it wi leaves, and small pieces of fruits, such as peaches, pes Occasionally she would give it a drop of water to sip. It sometimes bite a little out of a leaf, would eat the fruits would take water eagerly. From the first she would e insect in her fingers several times a day and stroke or cre also putting it to her lips and talking to it all the st handled it. When she put it to her lips it would br antennæ over them with a gentle, caressing motion. Wher left her room she would shut it up in its box. One cat two weeks after she received it, she was called out and neglected this precaution. She was absent for so and when she returned the insect was not in its box where to be seen. Fearing that she might injure it, she still and called "Buggie, buggie," when it came craw its retreat towards her. "After this," says "B.," "h frequently leave it free in the room when she went when she returned, if the insect was not in sight, she

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call it, and it would crawl or fly to her. As this was continued, it would more and more frequently fly to her instead of crawling, until at last it flew nearly every time it was called. When it came in this way she would put it to her lips or to her nose, and the insect would appear to be pleased, moving its antennæ gently over her lips, or taking the end of her nose between them and touching it with a patting motion." Unfortunately this interesting beetle lost its liveliness in winter. It was placed on a cloth above the kitchen boiler, where it revived to some extent; bat in December it accidentally fell to the floor and soon afterwards died.

THE annual report of the U.S. Commission of Patents for the year 1891 has been issued. In addition to the usual statistical information there are added to this report two tables and two diagrams illustrative of the growth of patent-granting from 1790 to 1890, the first century of the existence of the American patent system. The first table gives the patents granted in that period by years and by States to American citizens. The second table does the same for patents granted to citizens of foreign countries. The first diagram has one line illustrating graphically the growth of patent-granting during the century, along with another line denoting the increase of population in the same period. The second diagram has one line illustrating the growth per capita of patent-granting as a whole during the century, and other lines illustrating the growth per capita of patent-granting in the States by groups of States. There is also a list of patentees and their improvements, by years, prior to the year 1800.

THE first volume of the Irish Naturalist, a monthly journal of general Irish natural history, has just been published, and a very interesting volume it is. The editors are Mr. G. H. Carpenter and Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, and they have secured from able contributors many good articles on subjects which cannot fail to be attractive to Irish readers. The volume also records work done by some of the foremost of the Irish scientific


THE Bureau des Longitudes has issued, through Messrs. Gauthier-Villars et Fils, its " Annuaire" for the year 1893. It contains, as usual, a great mass of scientific information, clearly arranged. Among its "notices" is an interesting paper upon the observatory of Mont Blanc, by M. J. Janssen.

THE Belgian Royal Academy of Science, Letters, and Art has also issued its "Annuaire." Among the contents is a rather elaborate memoir of Jean Servais Stas, accompanied by an excellent portrait.

MESSRS. CHARLES GRIFFIN AND CO. have published a ninth edition of "A Pocket Book of Electrical Rules and Tables for the Use of Electricians and Engineers," by John Munro and Andrew Jamieson, The authors state that the work has been carefully revised and enriched with fresh matter, including several important communications by leading authori ties on electro-technics.

MESSRS. GEORGE BELL AND SONS have issued the first portion of a supplement to the third edition of "English Botany, or Coloured Figures of British Plants." This part has been prepared by Mr. N. E. Brown. The rest will be done by Mr. Arthur Bennett.

In our review of "Modern Mechanism" last week (p. 242) a typical American express locomotive with 20 x 24 cylinders was said to be less powerful than an 18 x 26 cylinder British engine. This should, of course, be reversed, the American engine being the more powerful.

THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the past week include a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus ?) from India, presented by Mr. F. Skinner; eleven Tuatera Lizards (Sphenodon punctatus) from Stephen's Island, Cook's Straits, New Zealand, presented by Captain E. A. Findlay; a Puff Adder (Vipera arietans) from East Africa, presented by the Directors of the British East African Company; a Vulpine Phalanger (Phalangista vulpina), from Australia; a a Stanleyan Chevrotain (Tragulus stanleyanus ) from Java, deposited; a Sanderling (Calidris arenaria), European; two Brown Capuchins (Cebus fatuellus), an Azara's Fox (Canis azara), a Ring-tailed Coati (Nasua rufa), seven Glossy Ibises (Plegadis falcinellus), a Brown Milvago (Milvago chimango), four Barn Owls (Strix flammea), a Ypecaha Rail (Aramides ypecaha), a Chilian Pintail (Dafila spinicanda), a Geoffroy's Terrapin (Platemys geoffroyana) from South America, purchased; a Hog Deer (Cervus porcinus), born in the Gardens.

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The comet is now almost midway between B Andromede and a Trianguli.


splendid series of double-star measures, made chiefly with the 3-foot refractor at the Lick Observatory during the first six months of 1892, are published in Ast. Nach. No. 3141. He states that the superiority of the great telescope for this work has been fully demonstrated. In the present list there are micrometric measures of eight new double stars, and additional measures of 170 old ones. x Pegasi has completed more than one revolution since its discovery in 1880, the period being about eleven and a half years, which "is probably shorter than that of any other known pair in the heavens.

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Mr. Burnham's connection with the Lick Observatory having permanently ended in June last, the present list of measures concludes his work on double stars. It is to be hoped that the field of work which he has so brilliantly occupied will not be neglected in the future.

EPHEMERIS OF COMET BROOKS.-The following is a continuation of Kreutz's ephemeris for Berlin, midnight:

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THE ECLIPSE OF APRIL 16, 1893.-In a communication to the Astronomical Society of France, M. de la Baume Pluvinel indicates some of the points to which attention should be directed in the eclipse of the sun in April. In the first place, he does not think any of the precious moments of totality need be devoted to the study of prominences, as these can now be completely studied at any time. The investigation of the cor ona is all-important, and attempts should be made to obtain photographs showing its general aspect with various exposures, as well as photographs of its spectrum. The different parts of

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