Imagens das páginas

The longé day I shope * me for to abide

“A nun demure, of lowly port:
For nothing ellis, and I shall not lie,

Or sprightly maiden of Love's court,
But for to look upon the daisie,

In thy simplicity the sport
That well by reason men it callé may

Of all temptations;
The daisie, or else the eye of day.”

A queen in crown of rubies drest;

A starveling in a scanty vest; This etymology, which we have no doubt is the

Are all, as seem to suit thee best, real one, is repeated by Ben Jonson, who takes

Thy appellations. occasion to spell the word “days-eyes;" adding,

A little Cyclops, with one eye, with his usual tendency to overdo a matter of

Staring to threaten or defylearning:

That thought comes next, and instantly “ Days-eyes, and the lippes of cows ;"

The freak is over;

The shape will vanish, and behold ! videlicit, cowslips: which is a disentanglement

A silver shield with boss of gold, of compounds, in the style of our pleasant

That spreads itself, some fairy bold parodists:

In fight to cover. “Puddings of the plum,

I see thee glittering from afar; And fingers of the lady."

And then thou art a pretty star,

Not quite so fair as many are Mr Wordsworth introduces his homage to the

In heaven above thee ! daisy with a passage from George Wither; which,

Yet like a star, with glittering crest, as it is an old favourite of ours, and extremely

Self-poised in air, thou seem'st to rest : applicable both to this new article and our whole

May peace come never to his nest

Who shall reprove thee. work, we cannot deny ourselves the pleasure of repeating. It is the more interesting inasmuch as “Sweet flower! for by that name at last, it was written in prison, where the freedom of his

When all my reveries are past, opinions had thrown him.t He is speaking of

I call thee, and to that cleave fast;

Sweet silent creature ! his muse, or imagination.

That breath'st with me in sun and air,
Her divine skill taught me this;

Do thou, as thou are wont, repair
That from everything I saw

My heart with gladness, and a share
I could some inyention draw,

Of thy meek nature !”
And raise pleasure to her lieight
Through the meanest object's siglit;

Mr Wordsworth calls the daisy “an unassum-
By the murmur of a spring,

ing commonplace of Nature," which it is; and Or the least bough's rustelling;

he praises it very becomingly for discharging its By a daisy, whose leaves spread

duties so cheerfully, in that universal character. Shut when Titan goes to bed :

But we cannot agree with him in thinking that Or a shady bush or tree;

it has a “homely face." Not that we should She could more infuse in me

care if it really had, for homeliness does not Than all nature's beauties can In some other wiser man."

make ugliness; but we appeal to everybody

whether it is proper to say this of "la belle Mr Wordsworth undertakes to patronise the Marguerite.” In the first place, its shape is very celandine, because nobody else will notice it; pretty and slender, but not too much so. Then which is a good reason. But though he tells us, it has a boss of gold, set round and irradiated in a startling piece of information, that

with silver points. Its yellow and fair white are “Poets, vain men in their mood,

in so high a taste of contrast that Spenser has Travel with the multitude,"

chosen the same colours for a picture of Leda yet he falls in with his old brethren of England

reposing: and Normandy, and becomes loyal to the daisy.

“Oh wondrous skill and sweet wit of the man !

That her in daffodillies sleeping made,
“Be violets in their secret mews

From scorching heat her dainty limbs to shade."
The flowers the wanton Zephyrs choose ;
Proud be the rose, with rains and dews

It is for the same reason, that the daisy, being
Her head impearling :

chiefly white, makes such a beautiful show in Thou livest with less ambitious aim,

company with the buttercup. But this is not Yet hast not gone without thy fame;

all; for look at the back, and you find its fair Thou art indeed, by many a claim, The poet's darling.

petals blushing with a most delightful red. And how compactly and delicately is the neck set in green! “Belle et douce Marguerite, aimable

soeur du roi Kingcup !” we would tilt for thee * Shaped.

with a hundred pens, against the stoutest poet It is not generally known that Chaucer was four years in prison, in his old age, on the same account.

that did not find perfection in thy cheek. He was a Wickliffite-one of the precursors of the

But here somebody may remind us of the Reformation. His prison, doubtless, was no dimin spring showers, and what drawbacks they are isher of his love of the daisy.

upon going into the fields. Not at all so, when

the spring is really confirmed, and the showers | this as on other occasions ; at least, as far as the but April-like and at intervals. Let us turn our meditative power is concerned ; for there is an imaginations to the bright side of spring, and excellent reasoner, now living, who, telling anwe shall forget the showers. You see they have other that he was not fond of the wilder parts of been forgotten just this moment. Besides, we the “Arabian Nights,” was answered, with are not likely to stray too far into the fields; I great felicity, “Then you never dream;"and if we should, are there not hats, bonnets, which, it turned out, was actually the case. barns, cottages, elm-trees, and good wills? We Here the link is totally lost that connects a may make these things zests, if we please, tendency to indigestion with thinking on the instead of drawbacks.

one hand, and dreaming on the other. If we

are to believe Herodotus, the Atlantes, an OF DREAMS.

