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H. OF R.]

Judge Peck.

[APRIL 23, 1830.

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of favoritism has also been shown towards the District ofbers of them are necessary to accomplish the same obColumbia, which is entitled to equal, though not to greater, jects ; that it requires a longer time than they usually serve, rigbts than other parts of the Union. And yet it appears, to render them perfectly acquainted with their duties; and from the document which I have just referred to, that ap- that the mere change in their diet aud habits occasinos pointments of cadets from that District have been as follows: sickness among them, and consigus one-half of them to lo 1829, four cadets ; in each of the years, 1828, 1827, the hospitals. If these are the consequences, personal 1826, and 1825, three; in 1815, nine; and in 1814, eight. and national, sulting from the substitution of militia for This disproportionate number of appointments, as com- regulars, why. should they be substituted ? Because, say pared with the population of the District, is partial, and, gentlemen, a standing army is dangerous to our liberties. therefore, unjust. It is not probable that either of these It is scarcely possible to conceive that an argument like departures from the principles which ought to be observed this can be seriously relied upon. To the maintenance of in the administration of this institution will be repeated. a large regular army, when we are not at war, I am as Should Congress deem it necessary, they may guard against decidedly opposed as any individual upon this floor ; but, a repetition of them by passing a law for the purpose. with a population of twelve millions of inbabitants, with

I did not expect to hear it asserted by any one, however a militia brave and expert in the use of firearms, amountstrong might be his prejudices against the academy at ing to fourteen or fifteen hundred thousand, can our liberWest Point, that the instruction there communicated to the ties be affected by a standing army of six thousand men ? cadets did not qualify them for their profession. Let me Sir, when the day shall arrive that the liberty of this nastate to the House in wbat that instruction consists. It tion can be endangered by six thousand, or by ten times comprehends the theory and the practice of the art of war, six thousand men, it could not be secured by any buman in all its branches. To the acquisition of the sciences re- means. Before such a force could accomplish the destruequisite to constitute the accomplished officer, fron nine tion of our liberty, we must ourselves bave become utterly to ten bours are laboriously devoted for six days in the regardless of its preservation. week, during ten months in every year. The practical [Here the debate closed for this day.) military instructions, which I quote from page 376 of

JUDGE PECK. “The General Regulations of the Army," are as follows: "First year, school of the soldier-guard and police du The House then went into Committee of the Whole, ties of privates. Second year, school of the company, Mr. Wilde in the chair, on the case of Judge Peck. duties of corporals. Third year, school of the battalion Mr. PETTIS having addressed the committee in defence duties of sergeants—exercise and maneuvres of artillery of the Judge, and against the proposed impeachment, pieces. Fourth year, evolutions of the line-duties of Mr. EVERETT made a few observations. He could orderly sergeants and commissioned officers, (including not bring bis mind to the conclusion that Judge Peck ought those of the battalion staf.,) and of officers of the day-to be impeached ; and, therefore, he could not vote for the remainder of the iustruction in artillery-the sword exer- resolution. At the same time, be could not admit that cise-practical military instruction throughout the year. Judge Peck's conduct bad been free from blame. He, Field exercises only will be limited between 1st April and therefore, wished the resolution to be so amended as that 1st November following. There will be an encampment he could vote for it. He referred to an opinion which be of the cadets abpually, commencing on the 1st of July, and bad bastily made wbile the Clerk was reading the defence ending on the 31st of August ensuing, during which the of Judge Peck, that the Judge would have done better, instruction will be exclusively military.” In order to bad he rested bis case with the report of the Judiciary ascertain the improvement and proficiency of the cadets, Committee. He now, after a perusal of the defence, rethey are carefully examined, semi-annually, by the Acade- voked that opinion. He thought the Judge bad done well; mic Board; and once a year they undergo a strict exami- and that the House, on a careful perusal of the defence, nation in public, before the Professors, and a Board of would admit that he had done well. He considered the Visiters, selected by the War Department, from various defence as one of the most able papers laid before Codsections of the Union.

