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H. OF R.]

The Tariff.

(May 10, 1830.

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the whole body of the earth. When Napoleon could not | fabrics of the North are depreciated in our own market conquer England by the sword, he determined to wield by a competition with all the world; and this is done for the spindle against his great rival. The continental sys- the benefit of southern consumption. The planters of tem originated by him, gave an impulse to the manufac the South exclude the cotton of all the world froin the turing power of France, in competition with that of Eog. United States ; they bring the demand of all Europe into land. The effects of that impulse continue to this hour, that market, and by this competition with all ibe manufacthough the mighty hand which gave the movement long turing world, appreciate their cotton for the consumption ago ceased to conduct the machinery.

of northern manufacturers. Wbo, sir, who is the mone This rivalry of nations, this competition between Eng- polist? Who is most protected by the American sy land, France, and the United States, the English system, tem? Whose prodact is reduced by competition; wbose the continental system, the American system, interest, is raised in price by monopoly! Is it the manufacturer of power, ambition—what have they not done What would New England, who patiently toils at his trade, and eats the England alone, and without this competition, have achiev. bread of labor and carefulness or is it the South Carolina ed i Have not all these united, increased the consump- planter, lord of a thousand laborers, whose only care is to tion, the demand, the market value of the great staple of feed, to thrive, and to rail at the whole working world, South Carolina ? Why, sir, look into your own records ; who do not drive slaves, and make cotton and tobacco ! you will find this question fully answered, and that, too, Away, then, with this insensible South Carolina dogma: by the soundest commercial men of the nation. They The American system does not diminish, but does, by tell you that when the English, French, and American competition between England, France, and America, agents enter into competition, in the cotton market of the grently increase the price of cotton. It does bot increase, South, they do, by this very competition, advance the price but, does, by a like competition between the same great of that product nearly two cents on each and every pound. rivals for the market of the world, diminisb the price of This, at the present cost, equals twenty per cent. on the manufactured fabrics. whole amount of the whole anoual production. Wbat, Does the American system give a bounty to the sugarthen, would South Carolina, in the madness of her mis- making, grain-growing, and manufacturing States! This taken policy, wbat would South Carolina do? She would is the third South Carolina allegation against that system, destroy one of these great rivalsmand, O most undatural, The member from that State did, in this House, in 1828, she would destroy her own country. For what? For her declare it to be a postulate in political economy, that all own benefit! No. For the benefit of Old England ? That duty on imported commodities is to its full amount a tax she will deny. What then ? Why, simply, sir, that New Eng. on the consumers of these commodities, and a bounty land maybe destroyed,and because South Carolina politicians to the like amount on all commodities of the same kind do verily believe that one cotton market is better than two. produced in the country. If a package of cotton cloth,

Will nothing satisfy the avidity of South Carolina politi- worth one hundred dollars, be imported into the United cians? They hold a munopoly in the cotton market of the States under a duty of thirty per cent, that cloth will be United States. Climate secures this monopoly. We can raised in price thirty per cent, and must sell in the mar not grow cotton in New England. Labur further secures ket for one hundred and thirty, dollars. If the manufac this monopoly to them. Slaves, they tell us, work for turers of the United States produce cloth of the same kind twelve cents a day; but free men cannot work for less than and quality, it will sell at the same price. So that, if the fifty. Their monopoly is moreover secured and copfirm- domestic cloth brought one hundred dollars before the ed to them by this very system, by a duty under it of more duty was imposed on foreigo cloth, it will, after the duty than thirty per cent. Is any monopoly of manufactures is imposed, bring one hundred and thirty dollars. The secured to New England? Are there pot waterfalls, and duty will, in the one case, be a tax on consumption, and, ia capital, and cheaper labor in the South? Can they not the other, a bounty to the same amount on manufactured spin? Do they pot spin, in South Carolina We can production. The tax on consumption goes into the renever take cotton growing from them; but they can take venue, and the bounty into the pocket of the manufaecotton-spinning from us, whenever, like the patriot, David turer. If you raise the duty to perfect production, so that Williams, they may choose to be their own overseers. importation of the foreigo fabric is prohibited, and the

