Imagens das páginas

H. OF R.)

Navigation and Imposts.

(MAY 13, 1830.

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reduced to thirty per cent. upon the actual value of the Spanish vessels, by the fifteenth article of her treaty merchandise, as proposed by this bill, the ruin of the with us, coming from the ports of Spain or of her colonies, farmer and manufacturer would be inevitable. The pres- are to be admitted, for the term of twelve years, into the gure of the trade upon us is bad enough now, but it would ports of Pensacola and St Augustine, in the Floridas, be much worse then, as our protecting duties would be without paying other or higher duties on their cargoes" reduced one-third. Suppose the British manufacturer thau are paid by vessels of the United States. Of these should then, as now, ship his own goods to this market; twelve years, three yet remaio. therefore, might and suppose, in making up their invoice price, he should bring into the Floridas her West India sugars and rum, at choose to consider the cost of the materials and the wages a duty of thirty per cent, which would be about equal to of labor as constituting their actual value, thereby leav- a duty op rum of ten cents a gallon, and on sugar of one ing out the interest on capital, and the wear and decay of cent a pound. This would effectually ruin our own sugar machinery, which vary from ten to thirty per cent. What growers. would be the result! Why, that British cloth would come With Colombia we have a treaty, the third article of to us invoiced at seventy or eighty cents a yard, instead of which stipulates that the Colombians may trade with us one hundred cents, and would, therefore, actually pay a " in all sorts of produce, manufactures, and merchandise, duty of some twenty or twenty-four cents only on the and shall pay no other or greater duties, charges, or fees dollar, when it ought to pay a duty of thirty cents on the whatsoever, than the most favored nation is, or shall be, dollar. With the usual deductions of from five to twenty obliged to pay." We have similar treaties, also, with per cent. for prompt payment, as it is called, the differ- Sweden and Norway, and with the Hanseatic Republics of ence against us would be still greater. Now, sir, should Lubec, Bremen, and Hamburgb. It will be perceived by the American merchant export to Liverpool these same these treaties, that a Colombian, Swedish, or Hanseatie British cloths, or American cloths of the same quality and vessel may, import into the United States auy article of cost, they would be valued in Liverpool at one hundred any country which can be imported in one of our own vescents, or more, a yard, and would actually pay a duty of sels. A treaty, therefore, with Portugal, or with any thirty per cent. So that the same yard of cloth, or a yard other foreign power, io conformity with the provisions of of cloth of the same intrinsic cost, would pay thirty cents this bill, would have the effect of opening our ports to the to the British treasury, and twenty or twenty-four cents admission of the produce and manufactures of the world, at only to the United States' treasury. And this is the sort a rate of duty not exceeding thirty per cent. upon their of reciprocity that the bill will fix on us.

value abroad. And these terms, having been deliberately My colleague (Mr. CAMBRELENG) remarked that he did offered by us, when once accepted by a foreiga nation, we not suppose that this bill would affect the policy of Great can never change. Britain, at least for some years to come. Sir, I think so too. My colleague (Mr. CAMBRELENG] calls this reciprocity. She cannot accept of our offer, without opening her colo- The bill

, too, speaks of reciprocal terms. As applied to nial pores to us, and repealing her corn luws; which last, I the shipping interest, this is well enough. It is our pa muppose, she can never do, because, I take it for granted, licy and our law now. And this reciprocity is simply bethat, in the present condition of things, she is satisfied tween the ships of various nations in the same port, and that agriculture is as essential to the prosperity of manu- not between the laws to which these ships may be subject ! factures, as manufactures obviously are to the prosperity in the ports of the respective pations. For example, a of agriculture. Neither did he [Mr. C.) think it probable British ship, in one of our ports, is subject only to the same that France, at present, would accept the proffered terms; tonnage duty and other charges as an American ship; and but he thought that Portugal would. Suppose Portugal an American ship, io a British port, is subject only to the does, and we make a treaty with her, whereby it is agreed same toppage duty and other charges as a British ship, that she will receive our produce and manufactures at a. although these duties and charges may, at the same time, rate of duty not exceeding thirty per cent, on the actual va be twice or three times higher iu a British port, under lue thereof, to be ascertained as she pleases, and that we will the laws of Great Britain, than they are in an American receive her produce and manufactures at the same rate of port, under the laws of the United States. But, sir, this duty on the actual value thereof, which value is to be as- bill proposes a sort of universal scale of duties to become, certained, not as we please, but at Lisbon, or at some other I suppose, a part of the law of nations, whereby each naplace in Portugal.