gress for years. He said, be had looked in vain in the eviWith a knowledge of the facts which I have detailed, dence for proof of evil intent. On the contrary, there relating to the instruction and discipline at West Point, no was proof of the general good intentions and mildness of one can doubt the competence of the graduates to dis- the Judge. He could not, therefore, punish with severity charge all the duties of a soldier. Without a knowledge bis first offence. He is already punished bufficiently by these of facts, no one ought to bazard criticism or censure. proceedings. He moved to amend the resolution by striking Having submitted the grounds and reasons upon which I out all after the word “ Resolved," and inserting as follows: rely, in opposition to the arguments principally insisted That though, on the evidence now before it, this House upon by those who advocate the disbanding or reduction of does not approve of the conduct of James H. Peck, our army, the diminution of the number of its officers, judge of the district court of the United States for the and the abolition of the Military Academy, I will take up district of Missouri, in his proceeding by attachment against the time of the House no longer than to potice, briefly, Luke E. Lawless, for alleged contempt of the said court; one or two observations introduced into this discussion, yet there is not sufficient evidence of evil intent, to anwhich I have not bitherto commented upon. It has been thorize the House to impeach the said judge of high misasked, why should we rely upon a standing army in time demeanors in office. of peace, to garrison our forts, and to protect our frontiers Mr. STORRS, of New York, said he could not vote for from Indian depredations, in preference to the militia of this resolution, because it contemplated a final action on the country? Have gentlemen, making this inquiry, re- the case by this House. He deprecated such a conrse, flected upon the hardship which would be imposed upon as affording a mischievous precedent. He expressed his our citizens, accustomed to the ease and comforts of civil regret that the gentleman from Massachusetts had made life, by withdrawing them for periods of three or six an appeal to the sympatby of the House, in a case where months from their ordinary occupations, and subjecting sympathy should be kept out of sight. He was opposed them to the strictness of discipline, the restraints of mar- to any thing which would compound this matter. He retial law, and all the privations which the soldier encoun- ferred to the feelings with which he had bimself entered ters? Would they not feel these hardsbips and privations on the examination of this case, and the strong disinclinsto be oppressive and intolerable? The experience of two tion wbich he felt to produce an impeachment. But be wars has taught us that the employment of militia is more had gone into it, and he bad a high and solemn duty to expensive than that of regular troops ; that larger num-perform, wbiol precluded sympathy. As to the oppor

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tunity given by the Judge to Mr. Lawless to purge him- its consideration to the Secretary of War, and asking of self of the contempt, be [Mr. S.] considered that it was him the best mode of effecting this object, if it could be insulting, after a violation of the personal rights of Mr. done without injury to the public service : acting upon the Lawle-s, and the usurpation of a jurisdiction which the belief that so much of the present session had elapsed, as Judge did not possess. He admitted that to have stricken to preclude the possibility of acting finally upon a question the attorney from the rolls of his court, might not bave of so much importance to the nation at this time, and that subjected the Judge to censure ; but it was the violatiou such additional information might be given to this House of that personal liberty, secured by the constitution, the im- as would enable them to act more efficiently, and with prisonnent of Mr. Lawless in the felon's room, which jus. less danger to the service of the country, at some future tified impeachment.

period. Mr. BÜRGES moved to amend the amendment, by pre To this reference I did not expect an objection would fixing to it a modification in substance, stating, that al- have been made, after the avoval made by the chairman though the House might not, if called on, altogether ap of the Military Committee, that the adoption of the resoluprove the conduct of Judge Peck, yet that, perceiving no tion would not be considered as the expression of an opi. evidence of ill intent, &c. the House would not sauction an dion by the House, that any reduction could be made, with impeachment.

propriety, of the number of officers now in the public ser Mr. EVERETT (Mr. Burgas having withdrawn his vice, and least of all did I expect an objection from the amendment) modified bis resolution so as to meet the views chairman himself, who reported, and then advocated, and of the gentleman, slightly changing the phraseology. now avows his determination to vote for the resolution ;

Mr. BURGES moved that the committee now rise, and it seems to me somewhat strange that the gentleman wbich was negatived; yeas, 70-nuys, 76.

from South Carolina should have thought it necessary to Mr. ELLSWORTH then occupied the attention of the occupy so much of the time of the House, four successive committee io support of the resolution. He, as a member mornings, in attempting to prove that there was no necesof the Judiciary Committee, had given the subject full ex-sity for the reduction of the number of officers or men at amivation, and had come to the opinion that this impeach- present in the service of the United States, and to convince ment should take place. He saw nothing in the publica- this House that the resolution reported by the gentleman tion of Mr. Lawless which ought to bave drawn down the himself, as the chairman of the Military Committee, and punishmeat inflicted by this Judge. It was an arbitrary for whiclı he intends to vote, ought not to be supported by proceeding, and be considered it to be the duty of the any other member of this House. If it be true, sir, that House to impeach the Judge.

