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chiefest, especially to catch those natures which, as if bound by their lease to approve, praise, and like the good-fellow planet, Mercury, are most admire whatsoever they say. These, knowing the swayed by others.
lowness of their parts, love to live with dwarfs, 4 If thou beest cast into bad company, like that they may seem proper men. To come Hercules thou must sleep with thy club in thine amongst their equals, they count it an abridghand, and stand on thy guard. I mean if ment of their freedom, but to be with their against thy will the tempest of an unexpected betters, they deem it flat slavery. perasion drives thee amongst such rocks; then 8. It is excellent for one to have a library of he thou like the river Dee, in Merionethshire in scholars, especially if they be plain to be read. I Wales, * which running through Pimblemere mean of a communicative nature, whose discourses remains entire, and mingles not her streams with are as full as fluent, and their judgments as right the waters of the lake. Though with them, be as their tongues ready : such men's talk shall be not of them; keep civil communion with them, thy lectures. To conclude, good company is not but separate from their sins. And if against thy only profitable whilst a man lives, but sometimes will thou fallest amongst wicked men, know to when he is dead. For he that was buried with thy comfort thou art still in thy calling, and the bones of Elisha, by a posthumous miracle of therefore in God's keeping, who on thy prayers that prophet, recovered his life by lodging with will preserve thee.
such a grave-fellow.* 5. The company he keeps is the comment by help whereof men expound the most close and |
OF MEMORY. mystical man ; understanding him for one of the same religion, life, and manners with his asso It is the treasure-house of the mind, wherein ciates. And though perchance he be not such a the monuments thereof are kept and preserved. one, it is just he should be counted so for con- | Plato makes it the mother of the muses ;t Arisversing with them, Augustus Cæsar came thus to totle sets it one degree further, making experidiscern his two daughters' inclinations : for being ence the mother of the arts, memory the parent once at a public show, where much people were of experience. Philosophers place it in the rear present, he observed that the grave senators of the head ; and it seems the mine of memory talked with Livia, but loose youngsters and lies there, because there naturally men dig for it, riotous persons with Julia.t
scratching it when they are at a loss. This again 6. He that eats cherries with noblemen, shall is twofold; one, the simple retention of things; have his eyes spirted out with the stones. This the other, a regaining them when forgotten. outlandish proverb hath in it an English truth, 1. Brute creatures equal, if not exceed men, in that they who constantly converse with men far a bare retentive memory. Through how many above their estates, shall reap shame and loss labyrinths of woods, without other clue of thread thereby; if thou payest nothing they will count than natural instinct, doth the hunted hare thee a sucker, no branch; a wen, no member of return to her inuce! How doth the little bee, their company; if in payments thou keepest | flying into several meadows and gardens, sipping pace with them, their long strides will soon tire of many cups, yet never intoxicated, through an thy short legs. The beavers in New England, ocean as I may say of air, steadily steer herself when some ten of them together drawa stick to the home, without help of card or compass ! But building of their lodging, set the weakest beavers these cannot play an after-game, and recover to the lighter end of the log, I and the strongest what they have forgotten, which is done by the take the heaviest part thereof; whereas men meditation of discourse. often lay the greatest burthen on the weakest 2. Artificial memory is rather a trick than an back; and great persons to teach meaner men to art, and more for the gain of the teacher than learn their distance, take pleasure to make them profit of the learners. Like the tossing of a pike, pay for their company. I except such men who, which is no part of the postures and motions having some excellent quality, are gratis very thereof, and is rather for ostentation than use, welcome to their betters ; such a one, though he to show the strength and nimbleness of the arm, pays not a penny of the shot, spends enough and is often used by wandering soldiers as an in lending them his time and discourse.
introduction to beg. Understand it of the arti7. To affect always to be the best of the com ficial rules which at this day are delivered by painy argues a base disposition, Gold always | memory-mountebanks; for sure an art thereof worn in the same purse with silver, loses both of may be made, wherein as yet the world is defecthe colour and weight; and so to converse always tive, and that no more destructive to natural with inferiors, degrades a man of his worth. memory than spectacles are to eyes, which girls Such there are that love to be the lords of the in Holland wear from twelve years of age. But company, whilst the rest must be their tenants; till this be found out, let us observe these plain
rules, Cambd. Brit. in Merioneth. + Sueton. in August. Cæs.
