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pencil; for that can speak to the understanding; would I tell a green writer all his faults, lest I the other but to the sense. They both behold should make him grieve and faint, and at last pleasure and profit as their common object; but despair. For nothing doth more hurt than to should abstain from all base pleasures, lest they make him so afraid of all things, as he can should ert from their end, and while they seek | endeavour nothing. Therefore youth ought to to better men's minds, destroy their manners. | be instructed betimes, and in the best things ; They both are born artificers, not made. Nature for we hold those longest we take soonest : as is more powerful in them than study.
the first scent of a vessel lasts, and the tinct the
wool first receives; therefore a master should PRECIPIENDI MODI. – I take this labour in temper his own powers, and descend to the teaching others, that they should not be always other's infirmity. If you pour a glut of water to be taught, and I would bring my precepts upon a bottle, it receives little of it; but with into practice; for rules are ever of less force and a funnel, and by degrees, you shall fill many of value than experiments; yet with this purpose, them, and spill little of your own; to their rather to show the right way to those that come capacity they will all receive and be full. And after, than to detect any that have slipped before as it is fit to read the best authors to youth first, by error, and I hope it will be more profitable. so let them be of the openest and clearest. As For men do more willingly listen, and with more Livy before Sallust, Sidney before Donne : and favour, to precept than reprehension. Among beware of letting them taste Gower, or Chaucer divers opinions of an art, and most of them con- at first, lest falling too much in love with antitmry in themselves, it is hard to make election ; quity, and not apprehending the weight, they and therefore though a man cannot invent new grow rough and barren in language only. When things after so many, he may do a welcome work their judgments are firm, and out of danger, let yet to help posterity to judge rightly of the old them read both the old and the new; but no But arts and precepts avail nothing except nature less take heed that their new flowers and sweetbe beneficial and aiding. And therefore these ness do not corrupt as much as the others' drythings are no more written to a dull disposition, ness and squalor, if they choose not carefully. than rules of husbandry to a soil. No precepts Spenser, in affecting the ancients, wrote no lanwill profit a fool, no more than beauty will the guage; yet I would have him read for his matter, blind, or music the deaf. As we should take but as Virgil read Ennius. The reading of Homer care that our style in writing be neither dry nor and Virgil is counselled by Quintilian as the empty; we should look again it be not winding, | best way of informing youth and confirming mau. or wanton with far-fetched descriptions ; either For, besides that the mind is raised with the is a vice. But that is worse which proceeds out height and sublimity of such a verse, it takes of want, than that which riots out of plenty. spirit from the greatness of the matter, and is The remedy of fruitfulness is easy, but no labour tincted with the best things. Tragic and lyric will help the contrary; I will like and praise poetry is good too, and comic with the best, if some things in a young writer ; which yet, if he the manners of the reader be once in safety. In continue in, I cannot but justly hate him for the the Greek poets, as also in Plautus, we shall see same. There is a time to be given all things for the economy and disposition of poems better maturity, and that even your country husband. observed than in Terence; and the latter, who man can teach; who to a young plant will not thought the sole grace and virtue of their fable put the pruning knife, because it seems to fear the sticking in of sentences, as ours do the forcing the iron, as not able to admit the scar. No more in of jests.
ROBERT BURTON. BORN 1576: DIED 1640.
(From the " Anatomy of Melancholy." *)
these passions and perturbations of the mind: the PERTURBATION OF THE MIND
| chiefest cure consists in them. A quiet mind is RECTIFIED.
