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MAY 8, 1830.]

The Tarif

(H. OF R.

This argumeut struck me as possessing the meritof novelty in an unequal and vofair contest! Sir, they ask not for at least. Heretofore, I have heard it asserted by gentle- bounties—these would not be easily obtained from this men opposed to the tariff, that it was taxing the many for body. Applicants for favor bere, more frequently meet the benefit of the few. But now the argument is revers- with frowns than smiles; they ask for protection; they ed, and we are taxing the few for the benetit of the many have a right to expect it, and it is the duty of the GovernSurely, sir, the proposition cannot be sustained. Can any ment to afford it. gentleman believe that ten millions of people in the United The internal industry of our country must be sustained, State eat less, drink less, use less clothing, and otherwise that we may acquire absolute independence. Of what consume less than the two millions in the southern States' value is our political liberty, of what account is our power Can it be possible that in the South there is a greater con- to meet bere freely to legislate for the Union, if we cansumption of foreign goods, more wine drank, more tea, su not avail ourselves of our natural resources, to rescue gar, coffee, and hardware used, thao among the (10,000,- us from a humiliating dependence upon foreign pations 000) ten millions of people in the other States ? The com- If political freedom was worth the severe struggle of the merce of the country, we are told, belongs to the South. revolution, certainly to establish ourselves wholly indeUpon this point there was a time wheu the gentleman enter- pendent of our first, our last, our only enemy, for the euptained more liberal views. He will, therefore, pardon me ply of articles necessary to our comfort, security, and de while I take the liberty of quoting his own language:

feuce, and which enter largely into the consumption of "The back country of South Carolina bəs no more iote- the country, is worthy a powerful effort, although it might rests in commerce, than every gentleman in the western be attended with a temporary inconvenience. We CAU country has.

Commerce, from its universal diffusion and bave. Do becurity except in a reliance upon our own reinfluence, is exclusively national in its nature, benefiting sources; upon the industry, skill, and enterprise of our equally every part of the country.”

own citizens, protected by wise and salutary laws. Such The gentleman, however, asserted that this their com a policy gives life, vigor, and reality to freedom, and merce is to be destroyed, and accordingly denounced the diffuses through our extensive country, energy, wealth protecting system as tyrannical, oppressive, unequal, and and power, calculated to make us happy at home, feared unconstitutional

. Here I would remark that this system, and respected abroad. Under its benign influence, our which is now so much abused by certain gentlemen, and bays, our rivers, our lakes, our canals, and roads will against which they declaim so violently, has met the ap-teem with commerce, a home trade, a thousand times probation of our Presidents,

from Washington to the distio. more valuable to the country than all its boasted foreign guished individual who at present occupies the Presidential commerce; requiring no expensive navies to protect it; chair.

which the caprice and hostility of a foreign nation cau And, sir, as the opinions of Mr. Jefferson' are now in neither impair adnibilate. high repute here, I would ask gentlemen who venerate Sir, much warmth and zeal bave been manifested by genthe cbaracter of that eminent man, and profess a strong tlemen in the progress of this discussion; this may be all attachment and great deference to his opinions on some well enough, if intended to recommend them to southern other subjects, to be consistent with themselves, and show cultivators, but is out of place here. When the gentleman some little regard for his sentiments in relation to the [Mr. McDUFFIE) attacks with such intemperate severity policy of encouraging domestic manufactures. Permit me the right of the majority to govern, he attacks the funto read a passage or two from a letter of bis to Benjamin damental principle of our republican institutions ; be atAustin :

tacks the very principle which has given to him a seat " That to be independent for the comforts of life, we on this floor. If the gentleman supposes, by the use of must fabricate them ourselves. We must now place the epithets, barsh terms, and reviling the majority of this manufacturer by the side of the agriculturist. The grand House, stigmatizing it as an interested, oppressive, tyranniinquiry puw is, shall we make our own comforts

