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himself in heaven, a petty prince, if he had but “Si tritura absit paleis sunt abdita grana, the least part of that fortune which thou so much
Nos crux mundanis separat a paleis." repinest at, abhorrest, and accountest a most “As threshing separates from straw the corn, vile and wretched estate.” How many thousands
By crosses from the world's chaff are we born. want that which thou hast ? how many myriads of poor slaves, captives, of such as work day and | It is the very same which Chrysostom comments, night in coal-pits, tin-mines, with sore toil to
hom. 2, in 3 Mat. “Corn is not separated but maintain a poor living, of such as labour in body
by threshing, nor men from worldly impediments and mind, live in extreme anguish and pain, all
but by tribulation." It is that which Cyprian which thou art free from. O fortunatos nimium ingeminates, Ser. 4, de immort. It is that which bona si sua norint: Thou art most happy if thou
Hierom, which all the fathers inculcate; “ so we couldst be content, and acknowledge thy happi.
are catechised for eternity.” It is that which the ness; Rem carendo non fruendo cognoscimus,
proverb insinuates. Nocumentum documentum; when thou shalt hereafter come to want that
! it is that which all the world rings in our ears, which thou now loathest, abhorrest, and art
Deus unicum habet filium sine peccato, nullum weary of, and tired with, when it is past thou | sine flagello: God, saith Austin, hath one son ' wilt say thou wert most happy: and after a
without sin, none without correction, “An little miss, wish with all thine heart thou hadst expert seaman is tried in a tempest, & runner in the same content again, mightest lead but such a race, a captain in a battle, a valiant man in a life, a world for such a life: the remembrance | adversity, a Christian in tentation and misery" of it is pleasant. Be silent then, rest satisfied,
(Basil. hom. 8). We are sent as so inany soldiers desine, intuensque in aliorum infortunia solare
into this world, to strive with it, the flesh, the mentem, comfort thyself with other men's mis
devil; our life is a warfare; and who knows it fortunes, and as the moldiwarp in Æsop told the
not? Non est ad astra mollis e terris via: "and fox, complaining for want of a tail, and the rest
therefore peradventure this world here is made of his companions, tacete, quando me oculis
troublesome unto us, that," as Gregory notes, captum videtis, you complain of toys, but I am
“we should not be delighted by the way, and blind, be quiet. I say to thee, be thou satisfied.
forget whither we are going.” It is recorded of the hares, that with a general
“ Ite nunc fortes, ubi celsa magni consent they went to drown themselves, out of a
Ducit exempli via: cur inertes feeling of their misery; but when they saw a
Terga nudatis ? superata tellus company of frogs more fearful than they were,
Sidera domat." they began to take courage and comfort again. Compare thine estate with others. Similes
Go on then merrily to heaven. If the way be aliorum respice casus, milius ista feres. Be
troublesome, and you in misery, in many griev. content and rest satisfied, for thou art well in
ances, on the other side you have many pleasant respect to others : be thankful for that thou hast. sports, objects, sweet smells, delightsome tastes, that God bath done for thee, He hath not made
music, meats, herbs, flowers, etc., to recreate thee a monster, a beast, a base creature, as He
your senses. Or put case thou art now forsaken might, but a man, a Christian, such a man;
of the world, dejected, contemned; yet comfort consider aright of it, thou art full well as thou
thyself, as it was said to Agar in the wilderness, art. Quicquid vult, habere nemo potest, no man
“God sees thee: He takes notice of thee:" there can have what he will, lllud potest nolle quod
is a God above that can vindicate thy cause, that non habet, he may choose whether he will desire can relieve thee. And surely, Seneca thinks, He that which he hath not. Thy lot is fallen, make
takes delight in seeing thee. “The gods are the best of it. “If we should all sleep at all well pleased when they see great men contending times (as Endymion is said to have done), who with adversity," as we are to see men fight, or a then were happier than his fellow?” Our life is
man with a beast. But these are toys in respect: but short, a very dream, and while we look about. “Behold," saith he, “a spectacle worthy of God; immortalitas adest, eternity is at hand : “our a good man contented with his state." A tyrant life is a pilgrimage on earth, which wise men pass is the best sacrifice to Jupiter, as the ancients with great alacrity.” If thou be in woe, sorrow, held, and his best object “a contented mind."
