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old Polonius's intellect, not less than in the end. | days that the Lord God made the earth. and less confirmations and most undeniable matters the heavens” (Gen. ii, 4). And who that hath of fact of Tapster Pompey or the hostess of the watched their ways with an understanding heart, tavern prove to our feelings, even before the could, as the vision evolving, still advanced to. word is found which presents the truth to our wards him, contemplate the filial and loyal bee; understandings, that confusion and formality the home-building, wedded and divorceless are but the opposite poles of the same null-point? | swallow ; and above all the manifoldly irtelli.
It is Shakespeare's peculiar excellence, that gent* ant tribes, with their commonwealths and throughout the whole of his splendid picture confederacies, their warriors and miners, the gallery (the reader will excuse the acknowledged husbandfolk, that fold in their tiny flocks on the inadequacy of this metaphor), we find individu | honeyed leaf, and the virgin sisters, with the ality everywhere, mere portrait nowhere. In holy instincts of maternal love, detached and in all his various characters, we still feel ourselves selfless purity-and not to say to himself, behold communing with the same nature, which is every the shadow of approaching humanity, the sun where present as the vegetable sap in the rising from behind, in the kindling morn of branches, sprays, leaves, buds, blossoms, and creation! Thus all lower natures find their fruits, their shapes, tastes, and odours. Speak- highest good in semblances and seekings of that ing of the effect, that is, his works themselves, which is higher and better. All things strive to we may define the excellence of their method as ascend, and ascend in their striving. And shall consisting in that just proportion, that union man alone stoop? Shall his pursuits and desires, and interpenetration, of the universal and the the reflections of his inward life, be like the reparticular, which must ever pervade all works of flected image of a tree on the edge of a pool, decided genius and true science. For method that grows downwards, and seeks a mock heaven implies a progressive transition, and it is the in the unstable element beneath it, in neighbourmeaning of the word in the original language. hood with the slim water-weeds and oosy bottomThe Greek méloôos is literally a way or path of grass that are yet better than itself and more trarsit. Thus we extol the Elements of Euclid, noble, in as far as substances that appear as or Socrates' discourse with the slave in the Menon shadows are preferable to shadows mistaken for c.f Plato, as methodical, a term which no one who substance ! No! it must be a higher good to holds himself bound to think or speak correctly, make you happy. While you labour for anywould apply to the alphabetical order or arrange thing below your proper humanity, you seek a ment of a common dictionary. But as without happy life in the region of death. Well caith continuous transition there can be no method, the moral poetso without a preconception there can be no
“Unless above himself he can transition with continuity. The term, method,
Erect himself, how mean a thing is man!' cannot therefore, otherwise than by abuse, be applied to a mere dead arrangement, containing
CHURCH SINGING. in itself no principle of progression.
I exceedingly regret that our church pays so LOOKING UPWARD.
little attention to the subject of congregational
singing. See how it is! In that particular Every rank of creatures, as it ascends in the part of the public worship in which, more than scale of creation, leaves death behind it or under in all the rest, the common people might, and it. The metal at its height of being seems a ought to, join—which, by its association with mute prophecy of the coming vegetation, into
music, is meant to give a fitting vent and a mimic semblance of which it crystallises. The
expression to the emotions, - in that part we blossom and flower, the acme of vegetable life, all sing as Jews; or, at best, as mere men, in divides into correspondent organs with reciprocal | the abstract, without a Saviour. You know functions, and by instinctive motions and approxi- | my veneration for the Book of Psalms, or most mations seems impatient of that fixture, by which of it; but with some half-dozen exceptions, it is differenced in kind from the flower-shaped
| the Psalms are surely not adequate vehicles of
the Paal Psyche, that flutters with free wing above it.
Christian thanksgiving and joy! Upon this deAnd wonderfully in the insect realm doth the ' ficiency in our service, Wesley and Whitfield irratibility, the proper seat of instinct, while
seized; and you know it is the hearty congregayet the nascent sensibility is subordinated there
tional singing of Christian hymns which keeps the to — most wonderfully, I say, doth the muscular
humbler Methodists together. Luther did as life in the insect, and the musculo-arterial in the
much for the Reformation by his hymns as by bird, imitate and typically rehearse the adaptive
his translation of the Bible. In Germany, the anderstanding, yea, and the moral affections and
hymns are known by heart by every peasant; charities of man. Let us carry ourselves back,
they advise, they argue from the hymns, and in spirit, to the mysterious week, the teeming
every soul in the church praises God, like a work-days of the Creator: as they rose in vision
Christian, with words which are natural and yet before the eye of the inspired historian " of the generations of the heaven and the earth, in the
* See Huber on Bees and ov Ants.