this disproportion does not exist, it certainly follows that Mr. HUNTINGTON then made some remarks in favor the consideration or adoption of the present resolution is of the Judge. Before he bad concl ed,

wholly useless. Mr. VANCE moved that the committee rise : yeas, 64 There is a great difference between the chairman of the

Military Committee and my colleague in the calculations Mr. HUNTINGTON then continued his remarks.

presented by them to the House as to the actual number Mr. BURGES commenced some remarks against the of officers in the army, or those who ought to be so esimpeachment.

timated. The one estimates alone the commissioned offiMr. MILLER moved that the committee rise, it being cers, or gentlemen who wear the sword and are ip actual between six and seven o'clock; yeas, 63-Days, 61. command, and only makes one officer for every twenty or The committee then rose, and reported progress. twenty five men; the other estimates, also, the non-com

missioned officers and staff officers connected with the

peace establishment, and thus makes one officer for every SATURDAY, APRIL 24, 1830.

seven or eight meu. Each is probably correct, according ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY.

to the respective dates assumed by them, and each falls The House then resumed the consideration of the re- short of the actual disproportion existing betweep the com. solution calliog on the Secretary of War to report a new

mon soldiers and other individuals connected with the organization of the army, embracing a reduction of the army, who are, I presume, esteemed above the grade of officers.

the common soldiers. I take, sir, a different view of this Mr. CAVE JOHNSON said, it is to be regretted that subject from either of the gentlemen, and which will prothe gentlemen who are opposed to the adoption of the re- bably show the true disproportion existiug in our army besolution pow under consideration, have thought it neces-tween the common soldiers and the officers, and which will sary to indulge in such a latitude of debate, and urge upon account for the increased expenditures for the last few the consideration of the House questions of great import- years, to some extent, in this branch of the Government. ance to the country, upon a mere resolution of inquiry. I look at every individual as connected with the peace esThese things would have been more properly the subject tablishment, who is in the pay of the Government, whether of debate upou soıne future occasion, when some specific a commissioned or non-commissioned officer, or private, proposition should be submitted to the House for the re- or clerks, or messengers. I care not by what name he duction of the army. I am sure it was not anticipated, may be called; and when viewed in this light, the statement either by my colleague, (Mr. DESHA] who introduced the which I now hold in my hand, and which has been preparoriginal resolution to the House, or by the Military Com. ed from the documents furnished during the present ses. mittee, who reported the one pow under discussion ; but sion, and which specifies each individual, and the part of if gentlemen will press upon the House a premature dis- the army to which he is attached, but which I will not now cussion of these important questions, it becomes the friends trouble the House by reading, will satisfy the House that of the resolution to meet and abswer them in the best way there is retained in the pay of the Government, for the they cau.

control and management of the soldiers of the line, which The object of the resolution was to direct the attention my colleague now informs me numbers five thousand five of the House to the disproportion existing in the present bundred men, near one thousand individuals, making one organization of the military peace establishment be individual connected with the command of the army, for tween the number of officers and the privates retained in about every five soldiers of the live. the service of the United States, and the consequent in. The question tben is, whether the services of any of creased expenditure of the public money. This was re- these individuals may be dispensed with at this time withferred to the Military Committee, who reported to the out injury to the public service. I am not sufficiently acHouse the resolution now on your table, merely referring quainted with the details of an army to speak with certainty

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H. of R.]
Organization of the Army.