The meraber from South Carolina, equally regardless market is wholly supplied by the domestic, the tax will of fact, and uumindful of justice, denounces the manu. cease for benefit of the revenue, but the bounty will confacturers of the free States. They are monopolists, tinue for benefit of the manufacturer. This was, in 1897 whose whole souls are absorbed in their capital; without and in 1828, the dogma of the member from South Carolioa. feeling, and without regard for the suffering condition of It was, and still is, taught by Dr. Cooper. You will find South Carolina planters. Do you expect humanity from it in the Southern Review; there the writer bas laboriously them Soouer would the cannibal be moved to compas- made out a tabular statement of bounties, paid, as be sion by the wailing infant destined to feed or to feast him." alleges, by the people of the United States to the produeYes, sir, these terms of abuse are vociferated through ers of various encouraged and protected products, and your balls, until the very echoes have learned the indecent which, by his calculation, amounts to more than thirty milcalumoy, and cry out tariff, manufacturers, monopolist, lions of dollars. assassin, cannibal'1 Where is the truth: Overwhelmed, What, sir, is the object of this argument! Why, truly to sir, in this roar of contumely. The tariff, the tariff, I say, convince the people of the United States that the Amerigives to the cotton planters of South Carolina a monopo- can system is fabricated for the purpose of fraudulently ex. ly of the whole cotton market of these United States. acting money from one part of the nation, that the same This monopoly is secured to them by a duty of thirty-three money may be gratuitously bestowed on another part of per cent; by a perfect protection. They compel north- the nation. It should, therefore, be abolished. Let us ern manufacturers to pay them ten cents for cotton, when, examine this question. If the dogma of Dr. Cooper and if this tariff were removed, these manufacturers might of South Carolina be true in the United States, it must be import that product from other countries at seven. Does true in England. The English have a protecting system; his tariff, in return, secure the whole market of the Unit: their corn laws and their tariff. In 1824, all woollen cloths ed States to northern manufacturers ! No, sir. It per imported into England paid a duty of fifty per cent., all nits southern planters to bring into that market, in ex. white cottons a duty of fifty, and all colored cottons a duty hange for their own products, forty millions of foreign of seventy-five per cent. What might the farmers Bay to abrics, and that to the exclusiou of a like amount, which the manufacturers of Old England | Just what the plantLight be produced by domestic labor and capital. Tbel ers of South Carolina say to the manufacturer of New

MAY 10, 1830.]

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England. These duties raise the price of your fabrics. seen, amounts to more than one-fourth part of the whole. We pay you a bouuty of fifty per cent. on your white, of Are cotton planters one-fourth part of the domestic proseventy-five per cent on your coloured cottons ; and we ducers of the United States ! No, sir; not ove-sixth part, pay you a bounty of fifty per cent. on all your woollen If, therefore, impost duty, on imported products, be a cloths. Your tariff is a system of fraud and exaction; it bounty on domestic products, who are the greatest gainers is calculated and intended to draw money from the by this system of bounties, the manufacturers of the North, pockets of farmers, and place it in the pockets of manu- or the cotton planters of the Soutb ; the men wbo rail at the facturers. Let all this be true, sir, if you please, for the laws, while they are enriched by their provisions, or the purpose of this argument; and, indeed, if it be true in men wbo submit to their operation, and patiently labor for New England, it must be true in Old England. It will be their own and the general good of all the nation? Sir, admitted, I presume, that_goods of the same kind and the animal which growls while be is fed, and bites the quality, are sold in the English market, at one and the band holding food to bis mouth, is, of all beasts, wild or bame price, to all purchasers. At any rate, the American tame, most odious in the sight of God and man. purebaser will get them at a price no lower than the Eng I have run this doctrine of bounties out into all its lish purchaser gets them. In 1824, we imported cloths branches, pot because I believe in its soundoess, but to from England. Our whole consumption was not less than demonstrate, if it be sound, that South Carolina planters, one hundred millions of dollars. Had we purchased the of all men, have least cause to complain of its operations. wbole amount from that country, what amount of bounty I now ask the attention of the committee, for a few moshould we have paid to English manufacturers ? Not less meuts, while I attempt to explain the true doctrine of imthan fifty millions of dollars. If Dr. Cooper and South post duties, both for encouragement and for protection ; Carolina be correct, abolish the American system, pros- and show that the American system does not, and in its ultitrate the manufacturing establishments of the United mate effects cannot secure any bounty to any class of doStates, import all your fabrics from England, and you ep. mestic production. The object of this system is to furnish sure, on your whole manufactured consumption, a bounty the great staple necessaries of national consumption, from to the capital and labor of that country, equal to three the land, labor, and capital of our own country. The times the amount of your whole annual revenue. The founders of this system, the first Congress under the pregentleman from New York, [Mr. CAMBRELENG] equally sent constitution, did not believe it wise or just to compel provident of the great interests of both nations, has laid a the cultivators of the American soil to send their products bill before us, as a sort of codicil to the last will and tes three thousand miles, under the perils of the seas, the tament of the American system, which, as he foresees, bazards of war, and the oppression of foreigu laws, that must give up the ghost under the bands of his learned they might there be wrought into clothing, furniture, or friend in the Department of State. By this, the gentleman the instruments of their labor, and then reshipped, and has provided that Great Britain shall never exact of the brought back io like manner for their use.