sacred to his mind. No doubt this defect in our something deserving the name of love towards a service proceeded from the dread which the male object-an affection beyond friendship, English Reformers had of being charged with and wholly aloof from appetite. In Elizabeth's introducing anything into the worship of God and James's time it seems to have been almost but the text of Scripture.
fashionable to cherish such a feeling; and per
haps we may account in some measure for it by A SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY.
considering how very inferior the women of that My system, if I may venture to give it so fine age, taken generally, were in education and a name, is the only attempt I know ever made accomplishment of mind to the men. Of course to reduce all knowledges into harmony. It there were brilliant exceptions enough, but the opposes no other system, but shows what was plays of Beaumont and Fletcher--the most true in each; and how that which was true in popular dramatists that ever wrote for the Eng. the particular, in each of them became error, lish stage—will show us what sort of women it because it was only half the truth. I have en was generally pleasing to represent. Certainly deavoured to unite the insulated fragments of the language of the two friends, Musidorus and truth, and therewith to frame a perfect mirror. Pyrocles, in the “Arcadia" is such as we could I show to each system that I fully understand not now use except to women; and in Cervantes and rightfully appreciate what that system the same tone is sometimes adopted, as in the means; but then I lift up that system to a novel of the “Curious Impertinent." And I higher point of view, from which I enable it to think there is a passage in the “ New Atlantis” see its former position, where it was, indeed, but of Lord Bacon, in which he speaks of the possiunder another light and with different relations : | bility of such a feeling, but hints the extreme - so that the fragment of truth is not only danger of entertaining it, or allowing it any acknowledged, but explained. Thus the old place in a moral theory. I mention this with astronomers discovered and maintained much reference to Shakespeare's sonnets, which have that was true ; but because they were placed on been supposed, by some, to be addressed to a false ground, and looked from a wrong point of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, whorn view, they never did, they never could, discover Clarendon calls the most beloved man of his age, the truth-that is, the whole truth. As soon as though his licentiousness was equal to his they left the earth, their false centre, and took virtues. I doubt this. I do not think that their stand in the sun, immediately they saw Shakespeare, merely because he was an actor, the whole system in its true light, and their would have thought it necessary to veil his emoformer station remaining, but remaining as a | tions towards Pembroke under a disguise, part of the prospect. I wish, in short, to con- though he might probably have done so, if the nect by a moral copula natural history with real object had percbance been a Laura or a political history; or, in other words, to niake Leonora. It seems to me that the sonnets could history scientific, and science historical—to take only have come from a man deeply in love, and from history its accidentality, and from science
| in love with a woman ; and there is one sonnet its fatalism.
which, from its incongruity, I take to be a pur
posed blind. These extraordinary sonnets form, GENIUS FEMININE–PIRATES. in fact, a poem of so many stanzas of fourteen __'s face is almost the only exception I lines each ; and, like the passion which inspired know to the observation that something femi- | them, the sonnets are always the same, with nine-pot effeminate mind-is discoverable in a variety of expression, -continuous, if you the countenances of all men of genius. Look at
u men of genius Look at regard the lover's soul,-distinct, if you listen the face of old Dampier, a rough sailor, but a
to him, as he heaves them sigh after sigh. man of exquisite mind. How soft is the air of
These sonnets, like the “Venus and Adonis," his countenance, how delicate the shape of his and the “Rape of Lucrece," are diaracterised temples !