tion, under all circumstances, will be bound to admit But, before I proceed to examine the ruinous effects every article at a duty not exceeding thirty per cent. on such a treaty will have upon our farmers, mechanics, and its value. The policy of imposing duties, wbether for rereshipowners, let me call the attention of the House to some nue or protection, is purely municipal, wholly domestic of the provisions contained in our existing treaties with and has no connexion with the mere transit of vessels and other nations

their cargoes from one foreign port to another. Why, The second article of our treaty with Great Britain says therefore, stop bere? Why not make a universal assize of that “no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the bread! Why not propose that the wages of labor shall importations into the United States of any articles, the be equalized every where? That dodation, great or growth, produce, or manufacture of bis Britannic Majesty's small, shall bave an army of more than six thousand strong territories in Europe," " than are or sball be payable on or a fortress more than five feet high? or more than five the like articles, being the growth, produce, or inanufac- ships of war i All these are for the defence of persons, ture of any other foreign country." Iwo cargoes of cot- property, and honor: and they do not stand more firmly tons and woollens arrive at the port of New York at the on the principle of self-preservation, then does this same time; one from Portugal, the other from England. :: American system” of protecting the labor, skill, and The Portuguese goods are entered at the custom-house, industry of our citizens. Sir

, the principle of this bill, carand

pay the duty of thirty per cent. The British goods ried out, would soon make us dependant upon foreign are also entered, and, by the provisions of this second arti- labor : would soon drive us to foreigo workshops for all cle of our treaty with Great Britain, they pay a duty of we want, from a bat to a shoe, from an anchor to a hob thirty per cent only. Is it not so? I think it is; and I pail

. Let us look a moment at its operation England know not how we can escape from it. What better ar- is the mistress of the loom and the anvil. Her manufac rangement, therefore, can Great Britain desire than this turers, after supplying their home market at a profit of" contemplated arrangement with Portugal! Her ports will some twenty-five per cent, have a large surplus on hand. remain, as they now are, closed to us, while ours will be These surplus goods, together with the effects of bankopened to her, as well as to the Portuguese,

rupts, to avoid any depression in the home market, will |

11 May 13, 1830.]

The Tariff

[H. OF R.

be sent here in greater quantities than ever. And, if How, then, can we sustain ourselves, uoless we like them xshitherto they have successfully carried on this trade, and draw putriment and strength from the loom and the anarchecked our manufactures, while the nominal duty has vil? Unless we apply our skill and labor to existiog ha

been forty-five per cent., surely, when, as proposed by bits and wants, and put in requisition all our means, as this bill, the nominal duty shall be thirty per cent. only, they do theirs, to supply them, how can we hope to extend

they will completely destroy our manufactories of cottons, our commerce or our power! woollens, iron, and sugar. and, in a few years, take entire But it is said that our navigation is declining, and that a possession of the American niarket, supplying it when this is owing to our tariff laws. Down to 1807, the Unit*they please, and at such prices as they choose to demand. ed States enjoyed a large and unrivalled carrying trade. What matters it to us, in such an event, whether the Thence, to the general peace in Europe, in 1815, our British duty on woollens be fifteen or fifty per cent. ? And ships, during the greater part of the time, were detained will she abandon her agriculture, kill her flocks and her in port by the embargo and the war, and the carrying cattle, and take our grain, and provisions, and wool, in trade, in the interval, fell chiefly to Great Britain. This mexchange for her manufactures ? 'Never! Will France ? injured our navigation and benefited hers. Since that No, never ! They cannot do it, without individual and period, a new condition of things has arisen, in consepational sacrifices, which neither cad ever make.