T'hat they American people, for the benefit of her manufacturers, a might be relieved from this immense expenditure, nor higher bounty than thirty per cent, or what may amount always rely on the workshops of Europe, provision was per appum to fifty millions of dollars.

early made to erect such workshops this side of the AtlanThe gentleman from New York would abolish the Ame- tic, on their own lands, and enable them to furnish themrican system ; the member from South Carolina would selves with these staple necessaries, by exchange of their abolish the American system; Dr. Cooper would abolish surplus products with their own immediate neighbors. the American system, because it secures a bounty to the The very first law wbich provided for revenue, provided American manufacturer. Abolish this pernicious system, also for the encouragement of the manufacture of all faand you transfer that bounty. that money, from the pocket brics needful for domestic consumption. The duty on of the American to the pocket of the British manufac- imported manufactures was intended to encourage Ameriturer. You cannot relieve the American people from cans to commence, and to perfect the like manufactures. this tax; but you will not only make them all pay, but It raised the price of the foreign fabric, because it was pay to Old instead of New England manufacturers. This added to their cost, when imported, and placed in the will secure equality, though it sacrifice independence, and market of this country. In form, but iv form only, it was give to the South the glory of being tributary to a great a bounty on incipient domestic fabrics of the same kind. monarchy, rather than a few inconsiderable republican When the domestic manufacturer could bring products States. Is this, air, the patriotism of these times? This into the market, of that kind, and of a quality equal to the our emulation of the glorious ancestry from which we are foreigo, he could then, but not till then, receive the same descended? The first bold brotherhood of American price for them. So loug as want of skill, deficient capital, States, were they thus envious of mutual benefits, or för imperfect machinery retarded the progress of his work, tamely subservient to English influence ? No, sir, vot a and rendered bis fabrics inferior io quality to the foreign, cept for British aggrandizement; but inillions to advance he was compelled to sell them at inferior prices. The first Americao iudependence, wealth, and glory.

cloth, the first cotton, the first sugar made in this country, If the South Caroliva dogma be true ; if all impost be brought a losa, not a bounty, to the producer. When skill to an equal amount, a bounty on domestic production, is acquired, capital obtained, and machinery perfected, the then, whenever you find such impost, and such produc- producer may receive benefit from ini post duty. This can tion, you must find such bounty. Do not South Carolina uever be the fact, for any considerable length of time; for, planters touch the accursed thing? Is there not an im- as domestic production inereases under encouragement, post, a duty, on imported cotton, amouuting to at least importation will decline, and a want of revenue will call thirty per cent. Here, then, according to their own pro. for an increased amouot of impost duty. This, again, infessed principles, is a bounty on the whole cottro produc- creases encouragement of domestic productions, and aguin tion of the South. Whenever their export amounts to diminishes importation ; and this induces apother advance twenty-eight millions, the whole crop must equal thirty- of impost. This is repeated, uutil domestic production, unfive, for they sell one-fourth of the whole crop to north- der improved skill and increased encouragement, supplies ern manufacturers. The bounty to cotton planters must, the domestic market. Impost amounts to protection; imin ordinary years, therefore, amount to ten million five portation ceases; and competition, among domestic pro. hundred thousand dollars. The Southern Review places ducers, reduces the market price to the natural price, that the whole bounties paid on all domestic products, at about is, to the fair cost of production. All benefit from encouthirty millions of dollars; but the writer of those articles ragement is theo at an end. Let any mau be at the labor prudently omits to insert the bounty on cotton. This, it is of examining the bistory of every domestic fabric which