* 2 Kings xiii. 21. 1 Wood, in his Description of New England.
† Metaphys., lib. i., cap. 1.
3. First, soundly infix in thy mind what thou 9. Thankfulness to God for it, continues the desirest to remember. What wonder is it if agi- memory : whereas some proud people have been tation of business jog that out of thy head, visited with such oblivion that they have forwhich was there rather tacked than fastened ? | gotten their own names. Staupitius, tutor to Whereas those notions which get in by violenta Luther, and a godly man, in a vain ostentation of possessio will abide there, till ejectio firma, sick his memory repeated Christ's genealogy (Matt. i.) ness or extreme age, dispossess them. It is best by heart in his sermon, but being out about the knocking in the nail over-night, and clinching it captivity of Babylon, “I see," saith he, “God the next morning.
resisteth the proud," and so betook himself to 4. Overburthen not thy memory, to make so his book. * Abuse not thy memory to be sin's faithful a servant a slave. Remember Atlas register, nor make advantage thereof for wicked. was weary. Have as much reason as a camel, to ness. Excellently Augustine : “Quidam vero rise when thou hast thy full load. Memory, like pessimi memoria sunt mirabili, qui tanto pejores a purse, if it be over full that it cannot shut, all sunt, quanto minus possunt, quæ male cogitant, will drop out of it. Take heed of a gluttonous oblivisci.”+ curiosity to feed on many things, lest the greediness of the appetite of thy memory spoil the
OF FANCY. digestion thereof. Beza's case was peculiar and memorable ; being above fourscore years of age. It is an inward sense of the soul, for a while he perfectly could say by heart any Greek chapter retaining and examining things brought in thither in St Paul's Epistles,* or anything else which by the common sense. It is the most bonndless he had learnt long before, but forgot whatsoever and restless faculty of the soul : for whilst the was newly told him ; his memory like an inn, understanding and the will are kept as it were retaining old guests, but having no room to in libera custodia to their objects of verum et entertain new.
bonum, the fancy is free from all engagements: 5. Spoil not thy memory with thine ovn it digs without spade, sails without ship, flies jealousy, nor make it bad by suspecting it. How without wings, builds without charges, fights canst thou find that true which thou wilt not without bloodshed, in a moment striding from trust? St Augustine tells us of his friend, Sim- | the centre to the circumference of the world, by plicius, who being asked, could tell all Virgil's a kind of omnipotency creating and annihilating verses backward and forward ; and yet the same things in an instant; and things divorced in party vowed to God that he knew not he could nature are married in fancy as in a lawful place, do it till they did try him. Sure there is con- | It is also most restless : whilst the senses are cealed strength in men's memories which they bound, and reason in a mann
| bound, and reason in a manner asleep, fancy, take no notice of.
like a sentinel, walks the round, ever working, 6. Marshal thy notions into a handsome method. never wearied. The chief diseases of the fancy One will carry twice more weight trussed and are, either that they are too wild and high soar. packed up in bundles, than when it lies unto- ing, or else too low and grovelling, or else too wardly flapping hanging about his shoulders. | desultory and over voluble. Of the first: Things orderly fardled up under heads are most
1. If thy fancy be but a little too rank, age portable.
itself will correct it. To lift too high is no fault 7. Adventure not all thy learning in one bot
in a young horse, because with travelling he will tom, but divide it betwixt thy memory and thy
mend it for his own ease. Thus lofty fancies in note-books. He that with Bias carries all his
young men will come down of themselves, and learning about him in his head, will utterly be
in process of time the overplus will shrink to beggared and bankrupt, if a violent disease, & be but even measure. But if this will not do it, merciless thief, should rob and strip him. I then observe these rules. know some have a commonplace against com
2. Take part always with thy judgment against monplace books, and yet perchance will privately thy fancy in anything wherein they shall dissent. make use of what publicly they declaim against.