African people, never dreamt; which Montaigne

is willing to attribute to their never having The materialists and psychologists are at issue eaten anything that died of itself. It is to be upon the subject of dreams. The latter hold | presumed that he looked upon their temperance them to be one among the many proofs of the as a matter of course. The same philosopher, existence of a soul; the former endeavour to who was a deep thinker, and of a delicate conaccount for them upon principles altogether stitution, informs us that he himself dreamt corporeal. We must own that the effect of but sparingly; but then, when he did, his their respective arguments, as is usual with us dreams were fantastic, though cheerful. This on these occasions, is not so much to satisfy us is the very triumph of the animal spirits, to with either as to dissatisfy us with both. The unite the strangeness of sick dreams with the psychologist, with all his struggles, never cheerfulness of healthy ones. To these excepappears to be able to get rid of his body; and tions against the usual theories, we may add the materialist leaves something extremely defi that dreams, when they occur, are by no means cient in the vivacity of his proofs by his ignor- modified of necessity by what the mind has been ance of that Primum Mobile which is the soul of occupied with in the course of the day, or even everything. In the meantime, while they go of months ; for during our two years' confineon with their laudable inquiries (for which we ment in prison, we have a strong recollection have a very sincere respect), it is our business to that we did not dream more than twice of our go on recommending a taste for results as well chief subjects of reflection, the prison itself not as causes, and turning everything to account in excepted. The two dreams were both about the this beautiful star of ours, the earth, whether latter, and both the same. We fancied that we body or soul. There is no reason why the most had slipped out of jail, and gone to the theatre, learned investigator of the most subtle mysteries where we were much horrified by seeing the should not enjoy his existence, and have his faces of the whole audience unexpectedly turned earthly dreams made as pleasant as possible ; upon us. and for our parts we see nothing at present, ! It is certain enough, however, that dreams in either in body or soul, but a medium for a world general proceed from indigestion ; and it appears of perceptions, the very unpleasantest of whose nearly as much so, that they are more or less dreams are but warnings to us how we depart strange according to the waking fancy of the from the health and natural piety of the pleasant | dreamer. ones. What seems incontrovertible in the case of

“All dreams, as in old Galen I have read,

Are from repletion and complexion bred, dreams is, that they are most apt to take place

From rising fumes of indigested food, when the body is most affected. They seem to And noxious humours that infect the blood. turn most upon us, when the suspension of the When choler overflows, then dreams are bred will has been reduced to its most helpless state Of flames, and all the family of red. by indulgence. The door of the fancy is left

Choler adust congeals the blood with fear: without its keeper; and forth issue, pell-mell,

Then black bulls toss us, and black devils tear.

Ip sanguine airy dreams aloft we bound; the whole rout of ideas or images, which had

With rheums oppressed we sink, in rivers drowned." been previously stored within the brain, and

-Dryden's "Cock and the Fox," from Chaucer. kept to their respective duties. They are like a school let loose, or the winds in Virgil, or Lord | Again, in another passage which is worth quote Anson's drunken sailors at Panama, who dressed ing instead of the original, and affords a good themselves up in all sorts of ridiculous apparel ; terse specimen of the author's versification : only they are far more wild, winged, and fantastic,

“Dreams are but interludes which Fancy makes;

When monarch Reason sleeps, this mimic wakes; We were about to say that, being writers, we

Compounds a medley of disjointed things, are of necessity dreamers; for thinking disposes

A mob of cobblers and a court of kings. * the bodily faculties to be more than usually affected by the causes that generally produce

* Perhaps a misprint for dreaming. But extremes appear to meet on “A court of cobblers and a mob of kings."