H. OF R.)

· The Tariff

[MAY 10, 1830.


now supplies our market, and he will find this to havebeen If the demand for cottop in the markets of the world be the progress. The whole benefit received from impost has extended to its utmost lirnits ; if that market, already filled pever more than equalled the extraordinary expense of with American cotton, cap receive no more ; what claim perfecting the skill and machinery necessary for a perfect can South Carolina have on the States of this Union far production of the fabric. The nation bas been at some cost any aid in a further extension of her commerce in that for these improvements; the manufacturer is not enriched; product ? She can sell no more, unless some other prodbe but the people now reap the benefit, by baving their mar can be excluded from the consumption of the world, w ket supplied with domestic fabrics of equal quality with that cotton may take place of it. The great, enduring de the foreign, and discharged, not only from the duty, but cessities of the world demand food, clothing, and habe from the cost of importation, and at a price as low as fo- tation; civilized and stationary nations will nerer build reigners can buy them in their own market. I assert it as houses of cotton ; and though South Carolina, aided by the fact, and I do not fear contradiction, that every, domestic machinery of America and Europe, may push her comfabric, which now wholly, or almost wholly, supplies the merce, in that product, into the consumption of the nomade market of the Uoited States, is sold in that market at as nations of Asia, so that her cotton shall furnish teots for low a price as English fabrics of the same kind and quality the Arab and the Tartar, yet she can never make any pro are now sold in Liverpool, Manchester, or Loodon. "What gress in compelling men, wild or tame, to consume her is the price of nails, glass, shoes, boots, hats, cotton cloths, favorite commodity, for any part of their food. Her great woollen cloths, yarns, furniture, saddlery, carriages ? It is competition is now with the flocks and the herds of the As low in the United States as in England; and that, too, world; and if she could banish leather and woollen cloths when English excise is deducted from the English fabric. froin use among the human race, ber triumph would be Dare the member from South Carolina contradict the as- complete. Climate, not the American system, is here her Bertion! I know be dares pot ?

great adversary. Were it not for this, every sheep in the Where, then, is the bounty? By whom is it paid? Who United States would, loug ago, bave been sacrificed for the receives it? It is, eir, a baseless fable; contrived and cir-extension of South Carolina commerce. Winter will re culated to deceive the uninformed-to create excitement- turn once a year; and the people of northern climates will move animosities--effect divisions-achieve political pur- if they can obtain them, wear woollen clothes. It was said poses, and, if possible, to overthrow the manufacturing two years ago, in a celebrated report on the state of the establishments, the great interests of the northern States. finances, made by the then chairman of the Committee of