quence of which we have powerful, interested, and perNot only our manufactures of cottons, woollens, iron severing rivals in the carrying trade, which once gave us vlod sugar, but of lead, tobacco, hats, boots, shoes, and of such ample employment and profit. Still, and in spite of ther common necessaries of life, are all protected by du- this rivalry, our tonpage has not only not declined, but mies exceeding, and some of them greatly exceeding, thirty is now, in fact, greater, in proportion to our population, per cent upon their value : yet all these are to be pros- than that of Great Britain, or of any other nation. The carated at a blow by this novel experiment, for the bene. treasury records prove that it amounted, in 1824, to one it of our pa vigation !

million three hundred and eighty-nine thousand one hunThis is called a navigation bill. And what, sir, will be dred and sixty-three tops; in 1825, to one million four ts effects upon the shipping interest of the United States ? hundred and twenty-three thousand one hundred and mit is quite apparent that our commercial marine cadoot, eleven; in 1826, to one million five hundred and thirtyist the present day, find profitable or constant employ- four thousand one hundred and pinety; in 1827, to one nent in the service of foreigo countries--though it is pro- million six hundred and twenty thousand six hundred and Jable that a few may be thus constantly and profitably seven ; and, in 1828, to one million seven hundred and employed. The reason is obvious. There is now scarcely eighteen thousand seven hundred. There has been a . commercial nation that is not its own carrier. It follows, gradual increase since 1818, when the toppage lists were hen, that our commercial marine must depend entirely corrected; and, since. 1828, the increase has been about upon the labor of our own citizens, aud be sustained, if four hundred and eighty thousand tops. This does not at all, by carrying to market the surplus products of that look much like decay. The shipping interest may be, abor. And it is equally clear that these products must and doubtless is, greatly depressed. So is alınost every je adapted to the state of the market; that is, to the wants other interest. Our domestic manufactures, annually ex. f the taste of the buyer. This presents to us, there- ported, amount to several millions of dollars, and the pre, the true and only inquiry, shall we still rely, as for. quantity and value are rapidly increasing. aerly, upon finding a market for these crude, uuwrought The dye woods and other dye stuffs imported from

roducts? Our cotton, rice, and tobacco, the produce abroad already employ a large amount of tonnage, and f two millions of our citizens, still find a market abroad; will annually employ more and more. And yet my colut there is comparatively none for the bread stuffs and league, (Mr. CAMBRELENG] by way of benefiting navigarovisions, which could be readily, as heretofore, sup- tion, proposes a measure which will dry up the sources lied to any amount by the remaining eight millions of and paralyze the bands that sustain it, and finally cast it ur citizens. This is easily accounted for. Nations that adrift upon the ocean, to seek and serve other, and kinder, je used to feed, now feed themselves; and they no more and wiser masters. want to buy of us, than we do of them. This branch of My colleague spoke of some contest between the deommerce, once so thriving and lucrative, and which em- mocracy and aristocracy of England. Sir, that is a matter vloyed so many of our merchant vessels, is now falling which I shall leave entirely to my colleague, Mr. Huskisff. The cotton, tobacco, and rice of the South, great son, and the British Parliament, to settle in their own s they are, will give constant employment to but few of good time and way. But be made another assertion, bem.' What, then, is to sustain our merchant vessels which I cannot pass over in silence. He said there was, ur navigation? That is the question. The old sources in this country, an aristocracy of manufacturing capital"tre drying up.

A new condition of things has arisen, ists, who would, if they could, grind the democracy of nd there is no getting back to the old again. Whence, this nation to ashes." There bas, indeed, lately sprung ben, is help to come ? From manufactures, added to up an official aristocracy in our country. But a manufac

uch raw materials as still find a market abroad. The toriog aristocracy! Our manufacturers aristocrats! Why, ability of eiglt-tenths of our citizens to produce raw ma- sir, should one of them attempt to coerce the opinions or erials, is daily increasidg ; and yet the foreign market votes of those he employed, he would find, to his cost, for them is daily diminishing. How, ihen, is their skill cone so poor in purse or spirit as not to spurn bim, and And labor to be brought in aid of the shipping interest, quit him. Why not talk of an aristocracy of farmers, or

xcept by giving new form and value to the raw materiali of mechanics ? Sir, between the farmers and mechanics, And will not such an amount of skill and labor, in the and manufacturers, there is a dependence which is mutual 'bape of manufactures, give new life and strength to our and inseparable. Had my colleague (Mr. CAMBRELENG) avigation ! Yet this bill proposes to benefit navigation, understood the interests, pursuits, and feelings of the depy prostrating our manufacturing establishments; thus mocracy of the country, he would not bave used such

utting off the very means by which it is to live. Sir, language. What the democracy of the city is, I pretend pill England, France, and Russia give up their commer not to know; but, in the country, I do know what it is. ial marine, or hazard its prosperity, upon the condition Farmers, mechanics