, or go cal

, plundering majority, to bring it into derision, to de without them, at the will of a foreign pation ! He, there- grade the Government of his country in the minds of bis fore, who is now against domestic manufactures, must be constituents, and encourage them to an open resistance reducing us either to a dependence on that nation, or to be to its laws, he may possibly succeed; and, if he does, he

clothed in skins, and to live like wild beasts in dens and will be among the first to deplore the consequences. We caverns. Experience bas now taught me that manufac- have been told, sir, that there exists in South Carolina a

tures are now as necessary to our independence as to our great excitement ; that they are a bigh-minded and magnacomfort."

midous people; that they are ground down to the earth by Such were the opinions of Mr. Jefferson in 1816, the the protecting system, will be driven to extremities; that very year in which, it is said, the system for the encourage. forbearance on their part is no longer a virtue; that resistment and protection of our manufactures had its origio, apce may be expected; that the measures of Government, or was distinctly avowed. U pou this principle of protec- if adhered to, will

, in South Carolina, “ spring up in armed tion to our citizens in their lawful pursuits, the Govern- men.". I attach very little weight to such high-toned dement has acted from the period of its organization. Your clarations; they may do very well to garnish a fourth of 1 statute book is crowded with acts intended to protect and July oration, or answer an electioneering purpose during

encourage merchants in their commercial pursuits. When a canvaes ; they will fail of an effect here. And I would commerce was assailed, the arm of the Government was merely remark to the gentleman from South Carolina, stretched forth for its defence; embargoes and non-inter- [Mr. BLAIR) that, from the fate of the “armed men," course were resorted to; when these were not sufficient, whose story, bas furnished him with a trope so felicitous, a navy was equipped, the sword of the nation was drawn, he may derive a salutary moral; they turned their arms var ensued, and blood was the price paid for protection against each other, and nearly all perished the victims of And shall we leave our mechanics and manufacturers to fraternal war1 suffer from the withering influence of foreign regulations,

"cadunt su biti per mutua vulnera fratres." without attempting to countervail them ? When their Sir, I regret to see this spirit among our southern brepursuits are assailed by frauds, by perjuries, by fraudulent thren. That there is an excitemeut of the kind described, invoices, by desperate and bankrupt foreign merchants and among them, may be all very true; I believe it ; and it may manufacturers, becomes, then, the arm of the Goveroment be bordering upon frenzy, and wrought up to a high deparalyzed ! Sball protection by legislation be witbbeld gree by intemperate political harangues and declamation. from those industrious men who work for you in peace, How is it to be allayed? What does the magnanimity of and fight for you in war! And must they be left to perish the South require of us in order to appease the angry

H. OF R.]

The Tariff

[MAY 8, 1830

spirit of the storm which lowers in their horizon? No- from my own observatiou. I have lived long enough to thing less than the sacrifice of the industry, interests, pros- witness the salutary operation of the protecting system. perity, happiness, and independence of at least eight mil. During the late war, when most foreign manufactures lions of people. This is what is now demanded of those who were necessarily excluded, domestic commerce and many advocate the protecting system. The storm may gather factures, in the district from which I come, rose rapidly to. on; let those who have been the instruments of exciting it, a flourishing condition: all kinds of industry prospered; suppress it; they can effect it without any sacrifice of their the farmers found ready markets for their produce: labor. political of natural rights; both may be preserved with ers, mechanics, and manufacturers were actively employ: the public peace. But their menaces will never deter me ed. A change awaited us; peace returned, and that which from a faithful and fearless discharge of iny duty here to diffused joy and gladness through other parts of the counthe Union.

try brought gloom and disstress upon us. The picture has Let me now ask, what would be the consequences to the been altered. After suffering for several years, during State which I have the honor in part to represent, if this which period business sunk to the lowest point of depresamendment should be adopted! Disastrous in the ex. sion, manufactures were every where going down, and treme. Pass this amendment, and you sweep with the our artists, without employment, were thrown helpless and besom of destruction one of the fairest portions of our coun- pennyless upon the world: at length protection came; the try. It aims a death blow at the best iuterests of Penn- encouragement of the new tariff changed the scene, and, sylvania ; it strikes ut her iron, her salt, and other exten- where once gloom and despondence prevailed, you will sive manufactures

