Civil Calendar and Lunar Calendar in Ancient Egypt
Peeters Publishers, 1997 - 272 páginas
This investigation is concerned with ancient Egyptian calendars. Its specific focus is one of the oldest problems of the study of these calendars: the so-called problem of the month names. This work's main purpose is to suggest an explanation for the Brugsch phenomenon. The Brugsch phenomenon is one of the two main aspects of the problem of the month names. The other is the Gardiner phenomenon. No new theory is presented for the Gardiner phenomenon. As a problem, the Brugsch phenomenon is slightly older than the Gardiner Phenomenon. It has occupied center stage in the study of ancient Egyptian calendars since the early days of this endeavor. In 1870, Heinrich Brugsch, the great pioneer in this subject, wrote about the phenomenon, "Here we encounter all at once the most curious contradiction." Just recently, Rolf Krauss has described the contradiction as still "unsolved". The Brugsch phenomenon concerns the indisputable fact that the last or twelfth month of the Egyptian civil year can be named as if it were the first. Two month names are involved. The first is wp rnpt. Its meaning "opener of the year," refers to a beginning. The second month name is mswt r' "birth of Re" in hieroglyphic Egyptian, Mesore in Aramaic, Greek and Coptic. Both can otherwise also refer to New Year's Day, the quintessential calendrical beginning.
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Theory of the Straddle Month
The Civil Month Names in Ancient Egypt
The Brugsch Phenomenon and the Gardiner Phenomenon
The Sources for the Brugsch Phenomenon
Intervals Reckoned by the Moon in Temple Records and Two Double
The Civilbased Lunar Calendar and Its Relation to the Civil Cal
The Causes of the Brugsch Phenomenon
The Gardiner Phenomenon
Alexandrian calendar ancient Egypt ancient Egyptian Aramaic astronomical Babylonian calendar Borchardt 1935 Brugsch phenomenon Carlsberg 9 century b.c.e. Chassinat civil and lunar civil calendar civil I iht civil III civil IV civil IV smw civil Month 12 civil month name civil-based lunar calendar complex cycles conjunction Coptic day date Deir el-Medina Depuydt dhwty Ebers Calendar Edfu Egyptian calendars Egyptian civil epagomenal days evidence explanation follows Gardiner phenomenon Greek hb jnt hieroglyphic hnsw hr ihty hwt hr instances jpt hmt lists lunar Day lunar I iht lunar month name lunar straddle month lunisolar calendars Mesore mnht monthly pairing moon name wp rnpt names pertaining original lunar calendar Ostracon Papyrus Papyrus Carlsberg Parker pertaining to months phenomena psdntyw Ramesseum relation rising of Sirius rnnwtt rnpt or mswt seasonal month names sequence sets of month solar temple theophoric civil set theophoric set transfer water clock Year's Day yearly pairing