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April 14, 1830.]

Judge Peck.-Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. of R.

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prevented. He would, however, say a few words in reply in pursuance of the permission given by the House some to the observations of the gentleman from Kentucky, (Mr. days ago. WICKLIFFE] on the subject of the West Point Academy, Motions were made to commit the argument, and to and the errors ivto which that gentleman had fallen in re print it, without rending, as it appeared to be a volumilation to it. It appeared that the chief objection he had mous statement: but to that institution was, that it shut out from appointment The reading was demanded, first by Mr. WICKLIFFE, in the army all who were not educated there. He would and withdrawn, then by Mr. DANIEL, and after proceed. ask, what had ever been the system pursued in the army? ing some time. by him withdrawn ; next by Mr. WILDE, Did not all its officers advance by the regular line of pro- and the reading continued some time longer, and then withmotion! He conceived, when those scholars entered the drawn; theu by Mr. STORRS, of New York: apd after the school, they became attached to the junior class of the of reading had progressed some time longer, (in all an hour ficers of the army. If they proved to be qualified, and and a half,) Mr. S. withdrew bis motion, and the further kept up with their classes, they were commissioned ; if not, reading was suspended. they retired to make room for others. The doors of the The statement was then ordered to be committed to the institution, le contended, were open to all classes, even to Committee of the Wbole to which was committed the rethe poorest boy in the country.

port against Judge Peck; and Mr. V. remarked that his indisposition was such as to Mr. CLAY moved that it be printed, with one or two of prevent his pursuing the subject further at present. the papers which accompanied and were referred to in it.

Mr. WILLIAMS said, he was opposed to the present Mr. McDUFFIE moved to print, also, the memorial of organization of the army, and it never had been suited to Mr. Lawless, complaining of the conduct of the Judge. the feelings of the House. It was fastened upon the House Mr. STERIGERE moved to lay both motions on the by the vote of the Senate. All the military experience of table. Negatived. the House condemned its features; but they were compel Mr. DAVIS, of South Carolipa, moved to except from led to accept of it at the time, as they were convinced ibat the printing the papers accompanying the statement of otherwise no reduction would be effected at that session. Judge Peck, which was agreed to ; and

Mr. W. said, there appeared to be a contest between the The statement of the Judge, and the memorial of his be gentlemen belonging to the Military Committee, on the sub-accusers, were ordered to be printed. ject of the proportion which the officers in the army bore

BUFFALO AND NEW ORLEANS ROAD BILL. to the men-one calculating it at one to seven, and another at one to twenty. In either case, be contended, the pro The House then took up this bill, as reported by the portion of officers was too great-the army should be re. Committee of the Whole yesterday; and having concurred

organized, and the pumber of officers reduced. The gen. in filling the blank avith four dollars, as the daily allowance atleman from Obio [Mr. VANCE] bad, in the course of bis to the commissioners, is remarks, alluded to fifty posts to be garrisoned. He would Mr. SPEIGHT moved to lay the bill on the table, with

have been obliged to that gentleman if he had, at the same the view not to take it up again.

time, pamed these posts. The House bad on a former oc. Mr. WHITTLESEY demanded the yeas and says on is casiou received a report, stating that there were seventy this question, and they were ordered; wben

posts, requiring twelve thousand men ; but, op examina Mr. SPEIGHT, to accommodate bis colleagues, who

tion, the number of essential posts bore but a small com- wished to renew their amendments, withdrew bis motiov. s parison with the report. He did not believe that there was Mr. CARSON then renewed the motion which be made Deed of fifty posts in the United States-indeed, he knew in committee to amend the bill

. by striking out the part of none, excepting those of the northwestern frontier, prescribing the route for the New Orleans road, and in

and the frontiers of Arkansas and Missouri. He could not serting a provisiou, directing the adoption of the “ most is admit the necessity of even these, for be had ever believed direct, practicable” route. but that keeping up an armed force in the vicivity, was more Upon the amendment, Mr. CARSON offered some ob

likely to bring on lodian wars, than to prevent them. Such servations on the length to which the discussion upon the had been the experience of the country at all times, and in subject had already extended, and asked for the yeas and all cases, and he would not vote for keeping up a military pays. force to provoke Indian hostilities.