If thou suspectest thy conceits too luxuriant, A commonplace book contains many notions in
herein account thy suspicion a legal conviction, garrison, whence the owner may draw out an
and damn whatsoever thou doubtest of. Warily army into the field on competent warning.
Tully: “Bene monent, qui vetant quicquam 8. Moderate diet and good air preserve memory:
facere, de quo dubitas, æquum sit an iniquum." but what air is best I dare not define, when such
3. Take the advice of a faithful friend, and great ones differ. Some say a pure and subtle
submit thy inventions to his censure. When thou air is best; another commends thick and foggy
pennest an oration, let him have the power air. For the Pisans, sited in the fens and marsh
of index expurgatorius, to expunge what he of Arnus, have excellent memories, as if the foggy air were a cap for their heads."
moria quo urbs crassiore fruatur ære."--Mercat. Atlas
in Tuscia. • Thuan. Obit. Doct. Virorum, p. 384.
* Melchior Adamus, in Vita Staupitii, p 20. + Plato, Aristotle, Tully. “Singulari valent me | De Civ. Dei, lib. vii., cap. 3.
pleaseth; and do not thou, like a fond mother, ridge of them in high words having nothing of cry if the child of thy brain be corrected for worth, but what rather stalls than delights the playing the wanton. Mark the arguments and auditor. reasons of his alterations; why that phrase least 9. Fine fancies in manufactures invent engines proper, this passage more cautious and advised; rather pretty than useful; and commonly one and after a while thou shalt perform the place trade is too narrow for them. They are better in thine own person, and not go out of thyself to project new ways than to prosecute old, and for a censurer. If thy fancy be too low and are rather skilful in many mysteries, than thriving bumble:
in one. They affect not voluminous inventions, 4. Let thy judgment be king, but not tyrant wherein many years must constantly be spent to over it, to condemn harmless, yea, commendable | perfect them, except there be in them variety of conceits. Some for fear their orations should | pleasant employment. giggle, will not let them smile. Give it also 10. Imagination, the work of the fancy, hath Liberty to rove, for it will not be extravagant. produced real effects. Many serious and sad There is no danger that weak folks, if they walk examples hereof may be produced : I will only abroad, will straggle far, as wanting strength. insist on a merry one. A gentleman having led a
5. Acquaint thyself with reading poets, for | company of children beyond their usual journey, there fancy is in her throne; and in time, the they began to be weary, and jointly cried to him sparks of the author's wit will catch hold on the to carry them; which because of their multitude, reader, and inflame him with love, liking, and he could not do, but told them he would provide desire of imitation. I confess there is more re-them horses to ride on. Then cutting little quired to teach one to write than to see a copy: wands out of the hedge as nags for them, and a however, there is a secret force of fascination in great stake as a gelding for himself, thus reading poems to raise and provoke fancy. If mounted, fancy put metal into their legs, and thy fancy be over voluble, then
they came cheerfully home. 6. Whip this vagrant home to the first object 11. Fancy runs most furiously when a guilty schereon it should be settled. Indeed, nimbleness conscience drives it. One that owed much is the perfection of this faculty, but levity the money and had many creditors, as he walked bane of it. Great is the difference betwixt a London streets in the evening, a tenter-hook swift horse and a skittish, that will stand on no caught his cloak. “At whose suit?" said he, ground. Such is the ubiquitary fancy, which conceiving some bailiff had arrested him. Thus will keep long residence on no one subject, but guilty consciences are afraid where no fear is, is so courteous to strangers, that it ever welcomes and count every creature they meet a sergeant that conceit most which comes last; and new sent from God to punish them. species supplant the old ones, before seriously considered. If this be the fault of thy fancy, I
OF RECREATIONS. say whip it home to the first object whereon it should be settled. This do as often as occasion Recreation is a second creation, when weari. requires, and by degrees the fugitive servant | ness hath almost annihilated one's spirits. It is will learn to abide by his work without running the breathing of the soul, which otherwise would away.