Light fumes are merry, grosser fumes are sad, and who are followed by some of the others, Both are the reasonable soul run mad;

that bring him good or bad news, generally And many monstrous forms in sleep we see,

false ; for the inhabitants of that city are for the That neither were, nor are, nor e'er can be.

most part a lying and crafty gencration, speak. Sometimes forgotten things long cast behind

ing one thing, and thinking another. This is Rush forward in the brain, and come to mind.

having a new advantage over us. Only think of The nurse's legends are for truths received, And the man dreams but what the boy believed. the mental reservation of a dream! Sometimes we but rehearse a former play:

If Lucian had divided his city into ranks and The night restores our actions done by day,

denominations, he might possibly have classed As hounds in sleep will open for their prey.

them under the general heads of Dreams Lofty, In short, the farce of dreams is of a piece,

Dreams Ludicrous, Dreams Pathetic, Dream, Chimeras all; and more absurd, or less."

Horrible, Dreams Bodily Painful or Pleasant, It is probable, at the same time, that a trivial | Dreams of Common Life, Dreams of New Aspecto degree of indigestion will give rise to very of Humanity, Dreams Mixed, Fantastic, and fantastic dreams in a fanciful mind; while on utterly Confused. He speaks of winged ones; the other hand a good orthodox repletion is which is judicious, for they are very common; necessary towards a fanciful creation in a dull but unless Natalis Comes, who is not a very one. It shall make an epicure, of any vivacity, bright person, misrepresents him, he makes them act as many parts in his sleep as a tragedian, of the melancholy class, which in general they “for that night only.” The inspirations of veal are not. in particular are accounted extremely Delphic: “In sanguine airy dreams aloft we bound." Italian pickles partake of the spirit of Dante; and a butter-boat shall contain as many ghosts

Nothing is more common, or usually more pleaas Charon's.

sant, than to dream of flying. It is one of the There is a passage in Lucian which would have

best specimens of the race; for, besides being made a good subject for those who painted the

agreeable, it is made up of the dreams of ordinary temptations of the saints. It is a description of

life, and those of surprising combination. Thus the City of Dreams, very lively and crowded.

the dreamer sometimes thinks he is flying in We quote after Natalis Comes, not having the

unknown regions, sometimes skimming only a true history by us. The city, we are told, stands

few inches above the gronnd, and wondering he in an immense plain, surrounded by a thick

never did it before. He will even dream that forest of tall poppy trees, and enormous man.

he is dreaming about it, and yet is so fully condragoras. The plain is also full of all sorts of

vinced of its feasibility, and so astonished at his somniculous plants; and the trees are haunted

never having hit upon so delightful a truism, with multitudes of owls and bats, but no other

that he is resolved to practise it the moment he bird. The city is washed by the river Lethe,

wakes. “One has only," says he, “just to give called by others the Night-bringer, whose course

a little spring with one's foot-so-and-oh it's is inaudible and like the flowing of oil. (Spen.

the easiest and most obvious thing in the world. ser's follower, Browne, has been here :

I'll always skim hereafter." We once dreamt

that a woman set up some flying rooms, as 3 “Where consort none other fowl

person does a tavern. We went to try them; Than the bat and sullen owl ;

and nothing could be more satisfactory and Where flows Lethe without coil,

commonplace on all sides. The landlady wel. Softly, like a stream of oil."

comed us with a courtesy, hoped for friends and --Inner Temple Mask.)

favours, etc., and then showed us into a spacious There are two gates to the city: one of horn, in room, not round, as might be expected, but which almost everything that can happen in long, and after the usual dining fashion. “Per. sleep is represented, as in a transparency; the haps, sir," said she, “you would like to try the other of ivory, in which the dreams are but room ;" upon which we made no more ado, but dimly shadowed. The principal temple is that sprung up and made two or three genteel circuits, of Night; and there are others, dedicated to now taking the height of it like a house-lark, Truth and Falsehood, who have oracles. The and then cutting the angles like a swallow. population consists of Dreams, who are of an “Very pretty flying indeed," said we, “and infinite variety of shape. Some are small and very moderate." slender; others distorted, humped, and mon- A house for the purpose of taking flights in, strous; others very proper and tall, with bloom- when the open air was to be had for nothing, is ing, good-tempered faces. Others again hare fantastic enough; but what shall we say to those terrible countenances, are winged, and seem confoundings of all time, place, and substance, eternally threatening the city with some which are constantly happening to persons of calamity; while others walk about in the pomp any creativeness of diaphragm ? Thus you shall and garniture of kings. If any mortal comes meet a friend in a gateway, who besides being into the place, there is a multitude of domestic your friend shall be your enemy; and besides Dreams, who meet him with offers of service; being Jones or Tomkins, shall be a bull; and