. Pass it, and you will spread ruin and now find a flourishing city, crowded with an industrious distress where now is to be met the cheering hum of in- population, whose manufactures have quadrupled under dustry; and scenes will arise more calamitous than any that your much abused protecting system. I wish that southern ever yet visited that State. Her manufactures are now gentlemen, in making their tours of pleasure or for health, generally io successful operation ; this amendment would would visit our section of the country: there they would, orerturn them. Upon my native city, which, from her receive practical illustrations of the benefits of the system, pumerous and extensive manufacturing establishments, bas) and of its general importance to the whole country, and been called the Biriningham of America, this, amendment particularly to the West, even “ the far, far West," to use would inflict the most disastrous effects ; adopt it, and you the terms of the gentleman from New York, (Mr. CAN pass a ploughshare over a city of twenty thousand inhab- BRELENG] who seemed to think the West deserved his itants, and consign that now fourishing and growing place sympathy for the sufferings which he supposes they en to depopulation and ruin. Many other now populous and dure under this system. Sir, I am from the West, al ! thriving cities and towns, not only in Pennsylvania, but in though not from the “far, far West;" we know the burother manufacturing States, would share the fate of Pitts- dens we bear, the taxes we pay; and also know and apburg. And all this would be brought upon those who preciate the great advantages derived from the protecting bave confided in your acts. The manufacturers have re- system. Yes, sir, it is as beneficial to the West as to any lied upon your legislation as a pledge that they would be other portion of the country. Let the gentleman take bis protected.' In Pennsylvania, the manufacturers of iron and stand on the bauk of the Ohio river, that great highway cotton have greatly increased within a few years. Your of the Union, he will then see what this great system has legislation has encouraged thousands to embark their effected for the West, even for the remotest West." He fortuues, their credit, their skill, their industry, their all, will see the productions of every western state burried in enterprises and establishmentsjeminently beneficial and along, in steamboats, to the great manufacturing district important to the country. All these it is now proposed at the head of the Ohio, to be consumed there, and among to prostrate at a blow. Are the previous acts of this the extensive irou establishments in the interior of PennGovernment to be considered as involving no pledge on its sylvania. Sugar and molasses of Louisiana, lead and pels part? Are these, and all arguments in favor of the sys- tries from Missouri and Illinois, pig iron and cotton from tem of protection, to be derided as the doings of an in- Tennessee, bacon, hemy, and tobacco from Kentucky, terested and selfish majority? If the solemn legislation of and various productions of Ohio, are exchanged for the do the Government is not to be considered as a pledge, wbat mestic manufactures of iron, glass, paper, steel, cotton, is it? It is a mockery, it is insult, it is an invitation held woollen, and other articles derived from the industry and out to lure to their own destruction those who trust in it. skill of manufacturers in Pennsylvania, and parts of Virgi Will this Government first invite its citizens to adopt cer- nia and Ohio. This is but a sketch, a mere ontline of the taio measures, and to engage in certain pursuits and em- picture. The whole interior feels the life giving touch of ployments of capital and industry' and, after they have the American system. Sir, before gentlemen fis all the done so, are they to be overwhelmed'in calamities and ruin sufferings of the South upon this course of policy, ought by the versatile and reckless legislation of this body ? The they not to pause, and weigh well both facts and arguments! evil would not rest with Pennsylvania, and other ma The gentleman from South Carolina (Mr. Draytox] nufacturing States ; it would affect the whole community ; thinks we cannot manufacture as cheaply as the British; and the South would not escape its aggravating influence that they can undersell us here, even in the cotton goods, What would be the effect of all this? Do gentlemen ima- Here, sir, experience and facts are at war with the gergine it would raise the price of cottont Certainly that tleman's assertion. The protection afforded to our cate cannot be expected. Will it heal the grievances of the ton manufactures has accomplished the great object insoutberu States ! Will it soothe their wounded feelings ? tended, and we cau now be supplied with the coarser Will it afford them any consolation to be told of, or to kinds of cotton, and with cotton yarns, at prices not higher, witness, the distress and embarrassments which would be if not less than those at which the foreigo fabries could be brought upon Pepusylvania by the proposed amendment ? sold at a fair sale. I hold in my hand a letter from a per: I appeal to the gentlemen themselvez, uvd ask if the pros- son engaged in the cotton business in Manchester, stating tration of the industry of Pennsylvania would quiet the the prices there in December last. I have, also, a state complaints and the excitement in the South, of which we ment of the prices in Philadelphia. From these it aphave heard so much.