held, and his best object & conter want, distress, in pain, or sickness, think of that for thy part then, rest satisfied; “Cast all thy of our apostle, “God chastiseth them whom He care on Him, thy burden on Him; rely on Him; loveth : they that sow in tears shall reap in joy" trust on Him; and He shall nourish thee, care for (Ps. cxxvi. 5). “As the furnace proveth the thee, give thee thine heart's desire;” say with potter's vessel, so doth temptation try men's | David, “God is our hope and strength, in thoughts" (Ecclus. xxv. 5), it is for thy good. troubles ready to be found” (Ps. xlvi. l); " for Periisses nisi periisses : hadst thou not been so they that trust in the Lord shall be as Mount visited, thou hadst been utterly undone : “as | Sion, which cannot be removed" (Ps. cxxv. 1, 2); gold in the fire,” so men are tried in adversity. " as the mountains are about Jerusalem, so is Tribulatio ditat: and which Camerarius hath well the Lord about His people, from henceforth and shadowed in an emblem of a thresher and corn. for ever."
THOMAS FULLER. BORN 1608; DIED 1661.
(From “ The Holy and Profane State.”)
(2.) Those that are ingenious and idle. These THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER.
think, with the hare in the fable, that runTHERE is scarce any profession in the common ning with snails (so they count the rest of wealth more necessary which is so slightly per their schoolfellows) they shall come soon formed. The reasons whereof I conceive to be enough to the post, though sleeping a good these: First, Young scholars make this calling while before their starting. Oh, a good rod their refuge; yea, perchance, before they have would finely take them napping! taken any degree in the university, commence (3.) Those that are dull and diligent. Wines schoolmasters in the country, as if nothing else the stronger they be the more lees they have were required to set up this profession but only when they are new. Many boys are muddy. 3 rod and a ferula. Secondly, Others, who are headed till they be clarified with age, and able, use it only as a passage to better prefer such afterwards prove the best. Bristol ment, to patch the rents in their present fortune, diamonds are both bright, and squared and till they can provide a new one, and betake them pointed by nature, and yet are soft and selves to some more gainful calling. Thirdly, worthless; whereas orient ones in India are They are disheartened from doing their best with rough and rugged naturally. Hard, rugged the miserable reward which in some places they and dull natures of youth acquit themselves receive, being masters to the children and slaves afterwards the jewels of the country, and to their parents. Fourthly, Being grown rich, therefore their dulness at first is to be borne they grow negligent, and scorn to touch the with, if they be diligent. That schoolmaster school but by the proxy of an usher. But see deserves to be beaten himself, who beats how well our schoolmaster behaves himself.
nature in a boy for a fault. And I ques. 1. His genius inclines him with delight to his tion whether all the whipping in the world profession. Some men had as lief be schoolboys can make their parts, who are naturally as schoolmasters, to be tied to the school as sluggish, rise one minute before the hour Cooper's Dictionary and Scapula's Lexicon are nature hath appointed. chained to the desk therein; and though great (4.) Those that are invincibly dull and neglischolars, and skilful in other arts, are bunglers gent also. Correction may reform the latter, in this. But God of His goodness hath fitted not amend the former. All the whetting in several men for several callings, that the neces the world can never set a razor's edge on sity of Church and State, in all conditions, may that which hath no steel in it. Such boys be provided for. So that he who beholds the he consigneth over to other professions. fabric thereof may say, God hewed out this Shipwrights and boatmakers will choose stone, and appointed it to lie in this very place, those crooked pieces of timber which other for it would fit none other so well, and here it carpenters refuse. Those may make exceldoth most excellent. And thus God mouldeth lent merchants and mechanics who will not some for a schoolmaster's life, undertaking it serve for scholars.. with desire and delight, and discharging it with 3. He is able, diligent, and methodical in his dexterity and happy success.
teaching ; not leading thern rather in a circle 2. He studies the scholars' natures as carefully than forwards. He minces his precepts for as they their books; and ranks their dispositions children to swallow, hanging clogs on the nimbleinto several forms. And though it may seein ness of his own soul, that his scholars may go difficult for him in a great school to descend to along with him. all particulars, yet experienced schoolmasters 4. He is and will be known to be an absolute may quickly make a grammar of boys' natures, monarch in his school. If cockering mothers and reduce them all, saving some few exceptions, | proffer him money to purchase their sons an to these general rules :
exemption from his rod (to live as it were in a (1.) Those that are ingenious and industrious. peculiar, out of their master's jurisdiction), with
The conjunction of two such planets in a disdain he refuseth it, and scorns the late custom, youth presage much good unto him. To in some places, of commuting whipping into such a lad a frown may be a whipping, and money, and ransoming boys from the rod at a set a whipping a death: yea, where their master price. If he hath a stubborn youth, correctionwhips them once, shame whips them all the proof, he debaseth not his authority by contestweek after. Such natures he useth with all ing with him, but fairly, if he can, puts him gentleness,
away before his obstinacy hath infected others.