that voluptas or summum bonum of Epicurus ; WHOSOEVER he is that shall hope to cure this non dolere, curis vacare, animo tranquillo esse, malady in himself or any other, must first rectify not to grieve, but to want cares, and to have a quiet soul, is the only pleasure in the world, as what means? hic labor, hoc opus est. It is a Seneca truly recites his opinion, not that of eat- natural infirmity, a most powerful adversary. ing and drinking, which injurious Aristotle all men are subject to passions, and melancholy maliciously puts upon him, and for which he is above all others, as being distempered by their still mistaken, male audit et vapulat, slandered innate humours, abundance of choler adust, without a cause, and lashed by all posterity. weakness of parts, outward occurrences; and how “ Fear and sorrow, therefore, are especially to shall they be avoided ? the wisest men, greatest be avoided, and the inind to be mitigated with philosophers of most excellent wit, reason, judgmirth, constancy, good hope; vain terror, bad ment, divine spirits, cannot moderate themselves objects are to be removed, and all such persons in this behalf; such as are sound in body and mind, in whose companies they be not well pleased." | | Stoics, heroes, Homer's gods, all are passionate, Gualter Bruel, Fernelius, consil. 43, Mercurialis, and furiously carried sometimes, and how shall consil. 6, Piso, Jacchinus, cap. 15, in 9. Rhasis, we that are already crazed, fracti animis, sick in Capivaccius, Hildesheim, etc., all inculcate this body, sick in mind, resist? we cannot perform as an especial means of their cure, that their it. You may advise and give good precepts, as “minds be quietly pacified, vain conceits di. who cannot? But how shall they be put in verted, if it be possible, with terrors, cares, practice? I may not deny but our passions are fixed studies, cogitations, and whatsoever it is violent, and tyrannise of us, yet there be means that shall any way molest or trouble the soul,” to curb them ; though they be headstrong, they because that otherwise there is no good to be may be tamed, they may be qualified, if he done. “The body's mischiefs," as Plato proves, himself or his friends will but use their honest “proceed from the soul; and if the mind be not endeavours, or make use of such ordinary helps first satisfied, the body can never be cured." | as are commonly prescribed. Alcibiades raves (saith Maximus Tyrius) and is He himself (I say); from the patient himself sick, his furious desires carry him from Lyceus the first and chiefest remedy must be had; for if to the pleading-place, thence to the sea, so into he be averse, peevish, waspish, give way wholly Sicily, thence to Lacedæmon, thence to Persia, to his passions, will not seek to be helped, or be thence to Samos, then again to Athens ; Critias ruled by his friends, how is it possible he should tyranniseth over all the city ; Sardanapalus is be cured? But if he be willing, at least, gentle, love-sick; these men are ill-affected all, and can tractable, and desire his own good, no doubt but never be cured, till their minds be otherwise he may magnam morbi deponere partem, be qualified. Crato, therefore, in that often-cited eased at least, if not cured. He himself must counsel of his for a nobleman his patient, when do his utmost endeavour to resist and withstand he had sufficiently informed him in diet, air, the beginnings. Principiis obsta, “Give not exercise, Venus, sleep, concludes with these as water passage, no not a little" (Ecclus. xxv. 27). matters of greatest moment, Quod reliquum est, If they open a little, they will make a greater animae accidentia corrigantur, from which alone breach at length. Whatsoever it is that runneth proceeds melancholy; they are the fountain, the in his mind, vain conceit be it pleasing or dissubject, the hinges whereon it turns, and must pleasing, which so much affects or troubleth bim, necessarily be reformed. “For anger stirs choler, “by all possible means he must withstand it, expel heats the blood and vital spirits ; sorrow on the those vain, false, frivolous imaginations, absurd other side refrigerates the body, and extinguish. conceits, feigned fears and sorrows; from which," eth natural heat, overthrows appetite, hinders saith Piso, “this disease primarily proceeds, and concoction, dries up the temperature, and perverts takes his first occasion or beginning, by doing the understanding :” fear dissolves the spirits, something or other that shall be opposite unto infects the heart, attenuates the soul : and for them, thinking of something else, persuading by these causes all passions and perturbations must, reason, or howsoever to make a sudden alteration to the utmost of our power and most seriously, of them." Though he have hitherto run in a full be removed. Ælianus Montaltus attributes so career, and precipitated himself, following his much to them, “that he holds the rectification passions, giving reins to his appetite, let him of them alone to be sufficient to the cure of now stop upon a sudden, curb himself in; and melancholy in most patients.” Many are fully as Lemnius adviseth, “strive against with all cured when they have seen or heard, etc., enjoy his power, to the utmost of his endeavour, and their desires, or be secured and satisfied in their not cherish those fond imaginations, which so minds; Galen, the common master of them all, covertly creep into his mind, most pleasing and from whose fountain they fetch water, brags, lib. amiable at first, but bitter as gall at last, and so l, de san. tuend., that he, for his part, hath headstrong, that by no reason, art, counsel, or cured divers of this infirmity, solum animis ad persuasion, they may be shaken off." Though rectum institutis, by right settling alone of their he be far gone, and habituated unto such fantas. minds.