[APRIL 24, 1830. as to the exact proportion that ought to exist between for or against the position assumed by the chairman of the the oumber of officers and soldiers of the line; but, accord- Military Committee. ing to my recollection, in the late war witb Great Britain, It is again urged that the present peace establishment is less than half the number of officers belonging to our not greater, io proportion to the population and wealth of peace establishment were deemed sufficient for the com- the United States, than it was during the administration of mand of even a greater pumber of men, and that, tvo, Jefferson. I cannot, sir, perceive any good reason why whilst engaged in actual service; and there can be no pro- the prosperity of the country should be considered a reapriety in retaining in the pay of the Government, in son for the increase of our army, or the expenditures for it. time of peace, twice as many officers as the Government That the finances of the country will justify us in mainwould require for the command of the same number of taining twice the present number of troops, or even more, men in war. My limited experience on such subjects will is not disputed by any. But, sir; what use bave we for not justify me in attempting to point out the supernume- them? Our military posts are to be guarded, our frontiers rary officers now retained in public service, and submit- to be protected. In the early periods of our Government, ting to the House a plan of my own for its reorganization ; we were surrounded by numerous and warlike tribes of but I may be permitted, by way of example, and to show Indians, always disposed for war, and stimulated by Britthe necessity of the passage of the present resolution, to ish traders to make attacks upon our frontier settlements, turn the attention of the House to a branch of the army which were at that time separated from the interior of the that seems to me to have a greater excess of officers, in country by mountains almost impassable. Then three thouproportion to the duties to be performed, than, perhaps, sand men were deemed sufficient for our standing army; any other. For the purpose of paying the army, now but now, when we have the almost entire control of their consisting of upwards of six thousand men, there is retained trade, their numbers greatly diminished, their spirits humin the public service one paymaster general, whose salary bled by the repeated disasters to which they have been is two thousand five hundred dollars, and three clerks, subjected in their wars with us; when their power bas whose salaries amount to three thousand nine huudred left them, and when our resources have increased in a dollars, and one messenger, with a salary of six hundred greater proportion than theirs bave diminished, and when dollars, and fourteen paymasters, each with a salary of our frontiers are surrounded by new and flourishing States, about eight hundred and pinety dollars, (making the sum of sufficiently near them to render any assistance that may nineteen thousand four hundred and sixty dollars,) whose be necessary, is our standing army to be doubled Certain. principal if not only duty is to pay off the small number of ly not, sir. "As the population and wealth of our country, men now retained iu public service. I caunot believe, sir, advance, we are better able to protect ourselves, and that this number of officers should be retained, and that there is less necessity for regular troops to be employed amount of money expended for the purpose of paying the for that purpose. number of men belonging to the army; it seems to me that I should have been gratified, sir, if the gentleman from an additioộal clerk or two in the Treasury Department South Carolina, whilst comparing the number of troops might discharge all these duties without the slightest in- now in service, and our resources, with those of the ad. convenience being felt by the public.

ministration of Jeffers.in, bad also compared the expenThe chairman of the Military Committee next urges the ditures of the same period for the same purpose with propriety of our Government retaining in the military peace those of the present time. He would then have perceived establishment a greater proportion of officers than in time that the present expenditures of the army more than douof war, the skeleton of an army, I think he calls it, that ble those of that period in proportion to the numbers. the nation may be prepared, upon any sudden emergency, For these reasons, I am inclined to think that there might with skilful and experienced officers, to take the command be not only a diminution of the number of the officers of of, and discipline the troops, and attributes our disasters the army, but also of the number of men, without the at the commencement of the late war to the want of mili slightest injury to the public service, and that the whole tary skill and science in the officers appointed to command. peace establishment should be reduced to the number of I cannot think any emergency likely to arise in our coun- officers and men actually vecessary to take charge of the try, that will not give us ample time to convert our militia fortifications, and to secure the public property, I would into skilful and disciplined troops, prepared to meet any dan- pot, sir, have one man in the employment of the Governgers they may have to encounter: We are not, like other ment, either in the civil or military departments, whose nations of the world, surrounded by neighbors, each with services were pot demanded by the interest of the couna standing army, that may make sudden incursions upon try. our territories, and assail and destroy us. The militia of The Military Academy at West Point has been adverted the country have always been, and always will be, compe- to by the friends of the present resolution, as one of the tent to resist any attacks from the savage trives that reside abuses existing in the present peace establishment, and it upon our bordei's. Cavada is too feeble to be any just has been eulogized by the chairman of the Military Comcause of alarm. Nor can I admit that the disasters which mittee, and represented as one of the most useful instituoccurred at the commencement of the late war are pro- tions in our country. I have ever thought, sir, that it was perly attributable to the causes which have been assigned. founded upon principles wholly inconsistent with the true I should rather think that most of them originated in a mis policy of our country, and at war with the best interests taken confidence reposed by our Government in the offi- of the people; it destroys that equality of rights and privicers attached to our former peace establishment, under leges which should be extended to every citizen of the the belief that their experience and skill, acquired in time country; it is a system of patronage, by which the military of peace, better qualified them for the command of our offices of the country will be confined to the sons of the armies, than other citizens of the counuy; or perbaps more wealthy and influential, and only sought through the favor properly to the want of that vigor of intellect and acti- of the Executive, or the members of this House ; its convity of body, which too often accompany too much lei- tipuance a few years, I fear, will be the destruction of sure or indulgence in every pursuit in life. I should like all honorable emulation among the citizens of the counto know, sir, wbat essential services had been rendered to try for them. The military appointments made by the the country in the late war by the officers of the old army. Government, more particularly than any other, should With but few exceptions, so far as I recollect, they were be made accessible to the humblest individual in the esteemed inefficieni and wholly useless. These unfortu- community, and should be the reward of qualification nate incidents in our history, from whatever cause they and merit alone. If the Government chooses to indulge may have originated, seem to me to prove but little, either in the education of any portiou of the citizens of the