pears that the Philadelphia yarns can be purchased for less The gentleman from South Carolina who immediately than the Manchester yaros, and that cotton cloths rate at preceded me, [Col. Drayton) has endeavored to show about the same with the Manchester; it is, however, gedethat the manufacturers are suffering from the very muen- rally admitted that the American fabric is, in quality, susures which they themselves solicited. Sir, I differ from perior, and I believe, is preferred in the Canton and Mexi him radically in that view of the subject. I may speak I can markets. Why, then, it may be asked, keep up the

MAY 10, 1830.)

Bank of the United States.

(H. OF R.

duties? Sir, to shield our own manufacturers, who, by influence over the persons in their employment. The gentheir ingenuity, skill, and superior work, can compete tleman does them gross injustice ; they are honorable with the British, not only at home, but even in the fo- men; men of integrity; men of liberal, of generous feel. reign markets, from frauds, and an unfair competition ings, especially towards those who are dependent upon from sacrifices at auctions, which desperate and bankrupt them. They would disdain to corrupt or intimidate even British dealers and manufacturers find it necessary to make. the most humble, obscure, and dependent individual at

The gentleman seemed to think that we should relax tached to their establishments. They well know that efthe restrictive system, because, he says, the British take forts of this kind would recoil upon themselves, and bring from us more flour than all the other countries of Europe, upon them the indignant frowns of an honest community. Asia, and Africa together. Let us see how this matter The gentlemau is also much mistaken in the views he enstands, and whether we ought to favor the British manu- tertains of the character of our mechanics, by supposing, facturer in return for the purchases of our flour by the for a moment, that they are influenced by corrupt motives subjects of Great Britain.

of self-interest, or the fear of offending those by whom Exports of Flour, from 1st October, 1827, to 30th Septem- have been brought up among them; I live in their very

they are employed. Sir, I was born among mechanics; I ber, 1828.

midst; I know them well; I kuow they deserve no impuTotal quantity of flour exported from the United States tations of this kind. These men are as honorable as any

to all parts, 860,809 barrels, of which there were ex class in our community. A strong feeling of independence ported to England

21,488

governs them in their opinions, and in the exercise of their Ditto to Scotland

1,770 rights

. Although they are mechanics, they are not the less

virtuous on that account; they know that they are freemen: Total exported to Great Britain

23,258 they feel that they are freemen, and like freemen they act. Total exported to Gibraltar

50,593 They are as patriotic and as much devoted to their counTo other British possessions

87,219 try, to its laws, and to the Union, as the man who rolls in

afluence, and may have a thousand slaves to call him masGrand total of flour exported to Great Briain ter. Such I know to be the character of the people of and her dependencies

- 161,070 Pennsylvania; of her mechanics and her manufacturers ;

and such, I trust, it will ever remain. If they should ever There were exported to Cuba

110,610 become 80 degraded as basely to barter their principles To Danish West Indies

145,261 for interest, they will then no longer deserve to be free. To Brazil

157,194 [It was now after five o'clock.] Now, sir, it appears that the small island of Cuba takes Mr. BURGES moved that the committee rise, wishing from us nearly as much flour as the whole British empire; to deliver his views on the important subject under debate, that Brazil and the Danish West Indies, each, also take but unwilling to commence at so late an hour of the day. from us almost as much as Great Britain and Ireland, with The committee refused to rise, and Mr. BURGES deall her other possessions, in Europe, Asia, and America clined going on. We are under no obligations for British consumption of