be stifled with continual business. We may 7. Acquaint thyself by degrees with hard and trespass in them, if using such as are forbidden kenotty studies, as school-divinity, which will clog by the lawyer, as against the statutes; physi. thy over nimble fancy. True, at the first it will cian, as against health; divine, as against conbe as welcome to thee as a prison, and their very science. solutions will seem knots unto thee. But take 1. Be well satisfied in thy conscience of the not too much at once, lest thy brain turn edge. | lawfulness of the recreation thou usest. Some Taste it first as a potion for physic, and by fight against cock-fighting, and bait-bull, and degrees thou shalt drink it as beer for thirst: bear-baiting, because man is not to be a common practice will make it pleasant. Mathematics barretour to set the creatures at discord; and are also good for this purpose. If beginning to seeing antipathy betwixt creatures was kindled try a conclusion, thou must make an end, lest by man's sin, what pleasure can he take to see thou lose thy pains that are past, and must it burn? Others are of the contrary orinion, proceed seriously and exactly. I meddle not and that Christianity gives us a placard to use with those bedlam-fancies, all whose conceits are | these sports; and that man's charter of dominion antiques, but leave them for the physician to | over the creatures enables him to employ them purge with hellebore.
as well for pleasure as necessity. In these, as in 8. To clothe low-creeping matter with high- all other doubtful recreations, be well assured foron language is not fine fancy, but flat foolery first of the legality of them. He that sins against It rather loads than raises a wren, to fasten the his conscience sins with a witness. feathers of an ostrich to her wings. Some men's 2. Spill not the morning (the quintessence of speeches are like the high mountains in Ireland, the day) in recreations. For sleep itself is a having a dirty bog in the top of them : the very recreation; add not therefore sauce to sauce: and he cannot properly have any title to be the wares and the ship; tilting and fencing is refreshed, who was not first faint. Pastime, like war without anger; and manly sports are the wine, is poison in the morning. It is then good grammar of military performance. husbandry to sow the head, which hath lain 9. But above all, shooting is a noble recreation fallow all night, with some serious work. Chiefly and a half liberal art. A rich man told a poo: intrench not on the Lord's day to use unlawful man that he walked to get a stomach for his sports: this were to spare thine own flock, and meat: “And I," said the poor man, “walk to to shear God's lamb.
get meat for my stomach." Now, shooting would 3. Let thy recreations be ingenious, and bear have fitted both their turns; it provides food proportion with thine age. If thou sayest with when men are hungry, and helps digestion when Paul, “When I was a child, I did as a child;" they are full. King Edward the Sixth, though say also with him, “but when I was a man, I he drew no strong bow, shot very well; and put away childish things." Wear also the child's | when once John Dudley, Duke of Northumbercoat, if thou usest his sports.
land, commended him for hitting the mark; 4. Take heed of boisterous and over-violent “You shot better," quoth the king, “when you exercises. Ringing ofttimes hath made good shot off my good uncle Protector's head." But music on the bells, and put men's bodies out of our age sees his successor exceeding him in that tune, so that by overheating themselves they art, whose eye, like his judgment, is clear and haye rung their own passing bell.