, manufacturers, laborers, men who Ebat they shall supply us with manufactures, and we them earn their bread in the sweat of their face, these constiErith cotton, tobacco, and bread! They are now, more tute the bone, and blood, and muscle of the democracy *han ever, our determived competitors on the ocean. of the country; these are the men who will neither grind They will not, for they cappot, cease this competition. nor be ground to asbes—and this is the democracy that

Vol. VI.-124.

H. OF R.]

Salt.-The Tariff.

(MAY 13, 1830.

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knows the difference between a manly dependence on its Mr. TALIAFERRO did not intend to ask for its consiown skill and labor, and a servile dependence on the deration at this time, but at the request of the gentleman worksbops of England. If my colleague [Mr. CAMBRE- from North Carolina, he would withdraw his motion to lay LENG] is still incredulous, let him propose to relieve the it on the table. democracy of the country, by burning and destroying the Mr. POTTER then demanded the question of considermanufacturing establishments among us. This democracy, ation. whose oppression he so much deplores, will then teach Mr. IRVIN, of Ohio, reminded Mr. T. of his promise

, him that the relief he proposes is ruin in disguise. This is the resolution were received, to ask that it Le laid on the same democracy will also teach him that there is a lack of table, and not now considered. wisdom in tampering with interests whose magnitude and Mr. TALIAFERRO immediately rose, and asked as a connexions one does not comprehend.

favor of Mr. Porter that he would withdraw his motion, I will detain the House but a few moments lopger. and permit the resolution to be laid on the table; and he Reason and experience bave shown the necessity, and de- begged pardon for havirg for a moment forgot the pledge monstrated the value, of the protective system ; persuaded which he had given, in first yielding to the request of Mr. that it has done much, and will do more in advancing the POTTER; he regretted it, and hoped that gentleman would prosperity of the nation, I am for maintaining it. I think permit him to redeem bis pledge. we are bound to do so. This bill holds out to England, Mr. POTTER accordingly withdrew his motion; 401 and other nations, bopes, which I am sure can never be then, on motion of Mr. TALIAFERRO, the resolution was realized. These perpetual proffers are unfair to them and laid on the table. to our own merchants. England should be made to know

THE TARIFF. that we mean fairly, but effectually, to protect the capital, skill, and labor of our own citizens; that this policy is The engrossed bill “ to amend the act in alteration of settled ; and that, with regard to it, there will be no com- the several acts laying duties on imports," was read the promise-there can be done. Of this, she has no right to third time, and the question stated, “Sball the bill pass complain. She protects her interests, and we must do the Mr. HALL, of North Carolina, said, he bad not beani same. The “ American system” will give us wealth and distinctly the title, and wished to hear it. He had under strength in peace, and men and money in war, and we stood the bill to be a bill for enforcing the collection of cannot abandon it without exposing the nation, naked and the revenue; he wished always to call things by their right defenceless, to the arts and arms of her enemies.

He had never given a tariff vote, nor did he era SALT.

intend to do so; but, sir, [said Mr. H.] I should certainly do so were I to vote for this bill. This is a bill profess

. Mr. TALIAFERRO rose, and said, he asked of the edly and in fact, to enforce the tariff law of 1828. The House a favor which he had never asked before, and which original bill to which this is proposed as an amendment or he had never refused to any other member who request- substitute, was intended for the same purpose. And why ed it. It was that the House would grant its upanimous is the amendment, or the bill itself, proposed or required consent for him to introduce a resolution, and bave it Evidently because the tariff of 1828 is defective-is ineff printed.

