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need not necessarily be alternations of transparency and opacity in

solution. This point is a minimum temperature. Besides, order to produce the desired effect. Very close contact between

there are two ciyohydratic lines, representing the series of solathe film and the grating is essential.-On atmospheric polarisa

tions which may exist with ice and A or ice and B as solids. In tion, by M. A. Hurion.-Researches on the higher alcohols the other cases when A and B form a double salt D, there are two and other impurities in vinic alcohol, by M. Émile Gossart. – cryohydratic points, one for the solution in equilibrium with On the general relations which exist between the coefficients in

ice + D + A, the other for ice + D + B; and three cryothe fundamental laws of electricity and magnetism, by M. E. hydratic lines for the solutions in equilibrium with ice + D, Mercadier. - On the reflection of electric waves at the end of

ice + A, ice + B. When the double salt is soluble without a linear conductor, by M. Birkeland. - Multiplication of the decomposition, the two cryohydratic points are both minimum number of periods of sinusoidal currents, by M. Désiré Korda. –

temperatures, and therefore there must exist a maximum tempeOn the hygroscopic properties of several textile fabrics, by M. Th. rature on the line for ice + D; this maximum relates to the Schlæsing fils.-Contribution to the study of the Leclanché cell,

solution which presenıs the same relation A/B as in the double by M. A. Ditte.-Attempt at a general method of chemical syn

salt. All these conclusions may be deduced from thermoe thesis ; formation of nitrogen compounds, by M. Raoul Pictet. dynamical rules; they were confirmed in experimental research -On the stereochemistry of the malic compounds, and the by Mr. Schreinemakers. variation of the rotatory power of liquids, by M. Albert Colson. -On a chlorobromide of iron, by M. Lenormand.--On the

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. saccharates of lime, by M. Petit.

On a new soluble ferment doubling trehalose into glucose, by M. Ém. Bourquelot.-On

BOOKS.-Carlsbad, a Medico-Practical Guide : Dr. E. Kleen (Putnam).

Louis Agassiz, his Life and Work: Dr. Holder (Putoam).-Die Natürliche the circulatory apparatus of Mygale Cementaria, Walck, by M. Auslese beim Menachen: 0. Ammon (Jena, Fischer). — Public Health Marcel Causard.

- Influence of the pressure of gases upon the Laboratory Work: H. R. Kenwood (Lewis). - Annual Statement of Works development of vegetables, by M. Paul Jaccard. - On the

carried out by Public Works Department (Sydney, Potter). – The Principles

of Agriculture: G.Fletcher (Derby, Central Educational Company). - Science ammonite layers of the inferior Malm in the county of Monte

et Religion : T. H. Huxley (Paris, Bailllère).-Au Bord de la Mer : Dr. junta, Portugal ; little known phases in the development of the E. L. Trouessart (Paris, Baillière.-Conféiences Scientifiques et Allocu. mollusca, by M. Paul Choffat. -On the mode of reproduction

tions-Constitution de la Matière : Lord Kelvin. Traduites et Annotées

sur la Deuxième Edition : P. Lugol and M. Brillouin (Paris, Gauthier. of the parasites of cancer, by MM. Armand Ruffer and H. G. Plimmer.-M. Lippmann presented to the Academy, in the

Villars). - Premiers Principes d'Électricité Industrielle: P. Janet (Paris,

Gauthier-Villars).— The Gieat Barrier Reef of Australia: W. Saville-Keat names of MM. Auguste and Louis Lumière, coloured photo- (W. H. Allen). graphs obtained by the interference method.

PAMPHIETS.- Meteorological Results deduced from Observations taken

at the Liverpool Observatory during the Years 1889, 1890 1891 (Liverpool). BERLIN,

-On the Effects of Urban Fog upon C. ltivated Plants : Prof. F. W. Oliver

(Spottiswoode). — The Fundamental Hypotheses of Abstract Dynamics : Physical Society, March 10.-Prof. Kundt, President, in

Prol. J. G. MacGregor.-I1 Clima di Torino: G. B Rizzo (Torino, Clausen). — the chair. - The President gave an account of some re-earches On the Application of Interference Methods to Spectroscopic Measureundertaken as an introduction to the study of Hall's phenomenon.

ments: A. A. Michelson (Washington, Smithsonian Institution).-Recrea. As is well known, this is directly proportional to the intensity of

tion : W. Odell (Torquay, Iredale).

Serials. - Journal of the Chemical Society, April (Gurney and Jackson). the primary current, but inversely proportional to the pressure Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, Band viii No. 1 (Wien, of the plates ; on the other hand, it is not strictly proportional Holder).-Timehri. No. xxii. (Stanford) -Noies from the Leyden Museum, to the magnetising current in the case of the several metals so

vol. xv. No. 2(Leyden, Brill).-L'Anthropologie, tome iv. No. 1 (Paris, far examined, and it appeared probable that it might more pos

Masson).- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, April (Williams

and Norgaie).- The Asclepiad, No. 37, vol. x. (Longmans).- Records of sibly be proportional rather to the magnetisation of the plate. the Geological Survey of India, vol. xxvi. Part 1 (Calcutta). Prof. Kundt wished to test this possibility in the case of iron, nickel, and cobalt, employing transparent metallic films of these

CONTENTS.

PAGE metals magnetised to 28,000 units, whose magnetisation could be tested directly by means of their rotatory power. It was

Dynamics in Nubibus

601 found that the Hall effect increased hand in hand with the in

Vertebrate Biology. By W. N. P.

605 crease of rotatory power, and therefore proportionally to the

Our Book Shelf:magnetisation of the plates. The effect was, as Hall had already

Marilaun : “ Pfanzenleben."-D. H. S.