quick to discover the mark, and his hands as 5. Yet the ruder sort of people scarce count just in shooting as in dealing aright. anything a sport which is not loud and violent. 10. Some sports being granted to be lawful, The Muscovite women esteem none loving hus- more propend to be ill than well used. Such I bands, except they beat their wives. It is no count stage-plays, when made always the actors' pastime with country clowns that cracks not work, and often the spectators' recreation. pates, breaks not skins, bruises not limbs, | Zeuxis, the curious picturer, painted a boy tumbles and tosses not all the body. They holding a dish full of grapes in his hand, done so think themselves not warm in their geers, till lively that the birds, being deceived, flew to they are all on fire; and count it but dry sport peck the grapes. * But Zeuxis, in an ingenious till they swim in their own sweat. Yet I con- | choler, was angry with his own workmanship. ceive the physician's rule in exercises, ad ruborum, “Had I,” said he, "made the boy as lively as but non ad sudorem, is too scant measure. the grapes, the birds would have been afraid to
6. Refresh that part of thyself which is most | touch them." Thus two things are set forth to wearied. If thy life be sedentary, exercise thy us as stage-plays: some grave sentences, prudent body; if stirring and active, recreate thy mind. counsels, and punishment of vicious examples; But take heed of cozening thy mind, in setting and with these, desperate oaths, lustful talk, and it to a double task under pretence of giving it a riotous acts are so personated to the life, that playday, as in the labyrinth of chess, and other wantons are tickled with delight, and feed their tedious and studious games.
palates upon them. It seems the goodness is 7. Yet recreations distasteful to some disposi- | not portrayed out with equal accents of liveli. tions, relish best to others. Fishing with an ness as the wicked things are: otherwise men angle is to some rather a torture than a pleasure, would be deterred from vicious courses, with to stand an hour as mute as the fish they mean seeing the, woeful success which follows them. to take: yet herewithal Dr Whitaker was much But the main is, wanton speeches on stages are delighted.* When some noblemen had gotten the devil's ordinance to beget badness; but I William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, and Treasurer of question whether the pious speeches spoken there England, to ride with them a-hunting, and the be God's ordinance to increase goodness, as sport began to be cold; “What call you this?" | wanting both His institution and benediction. said the treasurer. “Oh, now," said they, “ the 11. Choke not thy soul with immoderate pouring dogs are at fault.” “Yea," quoth the treasurer, in the cordial of pleasures. The creation lasted “take me again in such a fault, and I'll give you but six days of the first week: profane they leave to punish me.” Thus as soon may the whose recreation lasts seven days every week. same meat please all palates, as the same sport Rather abridge thyself of thy lawful liberty suit with all dispositions.
herein; it being a wary rule which St Gregory 8. Running, leaping, and dancing, the descants gives us, “Solus in illicitis non cadit, qui se ali. on the plain song of walking, are all excellent quando et à licitis caute restringit.”+ And then exercises. And yet those are the best recrea recreations shall both strengthen labour and tions which, besides refreshing, enable, at least sweeten rest, and we may expect God's blessing dispose, men to some other good ends. Bowling and protection on us in following them, as well teaches men's hands and eyes mathematics, and as in doing our work: For he that saith grace for the rules of proportion ; swimming hath saved his meat, in it prays also to God to bless iho many a man's life, wher himself hath been both
• Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xxxv., cap. 10. * In his Life, written by Mr Ashton.
Lib. V., Moral. et Homil. 35, supra Evang.
sace unto him. As for those that will not take thrifty law which Reutha, King of Scotland, lawful pleasure, I am afraid they will take un. made,* that noblemen should have so many lawful pleasure, and by lacing themselves too pillars or long pointed stones set on their sepul. hard grow awry on one side.
chres, as they had slain enemies in the wars. If
this order were also enlarged to those who, in OF TOMBS.