cient. This bill is to supply the defect--to give the effiInquiry being made as to the nature of the resolution, ciency desired. It is, therefore, to be the efficient cause

Mr. T. said it was of a nature wbich lay at the door of -the real causa causans of any additional effect produced every man, woman, and child in the nation. It was of the by the tariff of 1828, whether for good or evil

. As, there! nature of salt.

fore, I never did give a tariff vote, and as this bill is vita Leave being granted, Mr. T. handed to the Chair the ally, and to all practical purposes, the tariff law of 1828, ! ! following resolution :

shall not vote for it. I am aware that, in regard to amend, !! Whereas salt is an article which enters into the daily ments of a certain character, I differ with many bere in my consumption of every human being in our country, as a construction of the lex parliamentaria. All alterations, sir

, lo matter of primary and unavoidable necessity, and is, to a are not amendments. This is one instance in point. Alla very great extent, procured at a high price, compared propositions purporting to be amendments are not really with the cost of producing it, which too often exposes the so. When the primary law was presented to me, I sbpoor consumer to the grinding exactions of the vendor horred it as much as nature abhors a vacuum. If a bill? and monopolist of the article. Influenced by such, and was before us, bad in its nature, and a substitute under the by other obviously sound considerations, Congress never name of amendment offered, 80 garnished (though con has, except under circumstances of great and emergent taining the same principles) as to make it more easily swalfiscal necessity, imposed a duty on salt. And whereas, lowed, it would in point of principle, be no amendment, since the necessity for which the existing tax on salt was but a mere substitute, in form. Where au amendipent of imposed (after five years entire exemption of it from duty) fered has the effect of striking off a portion, by which the in the years 1813 and 1816, has been successfully met and actual evil is lessened, this is both an alteration and amendovercome by the patient bearing and faithful payment of ment, but not so the striking out one evil, and inserti this and the other taxes by the people; and the Govern- the same in effect. I have never suffered myself to be ment no longer needs the revenue arising from the existing thus caught by the name of amendment. Sir, I should tax on salt :

not have voted for this bill had the salt been retained in it Resolved, That, from and after the 30th day of Septem- -it was not to my taste, however well salted. I would ber next, the duty imposed on all salt imported into the as soon have voted for the bill itself, called Mallary's bill United States, and the territories thereof, shall be ten because I could not have been made to vote for either. cents the measured bushel; and that, from and after the Mr. TUCKER, of South Carolina, entered pretty largely 30th day of September, 1831, salt may be imported as into a statemeot also of his objections to the bill, and to the aforesaid, free of any duty whatever.

protecting system. He was followed by Resolved, That the Committee of Ways and Means be Mr. CÉILTON, of Kentucky, who argued earnestly as instructed to prepare and report a bill in couformity with some length on the same side, and concluded with a motion the foregoing resolution.

to lay the bill on the table, which was negatived. The resolution being read, Mr. T. moved that it be laid Mr. CAMBLELENG briefly stated why he should vote on the table, and be printed.

for the bill, notwithstanding his repugnance to some of its Mr. POTTER hoped the gentleman would withdraw provisions, which he deemed improper, but which he rehis motion, and allow the resolution to be now considered. lied on the Senate to rectify.

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MAY 13, 1830.]

The Tariff.

(H. OF R.

The question was then put on the passage of the bill, praisement, made by the appraisers, or other persons deand decided in the affirmative by the following vote: signated by the collector, too high, he may apply to the

YEAS-Messrs. Angel, Armstrong, Arnold, Bailey, collector in writing, stating the reasons for bis opinion; and Barber, Bartley, Bates, Baylor, Beekman, John Blair, having made oath that the said appraisement is higher Bockee, Boon, Borst, Brown, Buchanan, Burges, Butman, than the actual cost and proper charges on which duty is Caboon, Cambreleng, Chandler, Childs, Clark, Coleman, to be charged, and also that he verily believes that it is Condict, Cooper, Cowles, Hector Craig, Robert Craig, higher than the current value of the said goods, including Crane, Crawford, Creighton, Crowninshield, Daniel, Johu said charges, at the place of exportation, the collector sball Davis, Denvy, De Witt, Dickinson, Doddridge, Duncan, designate one merchant, skilled in the value of such goods, Dwight, Earli, Ellsworth, George Evans, Joshua Evans, and the owner, importer, consignee, or agent may desig: Edward Everett, Horace Everett