The enll being sustained, they were ordered. lo relation to the engineer corpa, Mr. W. said, he could Mr. BLAIR, of Teppessee, said that he was aware not see the propriety of so many surveys by the Geveral that it would not now be in order to reply to what had Government. If the several States wanted these surveys been said by gentlemen in the opposition in the committee; made, they would doubtless see that they were performed. but as bis friend from North Carolina (Mr. Carson) has He said he believed, from the examinations which he bad now repeated, in part, what he had said in Committee of made several years ago, that three thousand men were am- the Whole. he was gratified in baving it in his power ply sufficient for the army. He was convinced of this at that to correct that gentleman in a gross error into which he time, and he knew of no reason wby more should be re- had fallen, as to the organization of the Committee on loquired now than were then. He thought the Military Aca- ternal Improvements, of which he was an bumble member. demy at West Point should also be reduced. He bad long He bas cbarged that the location of the road upon the been of the opinion that this institution should be placed western route was the result of combination in the comon the peace establishment. He thought it should be con- mittee, and bas parcelled out to each member of that comfilled to one hundred, and then it would not be so apt to mittee his portion of the local benefit to be derived from prove a pursery for the education of those who were not that combination. Sir, I cannot, I will not believe that designed for the army; indeed, its utter apnibilation would my worthy friend intended to impugn my motives in this be far preferable to its continuance in its present condition. matter, though such would be the irresistible conclusion, He hoped the House would determine on its reduction, from reading his printed speech. I take this opportunity Mr. DESHA rose, but the allotted hour had expired. of informing my friend that I am the only member of the

committee who voted in favor of reporting the bill, who JUDGE PECK.

was in the slightest degree interested in its location on the The SPEAKER presented to the House a letter from western route, or resided on or near to any part of that Judge Peck, accompanied by a written statement or argu- extended line. It is true that my colleague on the comment, in explanation and defence of bis official conduct in mittee [Mr. CRAIG) represents a district in Virginia which the case complained of by L. E. Lawless, communicated lis intersected by the road, but it is due to that gentleman

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H. OF R.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(APRIL 13, 1830.

to say, that his determination to support the bill has been ing conversation between himself and a gentleman from made since it came from the hands of the committee, aud Tennessee. He was exceedingly sorry that his estimable was reported without bis support. No other member of friend from North Carolina could, by any possibility, conthe committee resides on or near to this road, or the strue them otherwise. branch contemplated from Zanesville to Florence; bence, Mr. CARSON said that they had not beep mevtioned to if a combination of interested persons produced the loca- him as such. He was bappy. bowever, to find that it was so, tion in the bill, I must have combined with myself, and as, indeed, had just been stated to him by the gentleman with no one else.