besides asking you in, shall oppose your entrance. consequently have wanted the general attention Nevertheless, you are not at all surprised; or if which the town are pleased to give or otherwise surprised, are only so at something not at all according to the injunctions of those gentlemen, surprising. To be Tomkins and a bull at once, we shall indulge ourselves in extracting the is the most ordinary of commonplaces; but that, whole of it. It is entitled “The Pains of being a bull, he should have horns, is what as- Sleep." tonishes you; and you are also amazed at his

“ Ere on my bed my limbs I lay, not being in Holborn or the Strand, where he

It hath not been my use to pray never lived. To be in two places at once is not

With moving lips or bended knees uncommon to a dreamer. He will also be young But silently, by slow degrecs, and old at the same time, a schoolboy and á My spirit I to love compose, man; will live many years in a few minutes,

In liumble trust mine eyelids closc, like the sultan who dipped his head in the tub

With reverential resignation, of water; will be full of zeal and dialogue upon

No wish conceived, no thought expressed !

Only a sense of supplication, some matter of indifference; go to the opera with

A sense, o'er all my soul imprest, a dish under his arm, to be in the fashion; talk

That I am weak, yet not unblest, faster in verse than prose; and ask a set of

Since in me, round me, everywhere, horses to a musical party, telling them that he Eternal Strength and Wisdom are. knows they will be pleased, because blue is the general wear, and Mozart has gone down to “But yester-night I prayel aloud Gloucestershire to fit up a house for Epami

In anguish and in agony,

Upstarting from the fiendish crowd nondas.

Of shapes and thoughts that tortured me: It is a curious proof of the concern which body

A Juriil light, a trampling throng, has in these vagaries, that when you dream of

Sense of intolerable wrong, any particular limb being in pain, you shall And whom I scorned, those only strong! often have gone to sleep in a posture that affects Thirst of revenge, the powerless will it. A weight on the feet will produce dreams in

Still bamled, and yet burning still! which you are rooted to the ground, or caught

Desire with loathing strangely mixed,

On wild or hateful objects fixed. by a goblin out of the earth. A cramped hand

Fantastic passions! madu’ning brawl! or leg shall get you tortured in the inquisition;

And shame and terror over all! and a head too much thrown back, give you the

Deeds to be hid which were not liid, sense of an interminable visitation of stifling. Which, all confused, I could not know

The nightmare, the heaviest punisher of reple Whether I suffered, or I did: tion, will visit some persons, merely for lying on

For all seemed guilt, remorse or woe, their backs; which shows how much it is con

My own or others still the same, cerned in a particular condition of the frame,

Life stilling fear, soul stilling shame! Sometimes it lies upon the chest like a vital

So two nights passed: the night's dismay lump. Sometimes it comes in the guise of a

Saddened and stunned the coming day. horrid dwarf, or malignant little hag, who grins

Sleep, the wide blessing, seemed to me in your teeth and will not let you rise. Its most Disteinper's worst calamity. common enormity is to pin you to the ground The third night, when my own loud scream with excess of fear, while something dreadful

Had waked me from the fiendish dream, is coming up, a goblin or a mad bull. Some

O'ercome with suffering strange and wild,

I wept as I had been a child; times the horror is of a very elaborate descrip

And having thus by tears subdued tion, such as being spell-bound in an old house,

My apguish to a milder mood, which has a mysterious and shocking possessor.

Such punishments, I said, were due He is a gigantic deformity, and will pass pre

To nature's deepliest stained with sin: sently through the room in which you are sitting. For aye entempesting anew He comes, not a giant, but a dwarf, of the most Th'unfathomable hell within, strange and odious description, hairy, spider

The horror of their deeds to view,

To know and loathe, yet wish and do ! like, and chuckling. His mere passage is un.