, Findlay, Finch, For-nate another, both of whom shall be citizens of the United ward. Fry, Gilmore, Grennell, Hawkins, Hempbill

, Hod States, who, if they cannot agree in an appraisement, may ges, Hoffman, Howard, Huglies, Hunt, Huntington, Ibrie, designate an umpire, who shall also be a citizen of the Ingersoll, Irwin, Irvin, Isacks, Jennings, Juhns, Richard United States; and when they, or a majority of them, D. Johnson, Kendall, Kennon, Kincaid, Perkins King, shall have agreed, they shall report the result to the Lecompte, Letcher, Lyon, Magee, Mallary, Martindale

, collector ; and if their appraisement shall not agree with L. Maxwell

, McCreery, Mercer, Mitchell, Monell, Muh- that of the United States' appraisers, the collector shall lenberg, Norton, Overton, Pearce, Pettis, Pierson, Pow- decide between them. ers, Ramse Randolph, Reed, Richardsou, Rose, Scott, .“ Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the collectors Sbields, Semmes, Sill, Smith, Ambrose Spencer, Sprigg, of the customs shall cause at least one package out of every Staubery, Standifer, Sterigere, Stephens, Heory R. invoice, and one package at least out of every twenty Storrs, William L. Storrs, Strong, Sutherland, Swann, packages of each invoice, and a greater pumber should be Swift, Taylor, Test, Thomson, Tracy, Vance, Varnum, deem it necessary, af goods imported into the respective Verplanck, Vinton, Washington, Whittlesey, Campbell P. districts, wbich package or packages he shall have first White, Edward D. White, Wickliffe, Yancey, Young.- designated on the invoice, to be opened and examined ; 127.

and if the same be found not to correspond with the inNAYS_Messrs. Anderson, Archer, John S. Barbour, voice, or to be falsely charged in such invoice, the collector Philip P. Barbour, Barringer, Chilton, Claiborne, Clay, shall order, forthwith, all the goods contained in the same Conver, Crockett, Crocberon, Davenport, Deberry, De entry to be inspected; and if such goods be subject to an sha, Drayton, Dudley, Gordon, Hammous, Harvey, Cave ad valorem duty, the same shall be appraised ; and if any Johnson, Lea, Lent, Loyall, Lewis, Lumpkin, Maxwell, package shall be found to contain any article not described McCoy, McIntire, Polk, Rencher, Roane, William B. She- in the invoice, or if such package or invoice be made up pard, Augustine H. Shepperd, Richard Spencer, Taliaferro, with intent, by a false valuation, or extension, or otherwise, Trezrant, Tucker, Wayne, Weeks, Williams, Wingate,- to evade or defraud the revenue, the same shall be for40.

feited ; and the fifteenth section of the “Act supplemenSo the bill was passed, and sent to the Senate for con tary to an act to amend an act entitled 'An act to regulate

the collection of duties on imports and tonpage,' passed [The bill passed the House if the following shape :). second March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine,

Be it enacted, &c. That the President of the United and for other purposes,” passed first March, one thousand States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, eight hundred and twenty-three, and also so much of any is hereby authorized to appoint au additional appraiser of act of Congress as imposes an additional duty or penalty merchandise for the port of New York, who eball take a of fifty per centum on duties upon any goods which may similar oath, and have like power and compensation, and be appraised at twenty-five per centum, or ten per centperform the same duties with the appraisers now author- um, above their invoice price, is bereby repealed; and no ized by law to be appointed at that place.