from Tennessee. To relieve the present committee from imputation, I can Mr. DE WITT moved to strike out the epacting clause inform my friend from North Carolina, that this bill was of the bill. reported by the Committee on Internal Improvements of Mr. STORRS. of New York, moved the previous question. the last Congress, as it now is, upon the western route. Mr. LETCHER, after a few observations, stated that Will he look to the organization of that committee, and his district did not approximate to the line which it was inform me who were the parties in interest then, and why proposed to trace for the road in contemplation. and wherefore was it that that committee selected the Mr. SCOTT hoped that the gentleman from New York western route ? If I am not mistaken, the gentleman from [Mr. STORRS) would withdraw his motion for a moment. Maine [Mr. BUTMAN) is now the only member of that Mr. STORRS declining to do so, the call for the precomwittee who voted for the rood, wbo was of that com- vious question was sustained by a vote of yeas 117, pays mittee last Congress. This bill had been reported by our pot counted. predecessors, (not one of whom resided op that route,) Mr. J. S. BARBOUR asked for the yeas and Days on the giving preference to the western route; and my friend main question, but the motion was not adopted. from North Carolioa will believe me when I say that their The inain question, which was upon the engrossment of baving given preference to the route on which I resided the bill for a third reading, was then ordered to be put. was not likely to call forth any objection from me. Nor Mr. BARRINGER, Mr. ISACKS, and Mr. DWIGHT am I at liberty to suppose that the location of the road simultaneously rose to ask for the yeas and days upon this upon the route on which my friend resides, would have question. They were ordered. been calculated to give offence to him, were I to judge Mr. P. P. BARBOUR suggested that there were seve from the pertinacity with which be clings to bis amend- ral members probably absent ; and as he wisbed the quesment for changing the route to his own district. I have tiop to be fully and fairly decided, he moved a call of the felt it due to the committee and myself, as well as to that House; which was agreed to. substantial friendship which has subsisted between the gen. The roll was called, when it appeared that pipe or ten tleman from North Carolina and myself, to make this state members were absent, most of whom it appeared from ment and correction, believing that if I were to suffer my explanations given, were detained at their lodgings by inself to lie under the imputation to which his remarks disposition. would subject me, I would be in danger of forfeiting that The main question being put, was decided in the nega. good opinion which I am couvinced be now entertains of tive by the following vote:

YEAS.-Messrs. Noyes, Barber, Baylor, Jobo, Blair, Mr. CARSON shortly rejoined, urging the advantages Boon, Brown, Burges, Butman, Cahoon, Clark, Coleof taking the direct route, which it would be a truism to man, Condict, Cooper, Coulter, Robert Craig, Crane, say was the nearest route. It would shorten the distance Crawford, Crockett, Creighton, Crowninshield, John Dafor fifty miles. The West, he observed, in the course of vis, Dendy, Doddridge, Duncan, Edward Everett, H. his argument, the West bad received its full sbare, in the Everett, Finch, Ford, Forward, Green, Grepell, Hawway of appropriation for their benefit, by the grants of kins, Hempbill

, Hodges, Howard, Hughes, Hunt, Huntpublic lands, for the purpose of improvement within the ington, Ibrie, Ingersoll, Thomas Irwin, Wm. W. Irvid, States, in that section of the amendment. To show the Isacks, Jennings, R. M. Johnson, Kendall, Kincaid, Adam influence which had been brought to beat upon this mat- King, Leiper, Letcher, Lyon, Magee, Mallary, Martinter, he might perhaps mention that it had been said by one dale, Thomas Maxwell, Lewis Maxwell, McCreery, Merof the members of the Pennsylvania delegation, that if Mr. cer, Miller, Mitchell, Norton, Pearce, Pierson, Ramsey, Carson did not vote for the bill, he (the person speaking] Randolph, Reed, Richardson, Rose, Russel

, Scott, Shields, should not give bis sanction to a bill

, for the passing of Semmes, Sprigg, Stanbery, Standifer, Stephens Strong, which he [Mr. C.) was anxious. He also instanced a case Sutherland, Swann, Test, John Thomson, Tracy, Vance, in which a member from West Tennessee had used lan- Vinton, Washington, Whittlesey, Edward Ď. White, guage of a similar importi

Wilson, Young.–88. Mr. A. H. SHEPPÈRD thought the order in wbich the NAYS.-Messrs. Alexander, Allen, Alston, Anderson, amendment should be proposed should be the same as had Angel, Arcber, Arnold, Bailey, Joho S. Barbour, Philip been followed in the committee. He therefore moved to P. Barbour, Barnwell

, Barringer, Beekman, Bell, James strike out the word "western," in the fourteenth line of Blair, Bockee, Borst, Bouldin, Brodbead, Buchanan, the bill, (respecting the location of the line of road] and Cambreleng, Campbell, Carson, Chandler, Childs, Claiinsert "middle" route.