One more objection to the American system remains to Ways and Means, that the people of the United States at be considered. South Carolina alleges that she has, by its pually consume woollens, amounting to seventy-two miloperations, lost her natural market, the market of England. lions of dollars. Since that discovery, the claims of South This, sir, adds ingratitude to the catalogue of unjust and Carolina bave been extended, and the denunciations of the querulous accusations brought against the farming and American system, from that region, are, if possible, ter manufacturing States. In the progress of the American fold more loud and boisterous. Here they are met by : system, their cotton has, in the West, in the North, and in physical barrier; not only the upconquerable obstinacy of the East, taken the market from the native flax, hemp, and climate, but the utter impossibility of admitting one fibre of wool of those regions. By a great competition, growing cotton into the woollen trade. The growers and manufaa up under kindred systems, between the rival dations of turers of sheep's wool are the great consumers of the fabrie. Europ: and America, the same material has usurped the Until, by some great discovery, you can spin and weave legitimate markets of the flåx, the hemp, and the wool of cotton into woollen broadcloths, this trade, to the full England and France; and, to a great extent, that of the amount of their consumption, must, to the utter exclusion silk of France aud Italy. The fabrics from this cotton are of South Carolina commerce, remain with the wool grorspread over all Europe. They are sold in every maritime ers and woollen maputacturers of the world. Exchange town of Africa. You find them in southern America, from how you will, it must come to this at last. If the grover Rio to Lima, and from California to the Cape. The Hin- of coiton exchange it for sheep's wool, he must exchange doo, whose daily food is a handful of rice, bis daily wages that again, if he do not consume it himself; and again, and the smallest division of silver coin, can hold no competition again, it must be exchanged, until it comes to its proper with southern cotton, wrought by American or European consumer. The cotton must follow the same round in machinery, The turban of the Great Mogul, once spun quest of a consumer; uptil both the cotton and the woal and woven from Thibet wool-a fleece more resembling, come back again to their original producers, or perish in in fineness, pencils of moonbeams than any palpable, ma- this round of useless exchange and circulation. If South terial thing-of so fine a web and woof, the whole texture Carolina denominate the woollen trade ber legitimate con80 evanescent, that, although one yard in breadth and sixty merce, the laws of nature, not the American system, stand in length, the whole fabric was lightly packed io a richly in ber course; and until she can rail wool from the backs ornamented box, elegantly wrought from a small cocoa-nut of our sheep, snows from the hills of New England, and shell; the turban of the Great Mogul, the successor of Au- scowl winter, with all bis storms, back to the polar regious, rungzebe, the descendant of Tamerlane, whose camp, ex- she may, she must, without advancing one step in her pro ceeded in splendor the richest cities of the East, whose gress, exhaust all the vengenoce of her State sovereignty sword made more women childless, than that of the most on the innocent provisions of that system in vain, utterly renowned conquerors of ancient or modern times; the tur- in vain. ban of the Great Mogul, sir, now a fiper, a richer, and While South Carolina incessantly complains that the more bigbly finished ornament, is woven in the British grain-growing and manufacturing States will not aid ber loom, and from the Sen-Island cottou of South Carolina. foreigo commerce, by their consumption of foreign com

To what further extent would she push her legitimate modities, let ut look at her owo exertions, and learn how commerce ! Russia still grows and wears some henip. The she nids that commerce by her own consumption. In 1897, silkworm of southern Europe and Asia is not altogether she exported eight million one hundred and eighty-nine shaken from the mulberry groves of those regions; and the thousand four hundred and ninety-six dollars. She im. luxurious inbabitant still weaves and wears, for some part ported one million four hundred and thirty-four thousand of his dress, the product of his native clime. Other one hundred and six dollars, in the same year, or that wise the kingdoms of the world have submitted to the em- amount, one hundred avd thirty-three thousand and sixtypire of cotton; and, like the people of these States, wear five dollars were re-exported. With a population of more ibis badge of commercial brotherhood with the southern than five hundred thousand, South Caroliva aided her own sisters of our Union.

commerce by a consumption of foreigo products amount

May 10, 1830.)

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an ing to one million three hundred and sixty-one thousand and , system, to a rate sufficient oply for the purposes of reve. a forty-one dollars. These were probably teas, coffee, sugar, pue. That revenue, when the national debt is paid, (and T1 wines, woollens, and bardware, eight articles. If she im- under the present policy, the other great branch of the

ported of each an equal amount, it was, in each article, American systen, the improvement of barbors, rivers, no one hundred and fifty-two thousand four hundred and thirty roads, and canals, is abandoned)—that.revenue will not be bi dollars and ten cents. Three of these, cottons, hardware, required to exceed ten millions of dollars. In any event, d and woollens, were probably received from Eogland. The fifteen per cento ou all imported commodities will, in time a whole amount from her dear commercial friend was three of peace, supply the treasury, and pay all officers their av hundred and twenty-seven thousand pine hundred and annual and other salaries. "The duty on British fabrics

three dollars and thirty, cents, in exchange for about se- will be reduced to fifteen per cent. What will be the 21 ven millions of dollars in cotton, her own great staple. effect? Importation of foreign manufactures would be in