5. He is moderate in inflicting deserved correc | the memories of their schoolmasters to posterity, tion. Many a schoolmaster better answereth the who otherwise in obscurity had altogether been narne παιδοτρίβης than παιδαγωγός, rather tear forgotten. Who had ever heard of R. Bond in ing his scholars' flesh with whipping, than giving Lancashire, * but for the breeding of learned them good education. No wonder if his scholars Ascham his scholar; or of Hartgrave in Brundley hate the muses, being presented unto them in school, + in the same county, but because he was she shapes of fiends and furies. Junius complains the first did teach worthy Dr Whitaker? Nor de insolenti carnificina of his schoolmaster,* by do I honour the memory of Mulcaster for anywhom conscindebatur flagris septies aut octies in thing so much as for his scholar, that gulf of dies singulos. Yea, hear the lamentable verses learning, Bishop Andrews. This made the of poor Tusser, in his own Life:
Athenians, the day before the great feast of
Theseus their founder, to sacrifice a ram to the “From Paul's I went, to Eton sent,
memory of Conidas his schoolmaster that first
instructed him. I
Harmless mirth is the best cordial against the
consumption of the spirits : wherefore jesting is Such an Orbilius mars more scholars than he not unlawful if it trespasseth not in quantity, makes : their tyranny hath caused many tongues quality, or season. to stammer, which spake plain by nature, and 1. It is good to make a jest, but not to make a whose stuttering at first was nothing else but trade of jesting. The Earl of Leicester, knowing fears quavering on their speech at their master's that Queen Elizabeth was much delighted to see presence; and whose mauling them about their a gentleman dance well, brought the master of heads hath dulled those who in quickness ex the dancing school to dance before her. “Pish," ceeded their master.
said the queen, “it is his profession, I will not 6. He makes his school free to him who sues to see him." She liked it not where it was a master him in forma pauperis. And surely learning is quality, but where it attended on other perfecthe greatest alms that can be given. But he is tions. The same may we say of jesting. : beast who, because the poor scholar cannot 2. Jest not with the two-edged sword of God's pay him his wages, pays the scholar in his whip- Word.& Will nothing please thee to wash thy ning. Rather are diligent lads to be encouraged hands in, but the font, or to drink healths in, with all excitements to learning. This minds
but the church chalice? And know the whole me of what I have heard concerning Mr Bust,
art is learnt at the first admission, and profane that worthy late schoolmaster of Eton, who would
I jests will come without calling. If in the troublenever suffer any wandering begging scholar, such
some days of King Edward the Fourth, a citizen as justly the statute hath ranked in the forefront in Cheapside was executed as a traitor for saying of rogues, to come into his school, but would
he would make his son heir to the Crown,ll though thrust him out with earnestness (however pri.
he only meant his own house, having a crown for vately charitable unto him) lest his schoolboys
the sign; more dangerous it is to wit-wanton it should be disheartened from their books, by
with the majesty of God. Wherefore, if without meing some scholars, after their studying in the
| thine intention, and against thy will, by chance vniversi y, preferred to beggary.
| medley thou hittest Scripture in ordinary dis7. lle spoils not a good school to make thereof
course, yet fly to the city of refuge, and pray to a bad college, therein to teach his scholars logic.
God to forgive thee. . l'or, besides that logic may have an action of
3. Wanton jests make fools laugh, and wise Trespass against grammar for encroaching on her
men frown. Seeing we are civilised Englishmen, liberties, syllogisms are solecisms taught in the
let us not be naked savages in our talk. Such chool, and oftentimes they are forced afterwards in the university to unlearn the fumbling skill
rotten speeches are worst in withered age, when
men run after that sin in their words which they had before. 8. Out of his school he is no whit pedantical
| flieth from them in the deed, in carriage or discourse ; contenting himself to
4. Let not thy jests, like mummy, be made of be rich in Latin, though he doth not jingle with
dead men's flesh. Abuse not any that are deit in every company wherein he comes.
parted; for to wrong their memories is to rob to conclude, let this amongst other motives
their ghosts of their winding-sheets. make schoolmasters careful in their place, that the eminences of their scholars have commended
* Grant, in Vit. Ascham, p. 629.
| Ashton, in the Life of Whitaker, p. 29. * In his Life, of his own writing.