Mr. McDUFFIE expressed a wish and a right, by parAmerican bread stuffs. The truth is, they will receive liamentary usage, to close the debate, and hoped no gennothing of the kind from us until their people are threat- tleman would reserve his remarks until after he [Mr. McD.] ened with starvation. Flour shipped to Great Britain must had spoken. be there bonded, and cannot be taken into market upless Mr. BURGES, however, would not consent to comat bigh rates of duty, even when there is a scarcity, and mence what he wished to say, at so late an hour ; and, afthe wheat of that country has risen to a price exorbitant. ter one or two motions to that effect, While on this part of the subject, permit me to give

The committee rose, and the House adjourned. Mr. Huskisson's opinions in relation to the protection of the agricultural interests of Great Britain. He says: "There is, therefore, no effectual security, either in

MONDAY, MAY 10, 1830. peace or war, against á frequent return of scarcity, ap

BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. proaching to starvation, such as we have of late years so Mr. POTTER, of North Carolina, by leave of the frequently experienced, but in our maintaining ourselves House, offered the following resolutions : habitually independent of foreign supply. Let the bread 1. Resolved, That the constitution of the United States we eat be produce of corn grown among ourselves, and I, confers no power on Congress to establish a corporation for one, care not how cheap it is ; the cheaper the better; with authority to manufacture money out of paper, and it is cheap now."

círculate the same within the limits of any of the States. U [It was then at seventy-two shillings per quarter.] 2. Resolved, That if such power existed in Congress, it

Again : To ensure a continuance of that cheapnese and were unwise and inexpedient to exercise it, and especially that sufficiency, we must ensure to our own growers that to the extent contemplated in the present charter of the - protection against foreigo import which has produced these Bank of the United States.

blessings, and by which alone they can be permanently 3. Resolved, That the paper money or banking system maintained. A steady home supply is the only safe founda- generally, is in its tendency ruinous to the interests of lation of steady and moderate prices."

bor, and dangerous to the liberties of the people. Such is Mr. Huskisson's doctrine ; and it is to this I wish 4. Resolved, therefore, That this House will not consent to confine those gentlemen who point to him as the polar to the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United star of free trade. Protection is the basis of Mr. H's whole States. system; protection of British industry against all foreign The resolutions having been read, rivals. We ask the same for American industry.

Mr. POTTER said it was not his object to invite discusHaviog the honor, in part, to represent a district in sion on the subject at this time. He had offered the resoPeopsylvania. distinguished for its manufactures and its lution as a set-off to the report of the Committee of Ways manufacturing population, I cannot refrain from noticing and Means, on the same subject; and be pledged bimself

, the remark made by the gentleman [Mr. McDUFFIE] rela- whenever it came up for consideration, to make good the tive to the influence which be supposes is exercised at propositions embraced in his resolutions. He had offered elections by capitalists or employers, who are stigmatized them altogether, independently of any regard to mere peras cold hearted, avaricious monopolists, who exert a venal / sonal partyism, with which he acknowledged Do sympathy

VOL. V.I-116.

H. Or R.]

Public Lands.

[May 10, 1830.

whatever, but as a guaranty to the American people, from move its commitment, which would only tend to delay the his place in this House, that the measure, to prepare the bill, but that it be postponed to Monday next for considerway for which the report of the Committee of Ways and ation in the House. Means bad been brought in, would be resisted here. It Mr. A. H. SHEPPERD, of North Carolina, differed should be resisted here; and he earnestly hoped that the from Mr. Isacks. He suspected that this bill was not the people in every section of the United States, would, remnant of an old system, but the stepping stone to a new forthwith, fix their attention upon this subject, as one in oue. At any rate, it proposed a measure of a very grate volving, in the most essential manner, their dearest rights and important character, and he hoped it would take the and interests; and that, by a timely and vigilant exercise ordinary course, by going to a Committee of the Wbole of their power at the polls, they would take care to or- House, where it could be examined and discussed. He ganize this House with a direct reference to the adjustment made that motion. of this question. For the present he moved to lay the Mr. VINTON, of Ohio, made a few remarks to show resolutions on the table.