605

боб shown, positive in the case of iron and cobalt, negative in that Giacosa : “Bibliografia Medica Italiana of nickel. Bismuth deposited electrolytically in a transparent

Balfour : “ The Evolution of Decorative Art'

606 film gave very feeble or no results, whereas, when drawn out

Letters to the Editor :into a thin plate the effect was considerable.-Dr. Wren spoke Palæontological Discovery in Australia.-Prof. Alfred on Maxwell's proposition That waves of light exert pressure in

Newton, F.R.S.

606 the direction of their transmission, as proved in a certain case

An International Zoological Record. - Dr. Herbert by Boltzmann. He deduced, under certain assumptions, a

H, Field

606 fórmula for the calculation of temperature based upon a deter

Lion tiger and Tiger-lion Hybrids-Dr. v. Ball, mination of maximal energy.

F.R.S..

Soot-figures on Ceilings. (Illustrated. )-E.B. Poul. AMSTERDAM.

ton, F.R.S.; Prof. Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 608 Royal Academy of Sciences, March 25.-Prof. van de The Use of Ants to Aphides and Coccidæ.-T. D. A. Sande Bakhuysen in the chair. -Mr. Pekelharing spoke of the

Cockerell peptone of Kühne. Some years ago he argued there was not a Blind Animals in Caves.-G. A. Boulenger. 608 real difference between the substances called pept..ne, and the Observations in the West Indies. By Prof. A. substance called propeptone or hemialbumose. The researches Agassiz of Kühne and his disciples alterwards proved that what was

Artionyx-a Clawed Artiodactyle. (With Diagrams.) called peptone by Schmidt-Mülheim and by Salkowski, con- By Prof. Henry S. Osborn

610 tained albumose. But it was not proved hy Kühne that the The Hodgkins Fund Prizes. By Prof. S. P. Langley 611 substance called by himself peptone was really free from albu- The Solar Eclipse

611 mose. Out of a solution of Kühne's peptone, saturated Nes

612 with ammoniumsulphate, there can be precipitated by meta- Our Astronomical Column: phosphoric acid, and more fully by trichloracetic acii, a sub- Large Telescopes

616 stance which has the properties of albumo-e. It gives the Spectrum of B Lyræ .

616 biuretreacıion, it is precipitated, the reaction may be acid, Société Astronomique de France

616 neutral, or alkaline, by ammoniumsulphate, it is precipitated hy Wolsingham Circular, No. 34

616 picrinic acid, and, in acid solution, by saturation with natrium- Astronomical Journal Prizes

616 chlorid. So it is clear that there is no ground for believing Geographical Notes

617 with Kühne that the substance called by him peptone is a sub- Institution of Mechanical Engineers stance sui generis, and not an impure albumo:e. -Mr. Bahhuis Coni'ers. By G. N. Roozeboom dealt with the cryohydrates in systems of two salis. The Earthquakes in Zante

620 Three cases are to be considered. The first is that the iwo salts Scientific Serials

620 may exist without combination. Then there is a cryohydratic Societies and Academies

621 point in which the two salts A and B exist with ice next the Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

624

607

608

608

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the Human Eye, in Case
Set of 12 Zoology Slides in Case
Set of 12 Test Objects for various Powers, all

carefully Selected, in Case Any of the above Objects sent by return on receipt of

remittance for price. CLASSIFIED List, representing a Stock of 40,000 First

class Objects sent post free on application.

7

6

99 HATTON CARDEN, LONDON.

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£10 £12

£15 Rayment's Wide Angle, Long Focus, Rack Camera, Three Double Dark Slides, “Optimus” Rapid Rectilinear Lens, Instantaneous Shutter, Tripod, and best Waterproof Case.

For Plates 4 by 31.
For Plates of by 41 ...
For Plates 81 by 6

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60 Prize Medals Awarded to the Firm.

BE CAREFUL TO ASK FOR FRY'S PURE CONCENTRATED COCOA.

IT IS SENT POST FREE.

OPTIMUS"
PHOTOGRAPHIC

OUTFITS
PERKEN, SON, AND RAYMENT, MANUFACTURERS.

WRITE FOR OUR CATALOGUE. OPTIMUS” UBIQUE CAMERA.

MICROSCOPES AND APPARATUS.
WATSON & SONS' TRIPOD EDINBURGH STU-

DENT'S MICROSCOPE is suitable for investigations
with the highest powers. The quality and Workman-
ship are the finest possible, and it is unequalled for
stability and convenience of Manipulation by any other
medium size or Student's Instrument. Price from

55.
WATSON & SONS' VAN HEURCK MICROSCOPE

combines every Mechanical Convenience with the ut. most Precision in all the Working parts and is Unsurpassed for Photo-Micrography and all Research

of the most delicate nature. WATSON & SON'S perfected form of FINE ADJUST.

MENT, giving the greatest delicacy of mion, without lateral movement, is fitted to all their instrument.

Pure

printed by RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, at 7 and 8 Bread Street Hill, Queen Victoria Street, in the City of London, and Published by

MACMILLAN AND Co., at 29 Bedford Street, London. W.C., and 112 Fourth Arenue, New York.-THURSDAY, April 27, 1893.

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PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT,

Pictures 41 by 31 inches.
May be used on Tripod or in band.

SPACE FOR

Full Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes and Apparatus

sent Post free on application to

FRY'S

Highest Award to Gas Engines.
DIPLOMA OF HONOR,

Crystal Palace Exhibition

W. WATSON & SONS,

GAS ENGINES.

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"OTTO” CROSSLEY'S

Carries six dry

plates. Three dark

slides, Focussing

Screen, View Finder, Shutter,

&c.

78 Swanston Street, Melbourne, Australia. Awarded 31 Gold and other Medals at International Exhi.

bitions for Excellence of Manufactures.

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