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Art. I, § 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.

Art. I, § 4. . . . No person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness or juror on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief. . . .

Art. I, § 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

Habeas corpus. See U. S. Const., art. I, § 9, subd. 2.

Art. I, § 6. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted. Witnesses shall not be unreasonably detained, nor confined in any room where criminals are actually imprisoned.

Art. I, § 7. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate. . . . A trial by jury may be waived in all criminal cases, not amounting to felony, by the consent of both parties, expressed in open court. . . .

Art. 1, § 8. Offenses heretofore required to be prosecuted by indictment shall be prosecuted by information, after examination and commitment by a magistrate, or by indictment, with or without such ex. amination and commitment, as may be prescribed by law. A grand jury shall be drawn and summoned at least once a year in each county.

Art. I, § 9. ... In all criminal prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact. Indictments found, or information laid, for publications in newspapers shall be tried in the county where such newspapers have their publication-office, or in the county where the party alleged to be libeled resided at the time of the alleged publication, unless the place of trial shall be changed for good cause.

Art. I, § 13. In criminal prosecutions, in any court whatever, the party accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial; to


have the process of the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and to appear and defend, in person and with counsel. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The legislature shall have power to provide for the taking, in the presence of the party accused and his counsel, of depositions of witnesses in criminal cases, other than cases of homicide, when there is reason to believe that the witness, from inability or other cause, will not attend at the trial.

Art. I, § 16. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

Art. I, § 18. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime, shall ever be tolerated in this state.

Art. I, § 20. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in open court.

Art. II, § 1. ́ . . . No . . . person convicted of any infamous crime, and no person hereafter convicted of the embezzlement or misappropriation of public money, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this state.

Art. II, § 2. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at such election, going to and returning therefrom.

Art. IV, § 11. Members of the legislature shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, and shall not be subject to any civil process during the session of the legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session.

Art. IV, § 17. The assembly shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members elected.

Art. IV, § 18. The governor, lientenant-governor, secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney-general, surveyor-general, chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court, and judges of the superior courts, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any officer of honor, trust or profit under the state; but the party convicted or acquitted shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law. All

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other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanor in office in such manner as the legislature may provide.

Art. IV, § 21. No person convicted of the embezzlement or defalcation of the public funds of the United States, or of any state, or of any county or municipality therein, shall ever be eligible to any office of honor, trust, or profit under this state, and the legislature shall provide, by law, for the punishment of embezzlement or defalcation as a felony.

Art. IV, § 25. The legislature shall not pass local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases, that is to say:

Second-For the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors. . . Fourth-Providing for the change of venue in civil and criminal



Eighth Summoning and impaneling grand and petit juries, and providing for their compensation. . . .

Twenty-second-Restoring to citizenship persons convicted of infamous crimes.

Thirty-second-For limitation of civil or criminal actions.

Art. IV, § 26. The legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries or gift enterprises for any purpose and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale in this state of lottery or gift enterprise tickets or tickets in any scheme in the nature of a lottery.

Art. IV, § 35. Any person who seeks to influence the vote of a member of the legislature by bribery, promise of reward, intimidation, or any other dishonest means, shall be guilty of lobbying, which is hereby declared a felony; and it shall be the duty of the legislature to provide, by law, for the punishment of this crime. Any member of the legislature who shall be influenced, in his vote or action upon any matter pending before the legislature, by any reward, or promise of future reward, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, in addition to such punishment as may be provided by law, shall be disfranchised and forever disqualified from holding any office or public trust. Any person may be compelled to testify in any lawful investigation or judicial proceeding against any person who may be charged with having committed the offense of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or with having been influenced in his vote or action, as a member of the legislature, by reward, or promise of future reward, and shall not be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself, or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterward be used against him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony.

Art. VI, § 1. The judicial power of the state shall be vested in the senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in a supreme court, superior courts, justices of the peace, and such inferior courts as the legisla

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