For the balance, the cotton planters drew bills, and sold creased to a great amount, and sufficient to deluge the ed them to the northern iinporters of English fabrics, at twelve markets. Could American manufactures resist the tide ? a per cent. advance. In this liberal inapper, South Caro- Prices must fall to a very low rate. Losses, to the amount

lina plapters aid by their consumption the legitimate com- of at least thirty-three per cent on the whole supply of merce of that State with Englaud-a foreign export of our market, would follow. That supply is furnished, at

eigbt million one hundred thousand dollars, sustained by this time, one-fourth of it by English, tbree-fourths by on a consumption of foreign products amounting to one mil- American capital Three-fourths of the loss must fall on

lion three bundred thousand, This, too, was done with a American capital; less than one-fourth on English. One population of more than five hundred thousand souls. year would sink ope quarter of our capital; while that of

How do the manufacturing States aid South Carolina, in England would suffer little more than one per cent. A her natural market with her dear England ? Take Rhode second importation would complete the overthrow; and,

Island as a sample. In 1827, that Stute, with a population after two years of abundant supply, and low, very low of eighty-three thousand, imported one million two huo- prices, leave our whole cousumption to the mercy of fodred and forty-one thousand eigbt hundred and twenty: reign manufacturers, exasperated by the competition, exeight dollars ; re-exported two hundred and eight thousand ulting in their triumph, and determined to reimburse their and ten dollars; and consumed one million thirty-three loss, by charging, on our defenceless country, the whole thousand and eighteen dollars. How just, bow liberal, expense of the war. For baving dared to attempt indehow grateful is South Carolina to the manufacturing States, pendence, the Holy Alliance of Europe would puvish you which so aid, sustain, and extend her foreign commerce ! and your children, through a long eourse of years, and What fair and hovest claim has she, by which to compel until some more wise and patriotic geperation, like your them further to purchase and consume English fabrics, and their illustrious ancestors, shall arise, and again dare that she may sell a greater quantity of cotton to English to throw off the ignominious yoke, manufacturers, wheu she will not take them for her own What must befall the capital and the labor of our coupconsumption in exchange for her own products? Why, try, before such a revolution could be achieved? The sir, for this very purpose, what a storm of anathema did, circulating capital is swept away by the competition. Fixfor three days, rage through this Hall? O! bad Jove, for ed capital must become useless, and follow the same fate. that brief time, but yoked his lightning to those volleys of First of all, the great investments in works for the mapusound, whose bead would now be abuve bis shoulders! facture of iron would be thrown out of employment. The

Such, sir, are the wrongs of South Carolina, these are gentlemen from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, her complaints, her accusations, and thus she sustains and New York, from right to left, in this committee, can them against the grain-growing, the sugar-making, and tell you the extent of this ruin. Next to these, all the manufacturing States of this Union. What remedy does structures, raised and filled with machinery for spinning that State propose for all these imaginary grievances ? You and weaving the wool of our farmers into fabrics for their find this remedy in the amendment proposed by the mem- and our clothing, must stop their wheels. Capital investber from South Carolina. That stale would overthrow ed in cotton miils, with all their preparation, their spindles, the encouraging, the protecting, the American system, their looms, will next fall into the procession; and these, and build on its ruins a structure, such as cannot be found together with all expenditures made for raising and using

in any nation of Europe, and because the scheme of it was water power, for all other purposes throughout the whole 3 devised and delivealed in England, called the English sys- extent of our country, shall be thrown out of use, decay,

tem. By this, when it is perfected, these United States, perish, and be lost to the nation. Tell me not that the abandoning all other employments, must farm, and plant, owners may sell out, or change their capital to some other and fish ; and import froin England all, all their necessary employment. Who will buy what no one can use ? To manufactured fabrics. It is, sir, the very system of the what other purpose would you convert a forge, or a furcolonies, the revolution revolutionized. I will examine it