Such griefs with such men well agree, bearable. The agony rises at every step. You

But wherefore, wherefore fall on me? would protest against so malignant a sublima

To be beloved is all I need, tion of the shocking, but are unable to move or

And whom I love, I love indeed." speak. At length, you give loud and long-drawn groa ns, and start up with a preternatural effort, This is the dream of a poet, and does not end awake.

with the question of a philosopher. We do not Mr Coleridge, whose sleeping imagination pretend to determine why we should have any seems proportioned to his waking, has described pains at all. It is enough for us, in our attempt a fearful dream of mental and bodily torture. to diminish them, that there are more pleasant As the beautiful poems of “Christabel,” etc., than painful excitements in the world, and that which accompany it, seem to have been too many pains are the causes of pleasure. But imaginative to be understood by the critics, and what if these pains are for the same end! What if all this heaping and war of agonies were owing If horrible and fantastic dreams are the most to the author's having taken too little exercise, perplexing, there are pathetic ones perhaps still or eaten a heavier supper than ordinary? But more saddening. A friend dreaming of the loss then the proportion! What proportion, it may of his friend, or a lover of that of his mistress, be asked, is there between the sin of neglected or a kinsman of that of a dear relation, is steeped exercise and such infernal visitations as these? in the bitterness of death. To wake and find it We answer—the proportion, not of the particu- not true, what a delicious sensation is that! On lar offence, but of the general consequences. We the other hand, to dream of a friend or a beloved have before observed, but it cannot be repeated relative restored to us, to live over again the too often, that nature, charitable as any poet or hours of childhood at the knee of a beloved philosopher can be upon the subject of merit and mother, to be on the eve of marrying an affecdemerit, etc., seems to insist, beyond anything | tionate mistress, with a thousand other joys else, upon our taking care of the mould in which snatched back out of the grave, and too painful she has cast us; or, in other words, of that to dwell upon, what a dreary rush of sensation ground-work of all comfort, that box which con comes like a shadow upon us when we wake! tains the jewel of existence, our health. On How true, and divested of all that is called conturning to the preceding poem in the book, ceit in poetry, is that termination of Milton's entitled “Kubla Khan,” we perceive that in his sonnet on dreaming of his deceased wife ! introduction to that pleasanter vision the author

“But oh, as to embrace me she inclined, speaks of the present one as the dream of pain

I waked; she fled; and day brought back my nigh:." and disease. “Kubla Khan," which was meditated under the effects of opium, he calls, “a We wonder that so good and cordial a critic as psychological curiosity.” It is so; but it is also, Warton should think this a mere conceit on his and still more, a somatological or bodily one; blindness. An allusion to his blindness may or for body will effect these things upon the mind, may not be involved in it; but the sense of rewhen the mind can do no such thing upon itself; turning shadow on the mind is quite true to and therefore the shortest, most useful, and most nature on such occasions, and must have been philosophical way of proceeding, is to treat the experienced by every one who has lost a person phenomenon in the manner most serviceable to dear to him. There is a beautiful sonnet by the health and comfort of both. We subjoin the Camoens on a similar occasion; a small canzono conclusion of “Kubla Khan," as beginning with | by Sanazzaro, which ends with sayingthat an exquisite piece of music, and ending with a although he waked and missed his lady's hand most poetical phantasm :

in his, he still tried to cheat himself by keeping

his eyes shut; and three divine dreams of Laura "A damsel with a dulcimer,

by Petrarch, sonnet 34, vol. ii., son. 79, b., and In a vision once I saw,

the canzone beginning-
It was an Abyssinian maid,
And on her dulcimer she played,

“Quando il soave mio fido conforto."
Singing of Mount Abora.

But we must be cautious how we even thick “ Could I revive within me

of the poets on this most poetical subject, or wo Her symphony and song, To such a deep delight 'twould win me.

shall write three articles instead of one. As it That with music loud and long,

is, we have not left ourselves room for some very I would build that dome in air,

agreeable dreams, which we meant to have taken That sunny dome! those caves of ice : between these our gallant and imaginative sheets. And all who heard should see them there,

They must be interrupted, as they are too apt to And all should cry, Beware, beware,

be, like the young lady's in “ The Adventures of His flashing eyes, his floating hair!

a Lap Dog," who, blushing divinely, had just Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread;

uttered the 'words, “My lord, I am wholly For he on honey-dew hath fedl,

yours," when she was awaked by the jumping And drunk the milk of Parudise."

| up of that officious little puppy.


(From The English Mail-Coach," etc.)

| ditions of society, sudden death has been veriTHE VISION OF SUDDEN DEATH.

ously regarded as the consummation of an What is to be taken as the predominant opinion earthly career most fervently to be desired, or, of man, reflective and philosophic, upon SUDDEN again, as that consummation which is with most: DEATH? It is remarkable that, in different con- | horror to be deprecated. Cæsar the Dictator,

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