peace, had excellently deserved of the church or
commonwealth, it might well be revived. Tombs are the clothes of the dead: a grave is 4. Over-costly tombs are only baits for sacribut a plain suit, and a rich monument is one lege. Thus sacrilege hath beheaded that peerless embroidered. Most moderate men have been prince, King Henry the Fifth, the body of whose careful for the decent interment of their corpse. statue, on his tomb in Westminster, was covered Few of the fond mind of Arbogastus, an Irish over with silver plate gilded, and his head of saint, and Bishop of Spires in Germany, who massy silver, + both which now are stolen away. would be buried near the gallows, in imitation of Yea, hungry palates will feed on coarser meat. our Saviour, whose grave was in Mount Calvary I had rather Mr Stow than I should tell you of near the place of execution.*
a nobleman who sold the monuments of noble1. It is a provident way to make one's tomb men in St Augustine's Church in Broad Street, in one's lifetime; both hereby to prevent the for. a hundred pounds, which cost many thounegligence of heirs, and to mind him of his mor.sands, and in the place thereof made fair stabling tality. Virgil tells us that when bees swarm in for horses; as if Christ, who was born in a stable, the air, and two armies meeting together fight as should be brought into it the second time. It it were a set battle with great violence, cast but was not without cause in the civil law, that a a little dust upon them and they will be quiet.+ wife might be divorced from her husband, if she * Hi motus animorum, atque hæc certamina tanta
could prove him to be one that had broken the Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescunt."
sepulchres of the dead. For it was presumed
he must needs be a tyrannical husband to his “These stirrings of their minds, and strivings vast,
wife, who had not so much mercy as to spare II but a little dust on them be cast, Are straightways stinted, and quite overpast.”
the ashes of the departed.
5. The shortest, plainest, and truest epitaphs Thus the most ambitious motions and thoughts are best. I say the shortest; for when a passenger of man's mind are quickly quelled when dust is
sees a chronicle written on a tomb, he takes it thrown on him, whereof his fore-prepared sepul.
on trust some great man lies there buried, withchre is an excellent remembrancer.
out taking pains to examine who he is. , Mr 2. Yet some seem to have built their tombs, Cambden, in his “Remains.” presents us with therein to bury their thoughts of dying, never examples of great men that had little epitaphs. thinking thereof, but embracing the world with
And when once I asked a witty gentleman, an greater greediness. A gentleman made choice | honoured friend of mine, what epitaph was fittest of a fair stone, and, intending the same for his to be written on Mr Cambden's tomb? “Let it gravestone, caused it to be pitched up in a field be," said he, “ CAMBDEN'S REMAINS." I say also a pretty distance from his house, and used often the plainest; for except the sense lie above to shoot at it for his exercise. “Yea, but," said
ground, few will trouble themselves to dig for it. a wag that stood by, “you would be loath, sir, | Lastly, it must be true. Not as in some monuto hit the mark.” And so are many unwilling
ments, where the red veins in the marble may to die who, notwithstanding, have erected their
seem to blush at the falsehoods written on it. monuments.
| He was a witty man that first taught a stone to 3. Tombs ought in some sort to be proportioned, speak, but he was a wicked man that taught it not to the wealth, but deserts of the party interred. I first to lie. Yet may we see some rich man of mean worth 6. To want a grave is the cruelty of the living, loaden under a tornb big enough for & prince to not the misery of the dead. An English gentlebear. There were officers appointed in the man not long since did lie on his death-bed in Grecian games, I who always by public authority Spain, and the Jesuits did flock round about him did pluck down the statues erected to the vic- to pervert him to their religion. All was in vain. tors, if they exceeded the true symmetry and Their last argument was, if you will not turn proportion of their bodies. We need such now. Roman Catholic, then your body shall be un. a-days to order monuments to men's merits, | buried. “Then,” answered he, “I will stink;" chiefly to reform such depopulating tombs as
reform such depopulating tombs as and so turned his head and died. Thus love, if have no good fellowship with them, but engross all the room, leaving neither seats for the living,
* Hector Boeth, in the Life of King Reutha. por graves for the dead. It was a wise and
+ J. Speed, in the End of Henry V.
In the Descript, of London, Broad Street Ward, * Warræus, de Scriptor. Hiber., p. 28. Georgic., lib. iv.
8 As, “Fui Caius," “Scaligeri quod reliquum est," 1 Lucian, Tepl elkóvwv.
“Depositum Cardinalis Poli," etc.