, nace, than the making of iron ! Woollen and cotton fac** and, in that examination, inquire whether the South will tories; what will you do with them, when you can do

probably be placed in a more prosperous condition by longer manufacture cloths ? Mill dams, water wheels, conthis exchange of systems.

duits, gates, flumes, sluices? You cannot work them up To illustrate the effects of this revolution on the South, into ships, or wagons, or ploughs, or convert them into as it is needful, first, to show what will befall the North under manure, and spread them out on your farms. When all

its operations. The overthrow of the American system, your manufacturing fixtures, and the millions of machinthe repeal of the laws enacted for the encouragement and ery now moving in them, are destroyed, the skilled labor protection of American industry, would, at once, briog at this hour, operating on all these great engines of proihe mavufacturing capital of England into

a war of com- duction, will, like these their instruments of toil and livelipetition with that of the United States. Which is most hood, be useless and out of employment. powerful! The capital devoted to that purpose in Eng. Water power, now performing so much labor, must land was, in 1812, one hundred and fourteen millions of cease to be of any use. Plunge the sword to the heart of pounds sterling. It probably, at this time, equals one hun: five hundred thousand horses, such as transport loaded dred and forty millions of pounds, or about six hundred wagons from Pittsburg to Philadelpbia, and you would and forty four millions of dollars. Let the manufacturing not put to death a squadrou of efficient and productive capital of the United States be estimated at one-sixth part power, such us must perish under this new system of of that sum; and it does not, in all probability, exceed that slaugbter. amount. Impost duty is to be reduced, under the new Labor-saving machinery; wbat are the achievements of

VOL. VI.-- 118.

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this mystery, in multiplying human labor? Some tell us tended to sustain him in the immense expenditure Decea that, with this machinery, one person will do the work of sary in commencing, and carrying on to perfection, the one hundred and fifty; others, one hundred; but all agree growth and manufacture of a production so necessary and that one hand will, with these instruments of toil, perform important to this nation. When the crop is seventy millions more than fifty can without them. Have you five hupdred of pounds, the whole encouragement amounts to two milthousand persons thus employed! You realize the labor lion one hundred thousand dollars. Under the Englik of twenty-five millions of people. This pestilent gas, gede- system, intended to be established by the amendment pre rated by Dr. Cooper and his persevering disciple, this posed by the member of South Carolina, this duty Fil

, simoom from the South, shall pass over your rivers and ultimately, be reduced to fifteen per cent. or to about waterfalls; and death, and silence, and desolatiou will lie seven mills and one-half on a pound. Can Louisians, in dowo together on the banks of every stream.

the present state of her culture aod finances, sustain this By these events, agricultural labor and capital, pow em- sbock! Sir, the enterprise of that State has more adveployed in feeding manufacturing labor, will bave lost that turously engaged in agricultural improvements, than that employment, and become useless. That agriculture, of all the other parts of the country united. That State wbich produces provisions and bread stuffs for distant mar- has been, by a gentleman of South Carolina, of classic kets, is not here intended. The manufacturing labor re- taste

, denominated on this floor, “ A Delta of more than quired to make, to move, and to keep in repair one hun. Egyptian fertility;" but it should not be forgotten, that, dred spindles, with all their accompanying machinery, will like Egypt, it will require the wealth of another Sesosconsume annually to the amount of one thousand dollars tris to reclaim this region from the dominion of its overin agricultural products. These, almost all of them, from whelming river. Take away the encouragement to their quality, must be consumed near the time and place given by the tariff to her production, prostrate her sogar of their production. Among them are pasturage, vegeta- culture, for the establishment of wbich she has been si bles, fruits, milk, butter, cheese, poultry, meats, the pro- such immense cost, and you give back this “ Delta ei duce of the orchard, fuel, timber, forage, beasts for travel Egyptian fertility” to the dominion of the Mississippi or transportation. When the inachinery, and the labor The levees, already raised on the sides of that stream which operates that machinery, are gone, the demand for above this State, confine to the channel of the river those these products will be gone with them; and they will cease waters which heretofore spread out upon the lands of to be produced, and the land, labor, and capital employed Arkansas, and the adjacent States. Stop the progress of in their production, must remain uncul!ivated and useless. improvement in Louisiana, by a destruction of her great