borne, Clay, Coke, Conner, Cowles, Hector Craig, CroMr. VINTON made a few remarks on the subject of cheron, Daniel, Davenport, Warren R. Davis, Deberry, himself and his constituents being entirely uninterested as Desba, De Witt, Drayton, Dudley, Dwight, Earll, Ellsto wbat course it might be decided by the House that the worth, George Evans, Findlay, Foster, Fry, Gaither, road should be run. He lived upon the banks of the Gordon, Gorham, Hall, Halsey, Hammons, Harvey, Obio, the great channel of intercourse between the East Haynes, Hinds, Hubbard, Johas, Cave Johnson, Perkins, and the West, a circumstance which he felt it due to bim- King, Lamar, Lea, Lecompte, Lent, Loyall, Lewis Lumpself, and those whom he represented, to mention, with a kiu, Martin, McCoy, McDuffie, McIntire, Monell, Muhview of showing that the vote he sbould give upon the lenberg, Nuckolls, Overton, Pettis, Polk, Potter, Requestion could not possibly result from any prospect, on cher, Roane, W. B. Shepard, A. H. Shepperd, S. A. his or their part, of reaping any advantages from the pro- Smith, Speight, Ambrose Spencer, Richard Spencer, posed road.

Sterigerc, Henry Storrs, William L. Storrs, Swift, Mr. RAMSEY explained, in reply to Mr. Carson. The Taliaferro, Taylor, Wiley Thompson, Trezvant, Tucker, observations alluded to by his frievd from North Carolina Varnum, Verplanck, Wayne, Weeks, Camp. P. White, were merely jocular; they occurred in the course of a pass- Wickliffe, Wilde, Williams, Wingate, Yancey.-105.

me.

APRIL 15, 1830.]

The Army.

(H. of R.

So tlie House decided against the third reading of the cheap, besides involving the nation in an unnecessary exbill, and it was, of course, rejected.

pense. I would only brevet an officer for distinguished Mr. P. P. BARBOUR, thioking she said] that the House service performed by him in a state of war-an arrangehad done enough for glory for one day, moved that it now ment which would stimulate him to the performance of adjourn.

daring and gallant acts. Mr. ISACKS demanded the yeas and pays on this ques The gentleman from New York. [Mr. TAYLOR] in reply tion, which, being taken, were as follows :

to some remarks I made a few days ago, said, that we are For adjourning,

78 compelled to educate our sons at the West Point A Carles Against it,

111 my, provided we intend them for the army. This I am After, on motion of Mr. VANCE,

a ware of; and this is the very great objection I bave The House adjourned.

to the institution, and it is the ground upon which I preo

dicated my remarks the other day, when I stated I was THURSDAY, APRIL 15, 1830.

opposed to all exclusive privileges. But the gentleman

contended that it does not give exclusive privileges to any THE ARMY.

class of our citizens, for the institution is open to all. I The House resumed the consideration of the resolu- would ask, how is this! If there were a vacancy from my tion directing the Secretary of War to report a reorgani- district, and there were twenty applicants, could more zation of the army, with a view to the reduction of the than one be appointed! No, sir. Well, would not the number of officers.

balance be excluded in this case? Most certainly they Mr. DESHA said, he regretted very much that the re- would; and in making this selection of one, should I not marks of the gentleman from New York, (Mr. Taylor] be apt to select the one whose parents would be able to and of the chairman of the committee, (Mr. DRAYTON] serve me the most effectually at home? This is reasonihad made it necessary for bim again tu trouble the House able. with any remarks of his, but he was not willing that the The gentleman from New York asked if I. together vote should be taken without briefly replying. He with my political friends, who had the power in their would, however, promise the House that he would con- hands, am disposed to break down all the institutions in sume but little of their time upon this subject.