goods liable to be inspected or appraised as aforesaid, shall “Sec. 2. And be it furlker enacted, That the Secretary be delivered from the custody of the officers of the cusof the Treasury may appoint not exceeding four assistant toms, until the same shall have been inspected or appraisappraisers in New York, two in Philadelphia, and two in ed, or until the packages sent to be inspected or appraised Boston, who shall be practically acquainted with the qua- shall be found correctly and fairly invoiced and put up, lity and value of some one or inore of the objef articles of and so reported to the collector : Provided, That the colimportation subject to appraisement, to be employed in lector may, at the request of the owner, importer, consig| appraising goods in such manner as shall be directed by nee, or agent, take boods, with approved security, in double

the Secretary of the Treasury, and who shall take and sub- the estimaetd value of such goods, conditioned that they i scribe an oath diligently and faithfully to examine and in- sball be delivered to the order of the collector, at any time | spect such goods, wares, or merchandise as the principal within ten days after the package or packages sent to the

appraisers may direct, and truly to report to them, to the public stores sball bave been appraised and reported to | best of their knowledge and belief, the true value thereof, the collector. Avd if, in the mean time, any of the said | according to law; whereupon, the principal appraisers shall packages shall be opened without the consent of the collec

revise and correct the same as they may judge proper, and stor or surveyor given in writing, and then in the presence | report to the collector their decision thereon ; but if the of one of the inspectors of the customs, or if the said pack

collector shall deem any appraisement of goods too low, age or packages shall not be delivered to the order of the he shall bave power to order a re-appraisement, either by collector, according to the condition of the said bond, the the principal appraisers, or by three merchants designated same shall, in either case, be forfeited. by him for that purpose, who shall be citizens of the United "Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the States, and cause the duties to be charged accordingly. duty of the collector to cause all goods entered for re-ex

"Seo. 3. And be it further enacted, 'Ibat, from and after portation, or for transportation from one port or place to the thirteenth day of September dext, whenever goods, of another, with the right of draw back, to be inspected, and which wool or cotton is a component part, of similar kind, the articles thereof compared with their respective inbut different quality, are fouod in the same package, it voices, before a permit shall be given for landing the same; shall be the duty of the appraisers to adopt the value of and where the goods so entered shall be found not to agree the best article contained in such package as the average with the entry, they shall be forfeited; and every importer, value of the whole; and if the owner, importer, consignee, owner, consigness, agent, or exporter, who sball enter or ageot for any goods appraised, shall consider any ap- goods for importation, or for exportation, or transportation.


H. OF R.)

Removal of the Indians.-Navigation and Imposts.

(May 14, 1830.

from one port or place to another, with the right of draw- , expediency of the measures wbich it contemplated. Har back, sball deposit with the collector an original invoice ing spoken upwards of two hours, be intimated bis willing of such goods, to be filed and preserved by him in the ar. Dess to give way, and allow some other gentleman to ott chives of the custom-bouse, which shall be signed by such tipue the argument, if it was the pleasure of the commit importer, owner, consignee, agent, or exporter, and the tee to sit longer, reserving wbat he had further to say for oath to be made on the entry of such goods as shall be an- another day. Dexed thereto.

Mr. LUMPKIN, of Georgia, rose, and expressed a wii “Sec. 6. And further enacted, That the assistant lingness to proceed with the remarks which he designed to appraisers at New York shall receive a compensation of make, if the committee were disposed to continue the fifteen hundred dollars per annum ; and those at Boston sitting ; but, it being half after three o'clock, (and some and Philadelphia, a compensation of twelve hundred dol- members intimating a wish, after the late fatiguing sittings lars per annum, to be paid out of the proceeds of the cus- of the House, tbat the committee should rise,) be gave toms'; and the clerks and all other persons employed in way, and the committee rose. the appaiser's office, shall be appoivted by the principal appraiser, and their number and compensation limited and

Friday, May 14, 1830.

I fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury. * Sec 7. And be it further enacted, That all forfeitures

NAVIGATION AND IMPOSTS. incurred under this act shall be sued for, recovered, and The House resumed the consideration of the bill con distributed according to the provisions of the act entitled cerning navigation and imposts. "An act to regulate the collection of duties on imports and Mr. CAMBRELENG said, it was not his intention du tonnage," passed the second day of March, one thousand ring the present session to go into a full examination of the ! seven bundred and ninety-nive: Provided, That the ap- important and comprehensive measure now under consi praisers shall, in no case, receive any proportion of such deration. The committee had not anticipated its adep forfeiture : And provided, also, That the Secretary of the tion until some modification had been made in an existing Treasury sball be, and he is bereby, authorized to remit impost system. Gentlemen bad, however, commenced : any such forfeiture, whenever be is of opinion that no fraud war against it, more distinguished for zenl than moders on the revenue was intended.