APRIL 24, 1830.]

Organization of the Army.

[H. OF R.

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country, why confine it to the military department? Why | annually, to bestow, its liberality bad better be extended not exteod it, likewise, to the officers of the davy; and to to the officers avd soldiers who served in the militia during your civil as well as military or paval officers ? Io my opi- the revolutionary war, and who now deed its assistance, vion, sir, it would be much more useful to extend these be- than to that class of young gentleman who are enabled to nefits to the officers employed in the civil departments of the procure appointments at the academy through the wealth Government. The interest of the Government and the dear- and influence of their family and friends. When these est rights of the people are every day subjected to their things come to be considered and weighed by the Americontrol, whilst we may not need, in a lifetime, the assistance can people, rely upon it, sir, that this institution, which has of one of your military educated gentlemen ; and if we did, been so much lauded, and puffed into importance and we might, in all probability, look for it in vain. We have popularity, will be put down-it is a species of aristocraconstant employment for the exercise of the best talents and cy, inconsistent with the liberality and freedom of our ininformation of the officers engaged in the civil departments stitutions, and more expensive than any other institution of the Government, and may never need the military know. in our country, and which I cannot but think would long ledge given to the cadets ; but if it be the will of the nation since have been destroyed, had not the power of appoint

to support institutions of this character, and pay professors ment been transferred from the Executive branch of this 1

for superintending the same, and select and support young Government to the members of this House. But if the gentlemen for education, can there be any propriety in House should not concur with me in opinion that this in

paying the favorite few to join the institution, and restitution ought to be destroyed, still the number of cadets 1

ceive from the Goveramento an education equal to any ought to be regulated so as to correspond with the wants that can be acquired elsewhere in our country? If the of the army; and the expenditures of the institution ought Government establishes the institution, prepares quarters to be diminished within reasonable bounds; and these confor the accommodation of the students, and pays profes- siderations alone would justify us in the adoption of the sors to superintend the same, and would but make it ac- resolution. cessible to every individual who would go, thousands would The resolution which is now the subject of discussion, gladly flock to the institution, alone for the education that contemplates much more than a bare reduction of the ex would be there acquired, without asking of the Govern- cess of officers now retained in our peace establishment; it mept any compensation, and without the privilege of be strikes at a branch of that system of excessive expenditure ing placed in the line of promotion to the military offices whịch has been too much indulged in by our Government

of the country, to the exclusion of other citizens. But for the last few years; it contemplates a diminution of the I now, sir, the Government pot only prepares, at a great anual expenses iocurred in maintaining and supporting

expense, the necessary buildings for the accommodation of our present peace establishment, which ought to be done, the students, and pays enormous prices to the instructors, as I shall presently show, whether the army can be reduc

but actually pays the cadets for receiving the blessings of ed or pot. be

an excellent education, about one dollar for each day that The gentleman from New York (Mr. TAYLOR] bas rethey remain in the institution, amounting to the aggregate minded us that, when this subject was before Congress in sum, for the pay of the officers of the iostitution and the 1821, and when the army was reduced from ten thousand cadets, of about ninety thousand dollars annually. It will to six thousand men, he was an advocate for that reducnot do to say that they are paid as officers of the army. tion, and for which he and those who acted with bim were de for if they were so, their pay ought uot to commence whilst nounced as radicals ; but he is now of opinion that no furthey are receiving, free of expense