the country. I will say, in reply to that gentleman, no; The gentleman from New York, (Mr. TAYLOR) the other that I do not know the opinions of but few of the friends day, in order to satisfy this House that the army, as at with whom I act upon this floor; but will say for myself, present organized, is more suitable to both peace and war that I am ready at all times to lop off all useless expendtimes, than any organization that can be given to it, had a tures of public money, or to put down any institution report read at the Clerk's table, made by a former Secre- where the sons of the wealthy and influential are to be tary of War, upon a call of this House. The report goes educated at the expense of the people. I have no doubt upon the principle, that it is politic for this Government but the gentleman from New York understands the details to keep on a peace establishment a dumbër of officers of this West Point Arademy much better than I do), as it sufficient to command fifteen thousand, instead of five is located in his State; and, moreover, I have understood thousand four or five bundred, the number fixed upon for that the gentleman has been so fortunate as to get his son the peace establishment. Now, (said Mr. D.] this is what admitted into the institution, notwithstanding he informs I deny; and however bigh I may estimate the opinions of us that there never had been bot one young man at the the Secretary of War, alluded lo, I decidedly differ with institution from his district, and he was in the senior class. hiva in the organization he would give to a peace establish. I must confess I could nut exactly see wbat bearing that ment. He, with a great many others, thinks it necessary to remark of the gentleman had upon the subject, and must keep an officer in the army a length of time, to prepare believe the gentleman intepds it as a compliment to himhim for a state of war, and this with a view to bave skil self. ful officers to command. This is in accordance with the The gentleman took occasion to say further, in order, I views of the gentleman from New York, over the way, suppose, to show that no abuses had been practised by [Mr. CAMBRELENG] who says, that, iu the event of a war, appointing to that institution more than a fair proportion we shall have nothing to do but fill the rank and file of of the sons of members of Congress, that there never had the army, and we shall have experienced officers to com- been more than sixteen boys appointed who were the sons mand our forces. He says that privates can be had witb- of members of Congress. I do not know how this is, but ont difficulty, but that officers cannot. I will state to the I heard a member of Congress say, be could count twelve House what I bave stated on a foriner occasion. It is, from Kentucky and Ohio, wbo are sons of men who are that, from my experience, I do think, if an officer remain now, or who have been heretofore, members of Congress. any leogth of time inactive, upon a peace establishment, But for the existence of this institution, which I so much thát inactivity has a tendency to disqualify instead of quali- deprecate, private institutions would spring up in the fying him for active service in a state war; and that ibere country, whence we should have an ample opportunity of iš more difficulty in obtaining private soldiers than offi- preparing our sons to enter the army, at our own proper

I would ask the House, how it has happened that expense; and then let vacancies in the army be filled from 'the expenditures of the army have been increasing for the most worthy amongst the applicants who present the last several years, if it be not owing to the nature of themselves. the present organization, and to the very great number of My friend, the chairman of the Committee on Military officers who have been breveted since the war, and receiv- Affairs, (Mr. Drayton) says, that the Military Academy is

ed the additional pay which their brevet rank entitles the bulwark of our defence, and that all our Presidents i them to. I will state that, if there is not some radical bave been in favor of it. Now, in answer to this, I deny

change made, this expense will continue to increase. Ju that the nation will have to rely upon those educated at a few years the colonels will all be brigadier generals; the this institution, which have been so highly spoken of, for lieuteoant colonels, colonels commandants; the majors, the defence of the country in the event of war, or upon lieutenant colopels; captains, majors; and the lieutenants, your regular army. No, sir. I consider the militia the captains by brevet; and all of these will, in every instance, bulwark of the nation; and in the event of another war, whep on detachment, receive the pay attacbed to such we shall have to place our reliance upon them for defence. brevet commission. I am satisfied that the present regu- It is true that soine of our Presidents have recommended lation of breveting an officer according to the length of this institution to the fostering care of Government; but be continuance in service, will make brevet rauk too I will state that it was not contemplated, when this insti.

cers.

H. OF R.)

The Army.