by boundless fertility and laboured condensation
of thought, with perfection of sweetness in I think it very absurd and misplaced to call | rhythm and metre. These are the essentials in Paleigh and Drake, and others of our naval the budding of a great poet. Afterwards habit heroes of Elizabeth's age, pirates. No man is
| and consciousness of power teach more easea pirate, unless his contemporaries agree to call | præcipitandum liberum spiritum. him so. Drake said—“The subjects of the
THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. King of Spain have done their best to ruin my country : ergo, I will try to ruin the King of I think St Paul's Epistle to the Romans the Spain's country." Would it not be silly to call most profound work in existence ; and I hardly the Argonauts pirates in our sense of the word ? believe that the writings of the old Stoics, now
lost, could have been deeper. Undoubtedly it SHAKESPEARE'S SONNETS. is, and must be, very obscure to ordinary I believe it possible that a man may, under readers; but some of the difficulty is accidental, certain states of the moral feeling, entertain arising from the form in which the Epistle appears. If we could now arrange this work in with such a book. But his bow-wow manner the way in which we may be sure St Paul would must have had a good deal to do with the effect himself do, were he now alive, and preparing it produced ; for no one, I suppose, will set Johnfor the press, his reasoning would stand out son before Burke—and Burke was a great and clearer. His accumulated parenthesis would be universal talker ; yet now we hear nothing of this thrown into notes, or extruded to the margin. , except by some chance remarks in Boswell. You will smile after this, if I say that I think I | The fact is, Burke, like all men of genius who understand St Paul ; and I think so, because love to talk at all, was very discursive and con. really and truly I recognise a cogent consecu- tinuous; hence he is not reported; he seldom tiveness in the argument—the only evidence I said the sharp short things that Johnson almost know that you understand any book. How always did, which produce a more decided effect different is the style of this intensely passionate at the moment, and which are so much more easy argument from that of the catholic circular charge to carry off. Besides, as to Burke's testimony called the Epistle to the Ephesians !—and how to Johnson's powers, you must remember that different that of both from the style of the Epistles Burke was a great courtier; and after all, Burke to Timothy and Titus, which I venture to call said and wrote more than once that he thought ÉTiotolal Havloeloeis.
Johnson greater in talking than in writing, and
greater in Boswell than in real life. DR JOHNSON-BOSWELL-BURKENEWTON-MILTON.
Newton was a great man, but you must excuse Dr Johnson's fame now rests principally upon me if I think that it would take many Newtons Boswell. It is impossible not to be amused to make one Milton.
CHARLES LAMB. BORN 1775: DIED 1834. (From the “ Essays of Elia,”* and the “ Last Essays of Elia.”)
still more sacred interiors of court and committee THE SOUTH-SEA HOUSE.
rooms, with venerable faces of beadles, doorREADER, in thy passage from the Bank-where keepers; directors seated in form on solemn thou hast been receiving thy half-yearly dividends days (to proclaim a dead dividend), at long (supposing thou art a lean annuitant like my worm-eaten tables, that have been mahogany, self)—to the Flower Pot to secure a place for with tarnished gilt-leather coverings, supporting Dalston, or Shacklewell, or some other suburban massy silver inkstands long since dry; the oaken retreat northerly, didst thou never observe a wainscots hung with pictures of deceased gover. melancholy-looking, handsome, brick and stone nors and subgovernors, of Queen Anne, and the edifice, to the left-where Threadneedle Street two first monarchs of the Brunswick dynasty; abuts upon Bishopsgate! I dare say thou hast huge charts, which subsequent discoveries have often admired its magnificent portals ever gap- antiquated ; dusty maps of Mexico, dim as ing wide, and disclosing to view a grave court, | dreams, and soundings of the Bay of Panama ! with cloisters, and pillars, with few or no traces the long passages hung with buckets, appended, of goers-in or comers-out-a desolation some- in idle row, to walls whose substance might defy thing like Balclutha's.t
any, short of the last, conflagration: with vast This was once a house of trade, a centre of busy ranges of cellarage under all, where dollars and interests. The throng of merchants was here | pieces of eight once lay, an "unsunned heap," for the quick pulse of gain--and here some forms of Mammon to have solaced his solitary heart withal, business are still kept up, though the soul be long since dissipated, or scattered into air at the long since fled. Here are still to be seen stately | blast of the breaking of that famous BUBBLE porticos; imposing staircases, offices roomy as Such is the South-SEA HOUSE. At least, the state apartments in palaces-deserted, or such it was forty years ago, when I knew itthinly peopled with a few straggling clerks; the a magnificent relic! What alterations may have
been made in it since, I have had no opportunities * The first series of these popular essays appeared of verifying. Time, I take for granted, has not in the London Magazine between August 1820 and
freshened it. No wind has resuscitated the face October 1832 ; the second series, between May 1823 and August 1825.
of the sleeping waters. A thicker crust by this "I passed by the walls of Balclutha, and they were time stagnates upon it. The moths, that were desolate."--Ossian.
ther' battening upon its obsolete ledgers and day
books, have rested from their depredations, but Humorists, for they were of all descriptions; other light generations have succeeded, making and not having been brought together in early fine fret-work among their single and double | life (which has a tendency to assimilate the entries. Layers of dust have accumulated (a members of corporate bodies to each other), but superfætation of dirt !) upon the old layers, that for the most part, placed in this house in ripe or seldom used to be disturbed, save by some curi. middle age, they necessarily carried into it their ous finger, now and then, inquisitive to explore separate habits and oddities, unqualified, if I the mode of bookkeeping in Queen Anne's reign; may so speak, as into a common stock. Hence or, with less hallowed curiosity, seeking to un they formed a sort of Noah's ark. Odd fishes. veil some of the mysteries of that tremendous À lay monastery. Domestic retainers in a great Hoax, whose extent the petty peculators of our house, kept more for show than use. Yet day look back upon with the same expression of pleasant fellows, full of chat, and not a few incredulous admiration, and hopeless ambition among them had arrived at considerable proof rivalry, as would become the puny face of ficiency on the German flute. modern conspiracy contemplating the Titan size The cashier at that time was one Evans, a of Vaux's superhuman plot.