* "Burton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy' is in fact, richly-furnished mind. His book is a noble, woorly, thougb pot in name, a collection of essays about every- jungly, weedy territory-disorderly as chaos, and as thing that ever entered the author's far-ranging and full of pascent germs."-Anonymous.
| tical imaginations, yet as Tully and Plutarch ad. Yca, but you will here infer that this is vise, let him oppose, fortify, or prepare himself excellent good indeed if it could be done; but against them, by premeditation, reason, or as we how shall it be effected, by whom, what art, do by a crooked staff, bend himself another way.
"Tu tamen interea effugito quæ tristia mentem in the water the picture of a dug, with reason Solicitant, procul esse jube curasque metumque
overcame this conceit: quid cani cum balneo? Pallentem, ultrices iras, sint omnia læta."
what should a dog do in a bath? a mere conceit. “In the meantime expel them from my mind,
Thou thinkest thou hearest and seest devils, Pale fears, sad cares, and griefs which do it grind,
black men, etc., it is not so; it is thy corrupt Revengeful anger, pain and discontent,
phantasy; settle thine imagination; thou art Let all thy soul be set on merrimeut."
well. - Thou thinkest thou hast a great nose,
thou art sick, every man observes thee, laughs Curas tolles graves, irasci crede profanum. / thee to scorn; persuade thyself it is no such If it be idleness hath caused this infirmity, or | matter: this is fear only, and vain suspicion. that he perceive himself given to solitariness, to / Thou art discontent, thou art sad and heavy, but walk alone, and please himself with fond imagin- | why? upon what ground? consider of it: thou ation, let him by all means avoid it; it is a art jealous, timorous, suspicious; for what cause? bosom enemy, it is delightful melancholy, a examine it thoroughly; thou shalt find none at friend in show, but a secret devil, a sweet poison, all, or such as is to be contemned, such as thou it will in the end be his undoing ; let him go wilt surely deride, and contemn in thyself, when presently, task or set himself a work, get some
| it is past. Rule thyself then with reason; satisfy good company. If he proceed, as a gnat flies thyself; accustom thyself; wean thyself from about a candle so long till at length he burn his such fond conceits, vain fears, strong imagina. body, so in the end he will undo himself; if it tions, restless thoughts. Thou mayest do it; Est be any harsh object, ill company, let him pre- in nobis assuescere (as Plutarch saith): we may sently go from it. If by his own default, through frame ourselves as we will. As he that useth an ill diet, bad air, want of exercise, etc., let him upright shoe, may correct the obliquity or now begin to reforin himself. “It would be a crookedness by wearing it on the other side; we perfect remedy against all corruption, if,” as may overcome passions if we will. Quicquid sibi Roger Bacon hath it, “ we could but moderate | imperavit animus, cbtinuit (as Seneca saith) ourselves in those six non-natural things.” “If nulli tam ferti affectus, ut non disciplina per. it be any disgrace, abuse, temporal loss, calumny, domentur : whatsoever the will desires, she may death of friends, imprisonment, banishment, be command: no such cruel affections, but by dis. not troubled with it, do not fear, be not angry, cipline they may be tamed. Voluntarily thou grieve not at it, but with all courage sustain it" | wilt not do this or that, which thou oughtest (Gordonius, lib. 1. c. 15, de conser, vit.). Tu contra to do, or refrain, etc., but when thou art audentior ito. If it be sickness, ill success, or lashed like a dull jade, thou wilt reform it; any adversity that hath caused it, oppose an fear of a whip will make thee do or not do. Do invincible courage, “fortify thyself by God's that voluntarily then what thou canst do, and Word or otherwise,” mala bonis persuadenda, set must do by compulsion; thou mayest refrain if prosperity against adversity, as we refresh our thou wilt, and master thine affections. “As, in eyes by seeing some pleasant meadow, fountain, a city,” saith Melancthon, “they do by stubborn picture, or the like; recreate thy mind by some rebellious rogues, that will not submit themselves contrary object, with some more pleasing medi- to political judgment, compel them by force; so tation divert thy thoughts.