(APRIL 15, 1830.

tution was first established, that it should be more than a United States, in his message to this House, says something school of practice for a few officers of the army. But about the reliance we may place on the militia for the dewhat has it grown to be? Two hundred and sixty or two feuce of the country in the event of war. My friend from hundred and seventy young men, preparing, by receiving South Carolina says, besides, that General Brown, too, was a military education, to fill vacancies in the arruy, when in favor of a standing army in time of peace. I have no half the number would be sufficient. Another objection doubt of it, sir; this I conceive to be patural enough; and wbich I have to the institution, is, that when a young man you will not hear an officer in the army say that the numis educated at some thousands of dollars expense to the ber of officers ought to be reduced. My friends certainly Government, he is permitted to return home, withont would not expect it, for it is not reasonable to expect an renlering to the Government any services in return. Yes, officer in the army, more especially the geveral in comsir, three-fourths of the number of young men who go mand, to say that his command ought to be reduced. there, do not intend, when they graduate, to remain in My friend [Mr. Drayton) said that I was in error wheu the army; but to return home, and adopt some other pro- I stated what the proportion of the officers were to privates, fession. It is very convenient for a man to have his son and, instead of seven and a half or eight privates to ench educated at public expense, and then put him to the study commissioned officer, there are twenty. Now, I stated, of law, medicine, or some other of the liberal professions. distinctly, there was one commissioned officer receiving I therefore would say, that when a young man enters the pay for every seven and a half or eight privates; and one institution, he ought to be bound, when he has received for every nine or ten, to count the non-commissioned offihis education at the public expense, to render the country cers and musicians. I did not say this was the proportion some services as a remuneration.

between the officers doing duty in the line, and the priThe chairman of the committee also denies that any pre- vates ; but I bere assert, without the fear of contradiction, ference is given, in the appointments to that institution, to that, to calculate the whole number of officers in commisthe wealthy and influential classes. Sir, that gentleman sion, who are attached to the army, and in the receipt of certainly bas not examined the report laid on our tables a pay, I am right in my calculation. My friend went into a few days ago, or he would not hazard the assertion. If he long calculation to show that he had not officers enough to will examine the appointments that have been made to the command the military posts, and that I ought to bave made institution, he will find the number from the indigent but a deduction in my calculation of the number of officers on small, when compared with those from the wealthy and in- furlough, sick, courts martial, and on the recruiting serfluential. I do not care what the Secretary of War pro- vice, and then I should be satisfied myself that we have not fesses, when he says the object is to appoint poor boys, if a sufficient number to command five thousand eight hunthey are qnalified, when I see the practice is at variance dred men: and further, that in one or two instances comwith the profession. I can point my finger to a number of panies had to be commanded by the graduates from West boys who are there at this time, whose parents are im- Point. To obviale tbat difficulty, I would suggest to the mensely wealthy. In order to satisfy gentlemen that the Secretary of War to order the officers, wherever they may adoption of the resolution cannot operate injuriously, I will be, to appear in their uniform. If this were to be done, it read it.

would be very easy to account for the scarcity of officers on [Here, Mr. DESHA read the resolution.]

duty. Yes, sir, you would find a number in this place, Now, sir, the resolution does not require of the Secre- during the sessions of Congress, wbo, if kept on duty, as tary of War to propose such an organization as will possi. they ought to be, would prevent you bearing of such a bly destroy the efficiency of the army, but such a oue as circumstance as that of graduates from West Point comwill dispense with the services of a portion of its officers manding entire companies. without injury to the public service. The expenditures The gentleman says that, from the calculation he bas for the army, it will be found, have rapidly increased for the made, the proportion of officers now is not greater than last several years. The sum of four hundred thousand dol. when a company consisted of one hundred rank and file, lars annually is expended now more than was some years and the regiment of one thousand. In this it appears to ago, and it will be found that the present peace establish- me that he is greatly mistaken; and I beg to suggest to bim, ment costs the Government as much as when the army con- when he makes bis calculation of the absentees, that in war sisted of one hundred thousand strong. These facts ought times, when the army had a different organization from to satisfy the House that something ought to be done the existing one, officers frequently had to be on the rein the case.

cruiting service, were sick occasionally, were on courts The chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs, in martial, and even on furlough; and if it be right under one his remarks, stated that it required much time to learn the system of organization, it certainly must be so under art of war. I admit, sir, that it does in time of peace; but another