the necessity of passing on this bill before the close of the Mr. WHITTLESEY demanded that the question, whe- present session. The bill proposed to reduce the price ther the House would consider the resolutions, should be of certain of the public lands from one dollar and twenty. put, lest the entertaining of the motion by the House five cents to seventy-five cents' an acre, and, if it were might affect the price of the stock, &c.; but,

permitted to lie here ubacted on, no one would enter The SPEAKER deciding that the motion to lay on the public land while the measure is pending. The effect table took precedence of the motion of " consideration," would be, therefore, to euspend the entry of lands until

The question was put on laying the resolutions on the the bill was finally disposed of, and the revenue from that table, and decided in the affirmative as follows:

source he consequently cut off. He hoped the bill would YEAS.-Messrs. Alexander, Allen, Alston, Anderson, not be committed, because that would endanger its being Angel, Archer, P. P. Barbour, Bell, John Blair, Boon, acted on during the session ; but that it would be taken Borst, Brodhead, Brown, Cambreleng, Carson, Claiborne, up on Monday next, and either passed or rejected; if reClay, Coke, Hector Craig, Robert Craig, Crawford, Crock-jected, the public mind would be vodeceived, and settlers ett, Crocheron, Davenport, J. Davis, W. R. Davis, De- would know what they bad to depend on. berry, Deody, Desha, Earll, Findlay, Ford, Forward, Mr. IRVIN, of Ohio, made a few remarks to show the Fry, Gaither, Gordon, Green, Hall, Harvey, Haynes, ivjurious effect which this measure would · bave on the Hemphill

, Hinds, Hoffman, Hubbard, Thrie, Irvin, Isacks, interests of Ohio, and that he wished time to reflect on R. M. Johnson, C. Johnson, Kincaid, P. King, Lecompte, and examine it, no opportunity for doing so having been Lewis, Loyall , Lumpkin, Martin, Thomas Maxwell, Mc afforded

to bim by the Committee on the Public Lands Creery, McCoy, McDuffie, McIntire, Mitchell, Modell, Mr. WILLIAMS, of No Carolina, moved the indeNuckolls, Pettis, Polk, Potter, Powers, Rencher, Roane, finite postponement of the bill; but this, under the pend. Russell, Scott, Wm. B. Shepard, A. H. Shepperd, Shields, ing motion, not being in order, be varied it to a motion Semmes, Sill

, S. A. Smith, Speight, Stanbery, Standifer, that the bill be laid ou the table. Strong, Trezvaut, Tucker, Verplanck, Wayne, Weeks, Mr. WHITE, of New York, called for the yeas and days, Wickliffe, Williams, Yancey.-89.

and they were ordered. NAYS.-Messrs. Armstrong, Arnold, Bailey, Noyes, Bar Mr. CLAY asked Mr. WILLIAMS to withdrav bis mober, Barringer, Bartley, Baylor, Bockee, Burges, Cahoon, tion, to give an opportunity for one or two words of erChilton, Condict, Cooper, Cooper, Cowles, Crane, Creighton, planation. De Witt, Doddridge, Duncan, Ellsworth, Geo. Evans, Mr. WILLIAMS replied, that, if one or two words were Joshua Evans, Edward Everett, Horace Everett, Finch, said for the bill, one or two would be said against it; he, Gilmore, Greppell, Hawkins, Hughes, Hunt, Huntington, therefore, could not withdraw his motion. Ingersoll, Jeudings, Jobos, Kendall

, Letcher, Martindale, The question was then taken on the motion to lay the Lewis Maxwell, Mercer, Miller, Muhlenberg, Norton, bill on the table, and decided in the negative by the fol Pearce, Pierson, Ramsey, Randolph, Reed, Rose, Ambrose lowing vote: yeas, 60—ays, 118. Spencer, Stephens, Sutherland, Swand, Swift, Taylor, Mr. JENNINGS said, the subject of this bill was not Test, Vance, Varnum, Vinton, Wasbington, Whittlesey, so new as some gentlemen imagined. It had been before Wilde, Wingate, Young:-66.

Congress in one form or olber for six years past. He proMr. DRAYTON, of South Carolina, and Mr. WHITE, ceeded to make some remarks on the bearing of the bill

; of New York, were, at their own request, excused from but the merits of it uot being in order, he was interrupted voting on the question, each stating that be was interested by the Chair; and as a stockholder in the bank.