Cambro-Briton. He had something of the cholPeace to the manes of the BUBBLE/ Silence eric complexion of his countryman stamped on and destitution are upon thy walls, proud house, his visage, but was a worthy sensible man at for a memorial !
bottom. He wore his hair, to the last, powdered Situated as thou art, in the very heart of stir. and frizzed out, in the fashion which I remember ring and living commerce-amid the fret and | to have seen in caricatures of what were termed sever of speculation—with the Bank, and the in my young days Maccaronies. He was the Change, and the India-house about thee, in the last of that race of beaux. Melancholy as a gib. hey-day of present prosperity, with their impor.cat over his counter all the forenoon, I think I tant faces, as it were, insulting thee, their poor see him, making up his cash (as they call it) with neighbour out of business—to the idle and merely tremulous fingers, as if he feared every one about conteniplative, to such as me, old house! there him was a defaulter; in his hypochondry ready is a charm in thy quiet, a cessation, a coolness to imagine himself one; haunted, at least, with from business, an indolence almost cloistral, the idea of the possibility of his becoming one; which is delightful! With what reverence have his tristful visage clearing up a little over his I paced thy great bare rooms and courts at even roast neck of veal at Anderton's at two (where tide! They spoke of the past:-the shade of his picture still hangs, taken a little before his some dead accountant, with visionary pen in ear, death by desire of the master of the coffee-house, would flit by me, stiff as in life. Living accounts which he had frequented for the last five-andand accountants puzzle me. I have no skill in twenty years), but not attaining the meridian of figuring. But thy great dead tomes, which scarce its animation till evening brought on the hour three degenerate clerks of the present day could of tea and visiting. The simultaneous sound of lift from their enshrining shelves with their old his well-known rap at the door with the stroke fantastic flourishes, and decorative rubric inter of the clock announcing six, was a topic of neverlacings—their sums in triple columniations, set failing mirth in the families which this dear old down with formal superfluity of ciphers—with | bachelor gladdened with his presence. Then pious sentences at the beginning, without which was his forte his glorified hour! How would be our religious ancestors never ventured to open a chirp, and expand, over a muffin! How would book of business, or bill of lading-the costly he dilate into secret history. His countryman, vellum covers of some of them almost persuading Pennant himself, in particular, could not be more us that we are got into some better library,-are eloquent than he in relation to old and new very agreeable and edifying spectacles. I can | London-the site of old theatres, churches, look upon these defunct dragons with com- streets gone to decay, where Rosamond's Pond placency. Thy heavy odd-shaped ivory-handled stood, the Mulberry gardens, and the conduit in pen-knives (our ancestors had everything on a Cheap-with many a pleasant anecdote, derived larger scale than we have hearts for) are as good from paternal tradition, of those grotesque figures as anything from Herculaneum. The pounce- which Hogarth has immortalised in his picture boxes of our days have gone retrograde.
of Noon, the worthy descendants of thase heroic The very clerks which I remember in the confessors, who, flying to this country, from the South-Sea House-I speak of forty years back wrath of Louis XIV. and his dragoons, kept alive had an air very different from those in the public the flame of pure religion in the sheltering offices that I have had to do with since. They obscurities of Hog Lane, and the vicinity of the partook of the genius of the place!