. But, sir, this is not all; the gentleman says, from I am satisfied that our officers will, when in a state of war, the fact of the national debt being reduced, and the prolearn as much 10 six months as in that number of years du bability of a speedy payment of the whole debt, a necessiring peace. The chairman also informed this House that ty will be created of an increase of the army. I hope not, the defeats which our army sustained at the commence- sir; I cannot, for my own part, possibly subscribe to such ment of the last war were attributed to the want of skilful a doctrine. An army of thousand pot sufficient, in time and experienced officers. In reply to this remark, allow of peace, to take care of about fifty little military posts on me to say that the gentleman is certainly advised of one our frontier! I cannot, I say, see the necessity of such a fact, which is, that the army was officered at the com- measure. I am opposed, sir, to a large stavding army in mencement of the last war from men who had seen service. time of peace, and so have been the greatest statesmen iu Jo saying this, I mean the officers of high rank, superannua- our country. The militia will bave to defend this country ted old men, and to this circumstance I attributed the many in the event of a war, and the militia, where their services defeats of the last war. The gentleman says, General are available for such purpose, will not submit to be comWashington was in favor of a standing army in time of manded by your regular officers. I will not follow my peace, and that the present Chief Magistrate, likewise, is colleague through the war of our own revolution, in as in favor of a standing army. It is true, sir, that the pre- much as I deem it inexpedient.. sent Chief Magistrate does not recommend a reduction, My friend, in his remarks, paid a very bandaoine comnor does he an increase of the army; from which I imagine pliment to the description and good order that existed in the gentleman from South Carolina las come to the con- the regiment to which I was attached during the last war, clusion that the President is in favor of a standing army in and accounted for it by saying that the colonel of the regiting of peace If I do not mistake, the President of thel ment had been on the peace establishment before the war.

APRIL 15, 1830.]

The Army.

[H. of R.

It is true, the colonel of the regiment had been in the six thousand three hundred and sixteen non-commission army before the war ; but it is not true that the discipline ed officers, musicians, and privates. Without adding an and good order that prevailed in the twenty-fourth regi- additional officer, or a single company, they may be augment, of which the gentleman speaks, is attributable to the mented, should a just precaution, growing out of our foskill and experience of its commander, or to the superiority reign relations, render it necessary, to eleven thousand five

of any of the superior officers, of that regiment; but w two huudred avd fifty-eight; and, pending hostilities, by add1 of its captains, who had never been in servicó before the ing two bundred and eighty-eight officers, the two corps

war, but who were possessed of those patural powers, on the maximum of the war formation may be raised to which, of themselves, render persons eminent as military the respectable force of four thousand five hundred and men; I mean Holmes and Armstrong. I must do my friend, forty-five of the artillery, and fourteen thousand four bunthe chairman of the committee, the justice to say, that, dred and ninety of the infantry, making, in the aggregate, potwithstanding he consented to the resolution reported by nineteen thousand and thirty-five officers, pon-commissionmyself, he was not satisfied that a reduction of the numbered officers, and privates, (see table E.) The war organiof officers in the army could be made, with propriety or zation, thus raised on the basis of the peace establishment, facility. He stated, distinctly, that it was a subject of great will bring into effective operation the whole of the expeimportance, and one that be had not sufficiently examined rience and skill of the latter, which, with attention, would, to come to a conclusion upon. The gentleman now tells in a short period, be communicated to the new recruits, 18 that he has examined the subject, and is satisfied that, and the officers recently appointed, so as to constitute a instead of too many officers, we have not enough; but that well disciplined force. Should the organization of full he will vote for the resolution. Now, sir, I bave never con companies, on the contrary, he adopted for the peace estended, that, under the present organization of the army, tablishment, this process could be carried to a very limited there are many supernumerary officers; but, under a dif- extent. Six thousand men so organized can be augmented

ferent organization, there would be a number whose ser- on the full war establishment only to nine thousand one -1 vices could be dispensed with, without injury to the public hundred and fifteen, by doubling the battalions, (see table

serviee, and would save an immense sum of money to the E.) Any additional force, beyond that, must be obtained Goveroment nnually. The gentleman says the cadets at by adding new regiments and battalions, with all of the West Point are officers of the army from the time they disadvantages of experience in the officers and men, with are received into the institution. If so, I acknowledge I out the means of immediate instruction. This was the fatal have been mistaken in my calculation; and instead of one error at the commencement of the late war, which cost commissioned officer for every seven or eight privates, the country so much treasure and blood. The peace esthere are one for every five.