The motion to postpone the bill to Monday was agreed to Mr. HALL, of North Carolina, stated to the House that Mr. VINTON tben submitted the following substitute, as he bappened to be without the bar of the House when wbich he intended to offer when the bill should come up his name was called, he was therefore precluded from for consideration, and which, on his motion, was ordered to voting, but that he would have voted against laying the be printed, viz. resolutions on the table.

Be it enacted, &c. That all public land which has been Mr. ARCHER rose to move that the resolutions be or may be exposed to sale for the several periods of time printed; but the admission of a motion requiring unanimous hereinafter enumerated, and remains or shall remain upconsent, and it being objected to, the motion failed. sold, shall be thereafter subject to entry and sale at the

prices hereinafter specified, that is to say: for twenty PUBLIC LANDS.

years and upwards, at one dollar per acre; for twenty-five Mr. ISACKS, from the Committee on the Public Lands, years and upwards, at eighty cents; for thirty years and reported, without amendment, the bill from the Senate upwards, at sixty cents; for thirty-five years and upwards, "to reduce the price of a portion of the public lands at forty cents ; for forty years and upwards, at twenty cents; beretofore in market, and to grant a preference to actual for forty-five years and upwards, at teu cents per acre. settlers."

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That before any tract Mr. I. remarked that this bill was a mere remnant of a of land shall be subject to entry at any of the prices afore system familiar to the House ; that the provisions of the said, it shall, at each of the aforesaid periods of time, be bill were simple, and easy to be understood, and con- offered at public sale in the same manner that the public tained nothing which required a reference of it to a Com- lands are or may be required, by law, to be 'exposed at mittee of the whole House. He, therefore, would not | public vendue; and, at such public sale, the land so of

MAY 10, 1830.)

The Tariff

'[H. or R

fered may be sold for any sum per acre not less than that tions are "set in note-books, conned and learned by rote," at which it will be thereafter subject to entryunder the and uttered and published ; " and cast into our teeth,” in foregoing provisions of this act.

the councils and legislative halls of our own nation. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That when any tract The political literature of England is imported into the in of land shall remain unsold after having been for fifty years United States. All the false and fabricated theories of

exposed to sale, according to the provisions of this act, it the old world, whatever has been tried, and convicted,

shall not be thereafter subject to entry and sale at the land and branded in England, though condemned like common # office for the district within which it may be situated, but felons to transportation there, are, with a diligence unknown a shall be withdrawn from market, and remain subject to in former times, imported and naturalized, and acclimated the future disposition of Congress.

in this country; and sent abroad to deceive, divide, and, THE TARIFF LAWS.

if possible, destroy the American people. The English

Reviews and the Southern Review teem alike with this Ou the motion of Mr. MALLARY, all the intervening or- foul progeny of delusion. The system of political econoders, engrossed bills, &c, were postponed to a future day, my, prepared for the United States, is equally, and at the and the House resolved itself into a Committee of the same time, the colloquial theme for the statesmen of St. Whole, Mr. Polk in the chair, on the bill " to amend the James' and of South Carolina. The English Commons and

act in alteratiou of the several acts imposing duties on im- the Americau House of Representatives listen to the same į ports.". The question being on Mr. McDuffie's amendmeut, reasonings, and the saide abuses of our whole protecting

Mr. BURGES rose, and said, he would first of all present system. to the gentlemen of the committee bis most cordial thanks Whether this united effort be the effect of united counfor the courtesy of their last adjournment. The question cils and identical interest-, it matters not; for the grent bad been ably discussed, but not altogether fuished; and object towards which it moves is in both the same, and, if be had more fear of wearying their patience, than hope successful, must again pluce these United States in a conof exhausting the subject under debate. I would not tres- dition of colonial dependence on Great Britain. pass on your indulgence, (said Mr. B.] by any attempt Sir, our ancestors migrated bither to build a country, to do aguio what has been already_80 well performed. an independent country, as well for themselves as for Where better bands have reaped, I will satisfy myself their descendants. When they had landed here, they with the humbler office of gleaning the field; or such looked out upon the earth on which they had placed their diligence as they have bestowed on cutting the crop. I feet, and back again on the friendly bosom of the ocean will endeavor tu bestow on bringing home and securing which had borne them to these shores, and then up to the harvest.