must we do by our affections. If the heart will Yea, but thou infer again, facile consilium not lay aside those vicious motions, and the damus aliis, we can easily give counsel to others; phantasy those fond imaginations, we have every man, as the saying is, can tame a shrew, another form of government to enforce and rebut he that hath her; si hic esses, aliter sentires; frain our outward members, that they be not led if you were in our misery, you would find it by our passions. If appetite will not obey, let otherwise; it is not easily perforined. We know the moving faculty overrule her; let her resist this to be true; we should moderate ourselves; and compel her to do otherwise." In an ague. but we are furiously carried; we cannot make the appetite would drink; sore eyes that itch use of such precepts; we are overcome, sick, would be rubbed; but reason saith no; and male sani, distempered, and habituated to these therefore the moving faculty will not do it. Our
courses; we can make no resistance; you may as phantasy would intrude a thousand fears, sus. | well bid him that is diseased, not to feel pain, as picions, chimeras upon us; but we have reason
a melancholy man not to fear, not to be sad: it to resist; yet we let it be overborne by our | is within his blood, his brains, his whole tempera- | appetite. “Imagination enforceth spirits, which
ture: it cannot be removed. But he may choose | by an admirable league of nature compel the whether he will give way too far unto it; he may nerves to obey, and they our several limbs:" we in some sort correct himself. A philosopher was give too much way to our passions. And as, to bitten with a mad dog; and, as the nature him that is sick of an ague, all things are disof that disease is to abhor all waters, and liquid tasteful and unpleasant, non ec cibi vitio, saith things, and to think still they see the picture of Plutarch, not in the meat, but in our taste: so a dog before them, he went, for all this, reluctante many things are offensive to us, not of themselves, se, to the bath, and seeing there (as he thought) | but out of our corrupt judgment, jealousy, sus.
picion, and the like; ve pull these mischiefs suffer in the meantime by it. He or he, or whom upon our own heads.
soever then labours of this malady, by all means If then our judgment be so depraved, our let him get some trusty friend, Semper habens reason overruled, will precipitated, that we can. Pylademque aliquem, cui curet Oresten, a Pylades, not seek our own good, or moderate ourselves, as to whom freely and securely he may open himin this disease commonly it is, the best way for self. For, as in all other occurrences, so it is in ease is to impart our misery to some friend, not this, si quis in coelum ascendisset, etc., as he to smother it up in our own breast; alitur vitium said in Tully, if à man had gone to heaven, crescitque, tegendo, etc., and that which was “seen the beauty of the skies," stars errant, most offensive to us, a cause of fear and grief, fixed, etc., insuavis erit admiratio, it will do quod nunc te coquit, another hell; for strangulat him no pleasure, except he have somebody to inclusus dolor, atque exostuat intus, grief con- impart to what he hath seen. It is the best thing cealed strangles the soul; but when as we shall in the world, as Seneca therefore adviseth in such but impart it to some discreet, trusty, loving a case, “to get a trusty friend, to whom we may friend, it is instantly removed by his counsel freely and sincerely pour out our secrets. Nohappily, wisdom, persuasion, advice, his good thing so delighteth and easeth the mind, as when means, which we could not otherwise apply unto we have a prepared bosom, to which our secrets ourselves. A friend's counsel is a charm; like may descend, of whose conscience we are assured mandrake wine, curas sopit; and as a bull that as our own, whose speech may ease our succouris tied to a fig-tree, becomes gentle on a sudden less estate, counsel relieve, mirth expel our (which some, saith Plutarch, interpret of good mourning, and whose very sight may be acceptwords), so is a savage, obdurate heart mollified able unto us." It was the counsel which that by fair speeches. “All adversity finds ease in politic Commineus gave to all princes, and others complaining," as Isidore holds, “and it is a distressed in mind, by occasion of Charles, Duke solace to relate it 'Ayaon de trapalpaois &OTLV of Burgundy, that was much perplexed, “first étalpov. Friends' confabulations are comfortable to pray to God, and lay himself open to Him, at all times, as fire in winter, shade in summer; / and then to some special friend, whom we hold quale sopor fessis in gramine, meat and drink to most dear, to tell all our grievances to him. Nohim that is hungry or athirst. Democritus's thing so forcible to strengthen, recreate, and heal collyrium is not so sovereign to the eyes, as this the wounded soul of a miserable man." is to the heart; good words are cheerful and powerful of themselves, but much more from