, the best education ther reduction can be made without injury to the public the country can afford, and that, too, at a period of life service. I am sure, if the gentleman from New York had when their time would be probably occupied in such pur- turned his attention, for a moment, to the expenditures in suits, if they were not officers of the army. But, sir, they this branch of the Government for the last few years, and ought not to be considered officers of the army; they are compared them with the expenditures for the same destudents, engaged in a course of studies that qualifies them partment for a few year prior to the reduction of the arfor any other pursuit in life, as much as that of the army; my in 1821, he would have still seen the necessity of either and the document furnished us proves that there has been reducing the number of officers, or men, or both, or in some

as yet but one out of six who receives admission into the way curtailing the necessary expenditures. In this branch i institution that continues in the service of the Government of the Government, but little has been gained in the cause s There have been admitted into this institution two thousand of economy by the reduction that took place in 1821. The

and fifty-three students, of which five hundred and ninety- expenditures of the last few years actually exceed those one graduated, and three hundred and sixty-one now re- for a few years prior to that time, when the army was ten main in the service of the country. These facts prove to thousand strong; which will be seen by a reference to the my mind, clearly, that this institution is resorted to, more documents in the War Department, which show that, for

for the purposes of general education, than with a view of the year is becoming officers of the army. But why is it, that, after 1819. " * Pay of the army, and subsistence having expended such sums of movey in their education, of the officers,"

$1,002,829 10 we should give them the preference over the other citizens "Subsistence,"

989,213 00 1 of the country, in the command of the armies Other citizebs of the country may, aud do frequently, receive mili

$1,992,040 10 tary education, at their own expense, and are as well qualified and meritorious as the young gentlemen educated at 1820. “ Pay of the army, and subaistence West Point; but, if they apply for office, their claims must of the officers,"

636,784 00 * be postponed in favor of those educated at this bantling “Subsistence,"

622,048 00 of the Government, without even an inquiry made as to their merits or qualifications. But, sir, if this institution,

$1,258,832 00 i limited as it must necessarily be in its operation, must still

be kept up, ought the selection of the cadets to be confin- 1828. Pay of the army, and subsistence i ed to that class of the community who have not otherwise of the officers,"

$1,028,121 24 the means of receiving an education ? Ought it not, sir, “Subsistence,"

246,217 96 to be limited to the pennyless orpbans of the brave men who have perished in the service of the country!

$1,273,339 20 If, sir, the Government has such large sums of money,

VOL. VI.-103.

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H. OF R.)

Judge Peck.

(APRIL 24, 1830.

1829. “Pay of the army, and subsistence

the public debt; sustain, unimpaired, the public credit; I of the officers,"

$1,184,295 11 would busband the resources of the country, by leaving "Subsistence,"

299,200 92 the money of the people in its proper place their own

pockets; these, in my estimation, are the true prepara$1,433,496 03 tions of a republic for war; I would leave standing armies

and the sword for the monarch and despot. The militia, From which it appears that the “pay of the army and sir, so often the subject of ridicule and abuse, is the only subsistence of the officers,” for the years 1828 and 1829, army upon wbich we can rely for the protection of our when the army was about six thousand strong, exceed that country; the citizens of the country must, and ever will, for the years 1819 and 1820, when the army was ten thou- protect themselves wbilst their liberties are worth preband strong, by the sum of five hundred and twenty-two serving; they are the supporters of our Government in thousand eight hundred and five dollars and twenty-five peace, and must be its defenders in war; our Government cents; and that, by the act of 1821, reducing the army to is based upon this principle; we trusted them in the revo six thousand, we have gained the dismissal of four thou- lution, and were not deceived by them; we confided in sand men from the public service, without any correspond. them in the late war, and were not disappointed. I will ent diminution of the expenses of the army.

not dow detain the House by pointing them to instances of I would not have it understood, sir, that in making and courage, patriotism, and valor, in the militia of our coun presenting these estimates to the House, I impute any try, that would equal, if not surpass, any of the nunierous blame whatever to the officer now presiding at the head instances to which our attention has been directed by the of the War Department, or the one wbo discharged the duo gentleman from South Carolina; they are familiar to each ties of it during the late administration. If the expeudi member of the House, and are unparalleled in the history tures are, or bave been, excessive or improper, which I by of any country. no means assert, blame is properly attributable to this I bave briefly adverted to the reasons which will induce House ; if appropriations are made for specific objects by me to vote for the resolution of my colleague, and flatter us, it becomes the duty of the Executive to see them ap myself that we will derive such information from the War plied; if any abuse exist, the Congress of the United Department, should it pass, as will enable us to reorganize States is responsible for it to the nation, and from us the the army on some more economical plan, better adapted people expect its correction. These estimates are pre- to the situation of the country, and without injury to the sented solely for the purpose of showing the propriety of public service. the passage of the present resolution, or some one of a (Here the hour expired, and the debate closed for this similar character, under the hope that the attention of the day.) Secretary of War may be directed to it, and that his expe