Plutarch, in Vit. Thesei. † Nich. Udal, schoolmaster of Eton in the reign of $ Máxaipav dlotoudy (Heb. iv. 12). King Henry VIII.
Speed, in Edward the Fourth,
& Scoff not at the natural defects of any which if challenged by the company that they were are not in their power to amend. Oh, it is cruelty authors of them themselves, with their tongues to beat a cripple with his own crutches ! Neither they faintly deny it, and with their faces strongly fout any for his profession, if honest, though affirm it. poor and painful. Mock not a cobbler for his 3. Self-praising comes most naturally from a black thumbs.
man when it comes most violently from him in 6. He that relates another man's wicked jests his own defence. For though modesty binds a with delight, adopts them to be his own. Purge man's tongue to the peace in this point, yet being them therefore from their poison. If the pro | assaulted in his credit he may stand upon his faneness may be severed from the wit, it is like guard, and then he doth not so much praise as a lamprey; take out the string in the back, it | purge himself. One braved a gentleman to his may make good meat. But if the staple conceit face, that in skill and valour he came far behind consists in profaneness, then it is a viper, all bim: “It is true," said the other, “for when I poison, and meddle not with it.
fought with you, you ran away before me." In 7. He that will lose his friend for a jest, de such a case, it was well returned, and without serres to die a beggar by the bargain. Yet some any just aspersion of pride. think their conceits, like mustard, not good 4. Ile that falls into sin, is a man; that grieves except they bite. We read that all those who at it, is a saint; that boasteth of it, is a devil. were born in England the year after the beginning Yet some glory in their shame, counting the of the great mortality 1349,* wanted their four stains of sin the best complexion for their souls. cheek-teeth. Such let thy jests be, that may These men make me believe it may be true what not grind the credit of thy friend, and make not
Mandeville writes of the isle of Somabarre, in jests so long till thou becomest one.
the East Indies, that all the nobility thereof 8. No time to break jests when the heart-strings | brand their faces with a hot iron in token of are about to be broken. No more showing of wit honour. when the head is to be cut off, like that dying 5. He that boasts of sins never committed, is a man, who, when the priest coming to him to double devil. Many brag how many gardens of give him extreme unction, asked of him where virginity they have deflowered, who never came his feet were, answered, “At the end of my legs." near the walls thereof.... Others, who But at such a time jests are an unmannerly would sooner creep into a scabbard than draw crepitus ingenii. And let those take heed who a sword, boast of their robberies, to usurp the end here with Democritus, that they begin not esteem of valour. Whereas first let them be with Heraclitus hereafter.
well whipped for their lying, and as they like that, let them come afterward and entitle them
selves to the gallows. OF SELF-PRAISING. 1. Ile whose oron worth doth speak, need not
OF TRAVELLING. queak his own worth. Such boasting sounds proceed from emptiness of desert: whereas the It is a good accomplishment to a man, if first conquerors in the Olympian games did not put the stock be well grown whereon travel is grafted, on the laurels on their own heads, but waited till and these rules observed before, in, and after his some other did it. Only anchorets that want going abroad. company may crown themselves with their own 1. Travel not early before thy judgment be commendations.
risen ; lest thou observest rather shows than 2. It showeth more wit but no less vanity to substance, marking alone pageants, pictures, commend one's self, not in a straight line, but by beautiful buildings, etc. reflection. Some sail to the port of their own 2. Get the language, in part, without which praise by a side wind; as when they dispraise key thou shalt unlock little of moment. It is a themselves, stripping themselves naked of what great advantage to be one's own interpreter. is their due, that the modesty of the beholders Object not that the French tongue learnt in may clothe them with it again, or when they England must be unlearnt again in France; for Hatter another to his face, tossing the ball to him | it is easier to add than begin, and to pronounce that he may throw it back again to them; or than to speak. when they commend that quality wherein them. 3. Be well settled in thine own religion, lest, selves excel, in another man, though absent, travelling out of England into Spain, thou goest whom all know far their inferior in that faculty; out of God's blessing into the warm sun. They or lastly, to omit other ambushes men set to sur-that go over maids for their religion, will be prise praise, when they send the children of their | ravished at the sight of the first popish church own brain to be nursed by another man, and they enter into. Butif first thou be well grounded, commend their own works in a third person; but their fooleries shall rivet thy faith the faster, and
travel shall give thee confirmation in that baptism • Tho. Walsinghain, in eodem anno.