Seven Dials! They were mostly (for the establishment did Deputy, under Evans, was Thomas Tame. not admit of superfluous salaries) bachelors. He had the air and stoop of a nobleman. You
Generally (for they had not much to do) per- would have taken him for one, had you met him | sons of a curious and speculative turn of mind. in one of the passages leading to Westminster
Old-fashioned, for a reason mentioned before. Hall. By stoop, I mean that gentle bending of
the body forwards, which, in great men, must dend warrants. The striking of the annual be supposed to be the effect of an habitual con balance in the company's books (which, perhaps, descending attention to the applications of their differed from the balance of last year in the sum inferiors. While he held you in converse, you of £25, Is. 6d.) occupied his days and nights for felt strained to the height in the colloquy. The a month previous. Not that Tipp was blina to conference over, you were at leisure to smile at the deadness of things (as they call them in the the comparative insignificance of the pretensions city) in his beloved house, or did not sigh for 3 which had just awed you. His intellect was of return to the old stirring days when South-Sea the shallowest order. It did not reach to a saw hopes were young (he was indeed equal to the or a proverb. His mind was in its original state wielding of any the most intricate accounts of of white paper. A sucking-babe might have the most flourishing company in these or those posed him. What was it then? Was he rich ? days) : but to a genuine accountant the differAlas, no! Thomas Tame was very poor. Both ence of proceeds is as nothing. The fractional he and his wife looked outwardly gentlefolks, farthing is as dear to his heart as the thousands when I fear all was not well at all times within. which stand before it. He is the true actor, She had a neat meagre person, which it was who, whether his part be a prince or a peasant, evident she had not sinned in over-pampering ; | must act it with like intensity. With Tipp form but in its veins was noble blood. She traced was everything. His life was formal. His her descent, by some labyrinth of relationship, actions seemed ruled with a ruler. His pen which I never thoroughly understood, much less was not less erring than his heart. He made can explain with any heraldic certainty at this the best executor in the world; he was plagued time of day, to the illustrious but unfortunate with incessant executorships accordingly, which house of Derwentwater. This was the secret of excited his spleen and soothed his vanity in Thomas's stoop. This was the thought, the equal ratios. He would swear (for Tipp swore) sentiment, the bright solitary star of your lives, at the little orphans, whose rights he would ye mild and happy pair, which cheered you in guard with a tenacity like the grasp of the dying the night of intellect, and in the obscurity of hand, that commended their interests to his proyour station! This was to you instead of riches, | tection. With all this there was about him a instead of rank, instead of glittering attainments: sort of timidity (his few enemies used to give it and it was worth them all together. You insult.) a worse name), a something which, in reference ed none with it; but, while you wore it as a to the dead, we will place, if you please, a little piece of defensive armour only, no insult like on this side of the heroic. Nature certainly had wise could reach you through it. Decus et sola- been pleased to endow John Tipp with a suffimen,
cient measure of the principle of self-preserva. Of quite another stamp was the then account. tion. There is a cowardice which we do not ant, John Tipp. He neither pretended to high despise, because it has nothing base or treacherblood, nor, in good truth, cared one fig about ous in its elements; it betrays itself, not you: the matter. He “thought an accountant the it is mere temperament; the absence of the greatest character in the world, and himself the romantic and the enterprising; it sees a lion in greatest accountant in it.” Yet John was not the way, and will not, with Fortinbras, “greatly without his hobby. The fiddle relieved his find quarrel in a straw," when some supposed vacant hours. He sang, certainly, with other honour is at stake. Tipp never mranted the notes than to the Orphean lyre. He did, in- | box of a stage-coach in his life; or leaned against deed, scream and scrape most abominably. His the rails of a balcony; or walked upon the fine suite of official rooms in Threadneedle Street, ridge of a parapet; or looked down a preci. which, without anything very substantial ap pice; or let off a gun; or went upon a waterpended to them, were enough to enlarge a man's party; or would willingly let you go, if he could notions of himself that lived in them (I know have helped it: neither was it recorded of him, not who is the occupier of them now), resounded that for lucre, or for intimidation, he ever for. fortnightly to the notes of a concert of “sweet sook friend or principle. breasts,” as our ancestors would have called! Whom next shall we summon from the dusty them, culled from club-rooms and orchestras, dead, in whom common qualities become unchorus-singers, first and second violoncellos, common? Can I forget thee, Henry Man, the double basses, and clarionets, who ate his cold wit, the polished man of letters, the author, mutton and drank his punch, and praised his of the South-Sea House ! who never enteredst ear. He sat like Lord Midas among them. thy office in a morning, or quittedst it in midBut as the desk Tipp was quite another sort day-(what didst thou in an office ?)—without of creature. Thence all ideas, that were some quirk that left a sting! Thy gibes and purely ornamental, were banished. You could thy jokes are now extinct, or survive but in two not speak of anything romantic without re- forgotten volumes, which I had the good fortune buke. Politics were excluded. A newspaper to rescue from a stall in Barbican, not three was thought too refined and abstracted. The days ago, and found thee terse, fresh, epigramwhole duty of man consisted in writing off divi. matic, as alive. Thy wit is a little gone by in