tion, and seemed determined at all hazards to force the “Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That whenever, in House into a premature debate, and in opposition to the the opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury, it may be wishes of the committee. He should not, by such a course, necessary, in order to carry into full effect the laws for be driven from his purpose, which was to bave the ques the collection of the revenue, he may authorize the collec- tion postponed until the next session. He should merely tor of any district into wbich goods, wares, or merchap. reply now to some objections which had been urged, and dise subject to duty may be imported, to require the owner, endeavor to satisfy the House that, wbether expedient or importer, or consiguee of such goods, wares

, or merchan- pot, the measure proposed was worthy its gerious consi dise, to give bond, in addition to the bond now required, deration. He had certainly misconceived the great and by law, in a sum pot exceeding the value of such merchan-permanent interests of this country, if the policy recomdise, that he will produce, or cause to be produced, within mended was not essential to the prosperity of its industry, a reasonable time, to be fixed by the said Secretary, such and not only so, but absolutely required in the actual cotproof as the said Secretary may deem necessary, and as dition of our commercial and political relations with foreign may be in the power of the said owner, importer, or con- nations. sigoee to obtain, to enable the collecter to ascertain the He could not refrain from expressing bis surprise at the class or description of manufacture, or rate of duty to which novelty of the course pursued by gentlemen opposed to such goods wares, or merchandise may be justly liable. the bill —at this extraordinary impatience to reject it, witb

"SEC. 9. And be it further enacted, That, from aud after the out even condescending to examine its provisions, and thirtieth day of September vext, all iron mapufactured for certainly, from their own declarations, without compre railroads shall be liable to the same rate of duty which is bending its design, scope, or practical operation. Gentle now imposed op bar or bolt iron of similar manufacture, and men seemed to have been hurried away by their suspicions. that all scrap iron shall be liable to the same duty that is the measure was too monstrous even to be entered upon charged on iron in pigs : Provided, however, That when it the journals of the House-it must be instantly and abso shall be satisfactorily proved to the Secretary of the Trea- lutely rejected. It is not, sir, the first instance, wbere sury that any of the said iron imported for the purpose of measures designed to enlarge the prosperity of the coun being applied in the construction of any railroad, by any try, and to increase its power, have been bastily condeme State or incorporated company, has been actually and ed, and upon equally solid grounds. There is no difficulty, permanently laid on any such railroad, that then, and in however, in accounting for this premature bostility, when that case, he may allow to such State or company a draw we advert to discussions elsewhere. It may be safely asback of the duty on such railroad iron so laid; or, if the cribed to certain idle speculations of the last summer en duty on the same shall have been nctually paid, he may our negotiations with Great Britain, and the outery tben refund the same : Provided, Such drawback or repayment raised and still echoed here, for political purposes, that this shall not reduce the duty to be paid on such iron below administration were about to get rid of our tariff by degotwenty-five per cent., ad valorem, nor when in any less tiation, Gentlemen may dismiss their suspicions and their quantity than twenty tous."

fears. The majority of the committee are alone responsi

ble for this measure, be it good or bad; and let me assure REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS.

them that they have entered into no conspiracy to break On motion of Mr. BELL, the several special orders of down any one interest in the country. No, sir, however the day were postponed, and the House resolved itself into I may deprecate the policy adopted since the war, if thera Committee of the Whole, Mr. WICKLIFFE being called to be any party or association of men, bere or elsewhere, the chair, and took up the bill making an appropriation whose purpose it is to break down any established interest, to enable the President of the United States to effect an I am not with them. I had nothing to do, sir, with ima. exchange of lands with the Indians within the States, and posing duties, or with stimulating our countrymen to evto provide for their removal beyond the river Mississippi

. gage in rash apd unprofitable speculations; bot I will share Mr. BELL, chairman of the Committee on Indian Af. in no scheme to appihilate investments made upon the fairs, rose, and addressed the committee at large, in ex. faith of our laws, bowever I may bave denounced such planation of the objects of the bill, and the policy and measures as mischievous and disastrous. I will lubor zeal.

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