the clear blue heaven over their heads; and lifting their Should any one throw a lighted torch into a field of hands in thanksgiving and supplication towards the God ripened corn, all honest med would rush forward to ex. above, they resolved, under His direction, to depend on tinguish the flame. If such a thing, left by the incendiary, those hands and those elements for their subsistence, for were found by the prudent husbandmau, burning in his their food, their clothing, and babitation. Independence orchard or garden, he, although without fear that his green was their first aspiration ; independence of that country grass or flourishing trees might be injured. yet would, which had drive them into exile. From that hour to this, from habitual care and prudence, either with his foot or all true Americans, who have understood and pursued the biz hoe, strike out and extinguish the smoking nuisance. great interests of this country, bave lived and labored for

Wben leleterious vostrums or counterfeited cvio are this independence. All Britons and friends of Britain, all abroad, the press takes jurisdiction of tbe circulating mis anti-Americans, as well before as at and since the revoluchief; and, by advertisement, the people are warned to; tion, bave opposed its growth and establishment, or plotsecure their pockets and preserve their persons.

Weted and toiled for its subversion and overtbrow. euuct precautionary laws to exclude pestilential disenses ; It bas been the great and established policy of England, and he who should wilfully bring the plague into a popu- from the first settlement of the colonies to this time, to con

lous city, might, even in the most free country, be io fine the people of this country to agriculture, the fisheries, 1 danger of receiving the reward of his wickedness. and commerce, with herself, and herself alone. The inci

These are but minor, because limited and circumscribed pient efforts of our fathers to produce for themselves mischiefs. When sovereigus mingle brass with silver or either their own apparel, or the instruments of their labor, gold, and thus debase the coin, they become if so hum were, by Englisb enactment, made a kind of colonial ble a term may be applied to such elevated delinquents) Duisance, and punished as a class of misdemeanor against the swindlers of nations. When statesmen adulterate the the peace and dignity of the crown. The patriots of those, great fountain of public opinion, they mingle poison with like the patriots of these times, resolvedl, and never abanthe streams from which a wbole people drink. Mende. doned the resolution, to labor, as they might choose, luded and deceived by the maddening draughts, see, or either at the plough, the loom, or the sail

. This conflict seem to see, deadly foes in their fellow-citizens, their of policy, this effort in the colonies for moral and phyneighbors, friends, and brothers. Like the tenants of a sical independence, and that British arrogance of domaniac hospital, they, for imaginary wrongs, fly at each minion over the wants and necessities of our ancestors, others' throats. · Demagogues again drug the bowl, and produced the revolutionary conflict. Moral and physical, again the delirious potation is swallowed ; and thus it not political independence moved that great question. comes to pass, that this fair world is changed into a para- The tax on tea was incidental to more deep and weighty dise of demons. It is, sir, as if, “ for some strong pur. argument; but not otherwise the moving cause, than the pose," the God of beaven might permit the prince of the lighted linstock explodes the shell, which, in its blazing powers of the air to blow out from his sultry and mil. course, carries terror and desolation through a beleaguered dewed lips an impoisoned atmosphere ; so that the dew city. and showers should fall, deleterious and desolating, on It was in support of this independence that the whigs the green bosom of the earth ; and this bland and refresh-of the North and South first united. Here the Adamses, ing air become “ none other than a foul and pestilential Hancocks, Otises, and Warrens, of New England, met congregation of vapors."

and mingled their toil and their blood with the Pinckneye, Under the influence of this debased condition of public the Haynes, the Lawrences, and Sumpters, of South Caroopinion, the American people are slandered ; their laws lina. On this ground, too, Greene, from the North, met calumniated; the national policy is traduced ; and this, and reunited the scattered array of southern war. not only by hireling foreigners, but the same maledic Where now is the patriotism of those times? Do we, in

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