thou didst receive at home,
4. Know most of the rooms of thy native coun- themselves from their countrymen, though some try before thou goest over the threshold thercof. years beyond sea, were never out of England. Especially seeing England presents thee with so 10. Continue correspondence with some choice many observables. But late writers lack nothing foreign friend after thy return; as some professor but age, and home-wonders but distance, to or secretary, who virtually is the whole univermake them admired. It is a tale what Josephus sity, or state. It is but a dull Dutch fashion, writes of the two pillars set up by the sons of their albus amicorum, to make a dictionary of Seth in Syria, the one of brick, fire-proof; the their friends' names. But a selected familiar in other of stone, water-free, thereon engraving every country is useful: betwixt you there may many heavenly matters to perpetuate learning in be a letter exchange. Be sure to return as good defiance of time. But it is truly moralised in wares as thou receivest, and acquaint him with our universities, Cambridge (of brick) and Oxford the remarkables of thy own country, and he will (of stone), wherein learning and religion are pre- willingly continue the trade, finding it equally served, and where the worst college is more gainful. sightworthy than the best Dutch gymnasium, | 11. Let discourse rather be easily drawn, than First view these, and the rest home rarities; not willingly flow from thee. That thou mayest not like those English that can give a better account seem weak to hold, or desirous to vent news, but of Fontainebleau than Hampton Court, of the content to gratify thy friends. Be sparing in Spa than Bath, of Anas in Spain than Mole in reporting improbable truths, especially to the Surrey.
vulgar, who, instead of informing their judg5. Travel not beyond the Alps. Mr Ascham ments, will suspect thy credit. Disdain their did thank God that he was but nine days in | peevish pride who rail on their native land Italy, t wherein he saw in one city (Venice) more (whose worst fault is that it bred such ungrateliberty to sin, than that in London he ever heard ful fools), and in all their discourses prefer of in nine years. That some of our gentry have foreign countries, herein showing themselves of gone thither, and returned thence without infec- | kin to the wild Irish in loving their nurses better tion, I more praise God's providence than their than their mothers. adventure, 6. To travel from the sun is uncomfortable.
OF COMPANY. Yet the northern parts with much ice have some crystal, and want not their remarkables.
1. Company is one of the greatest pleasures of 7. If thou wilt see much in a little, travel the the nature of man. For the beams of joy are made Low Countries. Holland is all Europe in an hotter by reflection, when related to another ; Amsterdam print, for Minerva, Mars, and Mer
and otherwise gladness itself must grieve for cury, learning war and traffic.
want of one to express itself to. 8. Be wise in choosing objects, diligent in 2. It is unnatural for a man to court and hug marking, careful in remembering of them; yet solitariness. It is observed, that the farthest herein men much follow their own humours.
islands in the world are so seated that there is One asked a barber, who never before had been
none so remote but that from some shore of it at the court, what he saw there? “Oh,” said another island or continent may be discerned ; as he, “the king was excellently well trimmed !" | if hereby nature invited countries to a mutual Thus merchants most mark foreign havens, ex commerce, one with another. Why then should changes, and marts, soldiers note forts, armour- any man affect to environ himself with so deep ies, and magazines; scholars listen after libraries, and great reservedness, as not to communicate disputations, and professors; statesmen observe with the society of others? And though we pity courts of justice, councils, etc. Every one is those who made solitariness their refuge in time partial in his own profession.
of persecution, we must condemn such as choose 9. Labour to distil and unite into thyself the it in the Church's prosperity. For well may we scattered perfections of several nations. But, as count him not well in his wits who will live it was said of one who, with more industry than always under a bush, because others in a storm judgment, frequented a college library, and com- shelter themselves under it. monly made use of the worst notes he met with | 3. Yet a desert is better than a debauched comin any authors, “that he weeded the library,” | panion. For the wildness of the place is but many weed foreign countries, bringing home uncheerful, whilst the wildness of bad persons is Dutch drunkenness, Spanish pride, French also infectious. Better therefore ride alone than wantonness, and Italian atheism. As for the have a thief's company. And such is a wicked good herbs, Dutch industry, Spanish loyalty, man who will rob thee of precious time, if he French courtesy, and Italian frugality, these doth no more mischief. The Nazarites, who they leave behind them. Others bring home might drink no wine, were also forbidden (Num. just nothing; and because they singled not vi. 3) to eat grapes, whereof wine is made. We
must not only avoid sin itself, but also the • Antiq. Jud., lib i., cap. 3.
causes and occasions thereof; amongst which + In his preface to his Schoolmaster.
bad company (the lime-twigs of the devil) is the