REMEDIES OF ALL MANNER OF friends, as so many props, mutually sustaining
DISCONTENTS. each other, like ivy and a wall, which Camerarius hath well illustrated in an emblem. Lenit Discontents and grievances are either general animum simplex vel sæpe narratio, the simple or particular; general are wars, plagues, dearths, narration many times easeth our distressed mind; famine, fires, inundations, unseasonable weather. and in the midst of greatest extremities, so
| epidemical diseases which aflict whole kingdoms, divers have been relieved, by exonerating them territories, cities : or peculiar to private men, as selves to a faithful friend; he sees that which cares, crosses, losses, death of friends, poverty, we cannot see for passion and discontent: he
ñ and discontent: he want, sickness, orbities, injuries, abuses, etc. pacifies our minds; he will ease our pain,
Generally all discontent, homines quatimur for. assuage our anger; Quanta inde voluptas, quanta
tunce salo. No condition free, quisque suos securitas, Chrysostom adds: what pleasure ! patimur manes. Even in the midst of our mirth what security by that means! “Nothing so and jollity, there is some grudging, some comavailable, or that so much refresheth the soul of plaint, as he saith, our life is a glucupricon, a man.” Tully, as I remember, in an epistle to bitter-sweet passion, honey and gall mixed tohis dear friend Atticus, much condoles the de gether, we are all miserable and discontent, who fect of such a friend. “I live here," saith he, can deny it? If all, and that it be a common «in a great city, where I have a multitude of calamity, an inevitable necessity, all distressed. acquaintance, but not a man of all that com
then as Cardan infers, “Who art thou that pany, with whom I dare familiarly breathe, or |
hopest to go free? Why dost thou not grieve freely jest. Wherefore I expect thee, I desire
thou art a mortal man, and not governor of the thee, I send for thee; for there be many things world ?” Ferre quam sortem patiuntur omnes. which trouble and molest me, which, had I but
Nemo recuset, “If it be common to all, why thee in presence, I could quickly disburden my
should one man be more disquieted than an. self of in a walking discourse." The like perad
other?” If thou alone wert distressed, it were venture may he and he say with that old man in indeed more irksome, and less to be endured; the comedy :
but when the calamity is common, comfort thy
self with this, thou hast more fellows, Solamen “Nemo est meorun amicorum hodie,
miseris socios habuisse doloris ; it is not thy sole Apud quem expromere occulta mea audeam;"
case, and why shouldst thou be so impatient? and much inconvenience may both he and he “Ay, but alas we are more miserable than others,
what shall we do? Besides private miseries, we fortune, Narsetes, that great Gonsalvus, and most live in perpetual fear and danger of common famous men's, that, as Jovius concludes, “it is enemies : we have Bellona’s whips, and pitiful almost fatal to great princes, through their own outcries, for epithalamiums: for pleasant music, default or otherwise circumvented with envy and that fearful noise of ordnance, drums, and war. malice, to lose their honours, and die contumelike trumpets still sounding in our ears; instead | liously.” It is so, still hath been, and ever will of nuptial torches, we have firing of towns and be, Nihil est ab omni parte beatum, cities; for triumphs, lamentations; for joy,
“ There's no perfection is 80 absolute, tears," "So it is and so it was, and so it ever
That some impurity doth pot pollute." will be. He that refuseth to see and hear, to
Whatsoever is under the moon is subject to corsuffer this, is not fit to live in this world and
ruption, alteration; and so long as thou livest knows not the common condition of all men, to
upon earth look not for other. “Thou shalt whom so long as they live, with a reciprocal
not here find peaceable and cheerful days, quiet course, joys and sorrows are annexed, and succeed