tablishment which preceded it, was very imperfectly or1

Mr. D. said, in conclusion, he hoped the House would ganized, and did not admit of the necessary augmentation ; ; take the vote on the resolution ; that the discussiou bad al- nor did the Government avail itself of even its limited ca

ready consumed more time than he had anticipated, as the pacity in that respect. The forces raised were organized resolution he considered to be one of inquiry only. into new corps, in which, consequently, every branch of

Mr. TAYLOR rose in reply to Mr. Desha, and express-military duty was to be learned by the officers as well as - ed his hope that, before the House proceeded to act in re- men. But, with all of these disadvantages, the experience

ference to the resolution, they would hear the views and and discipline of the old establishment was of immense use, arguments presented at the time the army received its pre- and has not been duly appreciated. The officers belougseot organization by a distinguished citizen, then Secretary ing to it gradually diffused their military knowledge of War, and now Vice President of the United States. The through the army, and contributed much to the brilliant re

report of that able officer would be found iu the first vo- sults of the campaign of 1814. For the truth of this asElume of the Executive papers of the second session sixteenth sertion, I might with confidence appeal to those officers

Congress, pumber twenty-one. It consisted but of eight who then acquired so much glory for themselves and their or ten pages, which every gentleman would find well country. worthy of perusal. He would at present request that the "Another reason remains to be urged, why, in the two last pages might be read from the Clerk's table. They peace establishment; the number of officers ought to be contained, within a brief space, better views, and expressed great compared with the actual force. At the commerce; in a more luminous and impressive manner, than any which ment of war, an adequate number of experienced officers be bad to offer.

is of greater importance than that of disciplined troops, * No position conuected with the organization of the even were it possible to bave the latter without the forpeace establishment is susceptible of being more rigidly mer; for it is not difficult to form in a short time well disciproved, than that the proportion of its officers to the rank plined troops by experienced officers, but the reverse is and file ought to be greater than in a war establishment. impossible. The qualifications of the officers are essenIt results immediately from a position, the truth of which tially superior to those oftthe soldiers, and are more diffi, cannot be fairly doubted, and which I have attempted to cult to be 'acquired. The progress of military science illustrate in the preliminary remarks, that the leading ob- has pot added much to the difficulty of performing the duject of a regular army in time of peace ought to be, to ena- ty of the soldier, or of training him, but it has greatly to

ble the country to meet with honor and safety, particularly that of the officer. No Government can, in the present 5 at the commencement of war, the dangers ivcident to that improved state of the military science, neglect with impuEstate ; to effect this object as far as practicable, the peace pity to instruct a sufficient number of its citizens io a

organization ought, as bas been shown, to be such, that, science indispensable to its independence and safety, and in passing to a state of war, there should be nothing either tu perfect which instruction, it is necessary that some porto new model, or to create ; and that the difference be- tion of them (the number to be regulated by the resources tween that and the war organization ought to be simply of the country, and its relation with other Governmente) in the greater magnitude of the latter. The application should make arms their profession. of this principle has governed in that portion of the forma " Table F exhibits the estimate of the saving which will tion of the proposed military establishment now under cou- be made by the proposed organization. sideration. The companies, both of the artillery and in "I have thus presented an organization which I deem fantry, are proposed to be reduced to their minimum peace the most effective, and which, in the future exigencies of formation, the former to consist of sixty-four privates and the country, may be of the utmost importance. A differnon-commissioned officers, and the latter to thirty-seven, ent one, requiring for the present an expenditure somewhich will give to the aggregate of both corps thus formed thing less than that proposed, might, in some respecte, be

Vol. VI.--100.

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