LJUDGE PECK. rience in the department will enable bim to report to us some system for the reduction of the expenditures of the

The House then resolved itself into Committee of tbe army, that will enable us to act efficiently, and without Whole on the state of the Union, Mr. Wilde in the injury to the public service.

clair. The chairman of the Military Committee considers that Mr. BURGES spoke at length against the original reso the present organization of the army ought to be retained lution. He occupied the floor for about two hours. as a means of national defence, and has eloquently point Mr. WICKLIFFE spoke in reply, and in defence of the ed out the superiority of skilful officers and disciplined course pursued by the Committee on the Judiciary. troops over the militia, and has illustrated his positions by The amendment offered by Mr. EVERETT was Degaa recurrence to standing armies of several European na- tired. tions, and their success over undisciplined troops. I could The resolution offered by the chairman of the commitDot, if I was so inclined, follow him through all bis illus- tee was agreed to-yeas, 113. trations, or successfully controvert the position assumed The coinmittee theo rose, and reported the resolution. by him. Whether the position assuined by him be true Mr. BUCHANAN asked for the yeas and nays op con: or not, our Government, being based upon different prio- currence in the resolution ; which were ordered. ciples from those alluded to by him, must necessarily re. Mr. PETTIS then moved a call of the House ; which was sort to a different mode of defence. I may be permitted refused. bere to remark, that, if the gentleman. from South Caro The question was then taken on concurring with the comlina bad turned one other page in the history of those pa- mittee in the resolution, and carried in the affirmative. tions, he would have seen the consequences resulting from YEAS.Messrs. Alexander, Allen, Alston, Anderson, their social systems, Ironbanded despotism and arbitrary Archer, Armstrong, Barowell, Barringer, Beekman, Blair, misrale; the people deprived of the right of self-govern- of South Carolina, Bockee, Boon, Borst. Bouldio, Brod ment; immense public debts ; and burdensome and op head, Brown, Buchanan, Cuhoon, Cambreleng, Camppressive systems of taxation; these are the consequences bell, Carsou, Chandler, Chilton, Claiborne, Coke, Cole resulting to European nations from their military organi- man, Couder, Cowles, Craig, of New York, Craig, of Vir: zation : the surrender of their liberties is the price they ginia, Orawford, Crocheron, Daviel, Davenport, Davis, of pay for protection by skilful officers and disciplined troops. South Carolina, Deberry, Denny, Desha, De Witt, Dod To my mind, sir, the argument of the gentleman proves dridge, Drayton, Dudley, Earll, Ellsworth, Evans, of the necessity of retaining in the service of this couotry a Maine, Evans, of Pennsylvania, Findley, Fioch: Forward, very large standing army, rather than the propriety of re- Foster, Fry, Gaither, Gilmore, Gordon, Hall, Halsey, Ham. taining in our service the present number of officers and mops, Harvey, Haynes, Hinds, Hodges, Howard, Hubbard, men. That we should prepare for war in time of peace, Ihrie, Isacks, Jennings, Jobuson, of Kentucky, Johnson, of is undisputed in our country; but how prepare!. By edu: Tennessee, Kendall, Kincaid, King, of New York, Lamar, Cating one part of the community to command the other ? Lea, Lecompte, Letcher, Loyal, Lewis, Lyon, Magee, By setting apart one portion of the citizens for the de Maxwell

, of New York, Maxwell

, of Virgioia, McCreery, fence of the other

, and sustaining and supporting them in McDuffie, McIntire, Mitchell, Monell, Muhlenberg, Nuck. peace ! Instead of thus rendering our armies skilful and olls, Overton, Polk, Potter, Powers, Ramsey, Richardson, brave, I would rely upon the virtue, the intelligence, and Roane, Russel, Seott, Shepperd, Shielda, Semmes, Smjh the moral energies of the country; I would arm and dis- Speight, Spencer, of New York, Spencer, of Maryland, cipline the citizens of the country, the militia ; I would re- Sprigg, Sterigere, Storrs, of New York, Swift, Taliaferro, move every burden from the finances of the country; pay | Test, Thompsou, of Georgia, Thompson, of Ohio, Trez

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