times, but rather clouds, storms, calumnies; such one another.” It is inevitable, it may not be
is our fate." And as those errant planets in their avoided, and why then shouldst thou be so much
distinct orbs have their several motions, sometroubled ? Grave nihil est homini quod fert
times direct, stationary, retrograde, in apogee, necessitas, as Tully deems out of an old poet,
perigee, oriental, occidental, combust, feral, free, “That which is necessary cannot be grievous.” |
and as our astrologers will, have their fortitudes If it be so, then comfort thyself in this, “that
and debilities, by reason of those good and bad whether thou wilt or no, it must be endured :”
irradiations, conferred to each other's site in the make a virtue of necessity, and conform thyself
heavens, in their terms, houses, case, detriments, to undergo it. Si longa est, levis est ; si gravis
etc. So we rise and fall in this world, ebb and est, brevis est. If it be long, it is light; if griev
flow, in and out, reared and dejected, lead & ous, it cannot last. It will away, dies dolorem
troublesome life, subject to many accidents and minuit, and if nought else, time will wear it
casualties of fortunes, variety of passions, infir. out; custom will ease it; oblivion is a common
mities as well from ourselves as others. medicine for all losses, injuries, griefs, and detri
Yea, but thou thinkest thou art more miser. ments whatsoever, "and when they are once
able than the rest, other men are happy but in past, this commodity comes of infelicity, it
respect of thee, their miseries are but flea-bitings makes the rest of our life sweeter unto us :"
to thine, thou alone art unhappy, none so bad Atque hæc olim meminisse juvabit, “recollection
as thyself. Yet if, as Socrates said, “All men of the past is pleasant :" “the privation and
in the world should come and bring their griev. want of a thing many times makes it more
ances together, of body, mind, fortune, sores, pleasant and delightsome than before it was.”
ulcers, madness, epilepsies, agues, and all those We must not think, the happiest of us all, to
common calamities of beggary, want, servitude, escape here without some misfortunes,
imprisonment, and lay them on a heap to be “Usque adeo nulla est sincera voluptas,
equally divided, wouldst thou share alike, and Solicitumque aliquid lætis intervenit."
take thy portion? or be as thou art ?" With. Heaven and earth are much unlike: “Those
out question thou wouldst be as thou art. heavenly bodies indeed are freely carried in their | If some Jupiter shor
If some Jupiter should say, to give us all con. orbs without any impediment or interruption, tent: to continue their course for innumerable ages,
“ Jam faciam quod vultis ; eris tu, qui modo miles, and make their conversions : but men are urged
Mercator ; tu consultus modo, rusticus ; hinc vos. with many difficulties, and have divers hind
Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus; eia rances, oppositions, still crossing, interrupting
Quid statis? nolint." their endeavours and desires; and no mortal man is free from this law of nature." We must not "Well, be't so then : you, master soldier, therefore hope to have all things answer our own
Shall be a merchant; you, sir lawyer,
A country gentleman; go you to this, expectation, to have a continuance of good success
That side you; why stand ye? It's well as 'tis.' and fortunes : Fortuna nunquam perpetuo est bona. And, as Minutius Felix, the Roman con “Every man knows his own, but not others' de
sul, told that insulting Coriolanus, drunk with fects and miseries; and it is the nature of all men I his good fortunes, look not for that success thou still to reflect upon themselves, their own mis.
hast hitherto had; “It never yet happened to fortunes," not to examine or consider other any man since the beginning of the world, nor men's, not to compare themselves with others: ever will, to have all things according to his to recount their miseries, but not their good desire, or to whom fortune was never opposite gifts, fortunes, benefits, which they have, or and adverse." Even so it fell out to him as he ruminate on their adversity, but not once to foretold. And so to others, even to that happi think on their prosperity, not what they have, ness of Augustus : though he were Jupiter's but what they want: to look still on them that almoner, Pluto's treasurer, Neptune's admiral, go before, but not on those infinite numbers that it could not secure him. Such was Alcibiades' come after. “Whereas many a man would think