The trade of oue must become the trade of all. No one staple production, and these waters will soon spread out would purchase agricultural products, and, therefore, do on the already reclaimed and cultivated lands of that such products would be grown for sale. Manufacturing State. The effect is beyond calculation. The planters labor must turn to agriculture, and migrate in quest of of that State are koown, not only for their enterprise, but cheaper lands and various employment Villages will be for their hospitality. Their abodes are open to the deserted, and fall into decay; cities depopulated; the grass stranger. The cultivator,,“ when the toils of the day are shall grow" where merchants most do congregate." Sur- done,” in the midst of his housebold of love, and friendship rounding lands are left without culture, because the peo- and joy, looks out on his “ moonlight groves of cane." The ple fed by their fruit are in other climes, to return po more. English system shall pour the waters of the Mississippi over Orchards, and gardens, and meadows, and pastures, are bis plantations, and put an end to his prosperity, bis jove, given up to weeds, thistles, and brambles. Flocks and and his hopes. Alligators, old and young, may float on the herds are not seen in the land. Rivers, no longer con- stagnant lakes, or bold their family gambols over his buried trolled by the skill, labor, and power of man, bave torn halls. I would not longer look at the picture; I leave it down all obstructions by him placed in their way, and to the crocodiles of the new world, and to the member from roar on towards the ocean in that ceaseless stream, begun South Carolina. by them, before the first morning, after the deluge was Louisiana bas not deserved this; and the States of the dried up from the face of the earth.

South will learn that she cannot be made to suffer alone. Left, as in the days before the revolution, with a dimin. Her sugar culture bas created an immense demand for ished and sparse agricultural population, we shall be with labor. This demand, like a demand for any other comout encouragement to increase our production. Europe, modity, bas raised the price of that labor, and increased abundant in ber own resources, would receive from us do their cost to the owners of those persons who perform it. provisions, bread stuff, fish, or lumber. We could sell no- Various opinions are bolden on the amount of this increase thing to the nations beyond the Atlantic; and we could, of price; it will be found to vary, as you approach to, or therefore, buy and consume pone of their manufactures. recede from, Louisiana, the great market for this labor, By the mere force of our condition, we must return to our It is probable the average market value of slaves, throughcolonial habits. Again, our native flax, hemp, and wool out the whole slave-bolding region of the South, is raised would take the place now filled by cotton. Our women, not less than two hundred dollars a head, by the increased mindful of independence, will take the distaff; the wheel demand for their labor on the sugar-raising plantations of and the Joom sball again be heard in our babitations ; and Louisiapa. The slave population of the whole South household cloths take the place of manufactured fabrics. amounts to about one million five hundred thousand.

Sir, I narrate these things as the historian will bereafter This population is said to double once in twenty-five narrate them to marvelling pations, when the tongue that years; and, therefore, gives sixty thousand slaves for the DOW speaks, and the ear that now hears, shall be forgot- average andual increase number. At two bundred dollars ted. I narrate them, that the politician of the South may each, the whole increased value is annually twelve millions hear and triumph in the hope of these coming events ; that This amount is realized by the whole South, in the adthe patriots of the South may hear and unite with us to vanced value of their stock, or in the increased money prevent their arrival. To warn these patriots, I will at- amount of the annual sales

. The establishment of the tempt to portray what things may, as the sequents of our English system, labored after by the member from South northern desolation, come upon their and our beloved Carolina, when it shall bave reduced the encouragement South. Let the politicians, the friends of England, and on sugar to seven mills and one-balf on the pound, and the English system, look at the picture and be refreshed. overthrown all the sugar-making planters of the South,

The American system places an impost, a duty of three will strike from the annual amount of southero wealth cents & pound on imported sugar. This duty is, to that this item of twelve millions of dollars. The learned poamount, encouragement to the Louisiana planter, and is in- litical surgeons of that State will find, when they have

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