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then, after an intermediate period of death-like repose, emerging from its torpid state, furnished with wings, adorned with brilliant colours, and confined in its choice of food to the most delicate fluids of the vegetable kingdom, is a spectacle that must always be regarded with the highest interest. Nor can we fail to be struck by the parallel which some entomologists have drawn between these changes and the progress of our own being towards perfection. Here we are but as the larvae of our future selves; our sphere of action is limited, and our nature grovelling. Death brings a period of repose, which may be regarded as our chrysalis state. And, if our time here be not misspent, we are encouraged to hope, that, like the insect, we shall again rise from the tomb, endowed with new faculties, to the enjoyment of a nobler and more glorious life,
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
Show that the animal kingdom presents a wide field of inquiry. How is the extent of that field affected by diversity of climate? How by the microscope? How by geological discovery? What is meant by vertebrata? Name the classes of the vertebrata. Which is the highest? Name the great divisions of the invertebrata. What is the use of classification in natural history? Why are certain animals called zoophytes? What is the simplest form of animal organism? Name an example of it. How does the amoeba move? How does it eat? What are polypes? Name a fresh-water species-a salt-water one. Describe the hydra. In what remarkable way does the hydra species multiply naturally? How may it be multiplied artficially? Give an instance of the hydra's tenacity of life. Describe the sea-anemone. Why so called? Where found? Give an instance of its tenacity of life. How may it be killed? What science treats specially of insects? Of how many segments are insects composed? What is remarkable about their eyes? How many legs have they? How many wings? Name some of the uses of insects. How are their ravages kept in check? In what form does a butterfly issue from the egg? What is its second state? How does it differ from the first? What is its third state? How does it differ from the first? and from the second? Compare this process of development with the progress of a human being towards perfection.
JERUSALEM AT THE SIEGE.
[SIR EDWARD BULWER LYTTON, one of the most elegant novelists of the time, is also a dramatic poet and a powerful satirist, and has lately secured his title to immortality in his noble romance-epic "King Arthur." His plays are the "Lady of Lyons," the "Duchess de la Valliere," and "Richelieu." The lyrical pieces scattered over his novels are remarkable for their pure and classic gracefulness.]
No tragedy on the stàgel has the same scenes of appalling térror as are to be found in the history of this siège. The city itself was rent by factions at the deadliest wàr with each other-all the elements of civil hátred' had broken loose the streets were slippery with the blood of cìtizens— brother slew brother-the granaries were set on fíre—famine wasted those whom the swòrd did not slay. In the midst of these civil mássacres, the Roman ármies' appeared before the walls of Jerusalem. Then for a short time the civil factions únited against the common fòe; they were agaìn the gallant countrymen of Dávid and Joshua-they sallied fórth and scattered the eagles of Ròme. But this tríumph was brief; the ferocity of the ill-fated Jews' soon again wásted itself on each other. And Titus marched òn-encamped his armies close by the walls-and from the heights' the Roman general gazed with áwel on the strength and spléndour of the city of Jehovah. Let us here pause, and take a mournful glance of Jerúsalem as it then was. The city was fórtified by a triple wàll, save on óne side1 where it was protected by deep and impassable ravines. These walls, of the most solid másonry, were guarded by strong towers; opposite to the loftiest of these, Titus had encamped. From the height of that tówer the sentinel might have seen, stretched below, the whole of that fair territory of Judéa, about to pass from the countrymen of David. Within these walls' was the palace of the kings-its roofs of cèdar, its floors of the rarest márble, its chambers' filled with the costliest tápestries, and véssels of gold and silver. Groves and gardens gleaming with fountains, adorned with statues of bronze, divided the courts of the palace itself. But high above all, upon a precipitous rock, rose the temple, fortified and adorned by Solomon. This temple was as strong without as a cìtadel-withín' more adorned than a pàlace. On éntering, you beheld porticoes of numberless columns of porphyry, márble, and àlabaster; gátes adorned with gold and silver, among which was the wonderful gáte called the Beautiful. Further on, through a vast árch, was the sacred pórtal' which admitted into the interior of the
temple itself—all sheeted over with gold, and overhung by a víne-tree of gold, the branches of which were as large as a màn. The roof of the temple, even on the outside, was set over with golden spikes, to prevent the birds settling there, and defiling the holy dòme. At a distance, the whole temple looked like a mount of snów, fretted with golden pinnacles. But, alás, the veil of that témple had been already rent asúnder by an inexplicable crìme, and the Lord of hósts' did not fight with Israel. But the enemyl is thundering at the wall. All around the cíty arose immense machines, from which Titus poured down mighty fragments of rock and showers of fire. The walls gave wày-the city was entered—the temple itself was stòrmed. Famine in the meantime had made such hávoc' that the besieged were more like spèctres than living men; they devoured the belts of their swórds and the sandals on their feet. Even nature itself so perished away, that a móther devoured her own infant, fulfilling the awful words of the warlike próphet' who had first led the Jews to the land of promise"The tender and delicate woman amongst you, who would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground for delicateness and tenderness, hèr eye shall be evil toward her young one, and the children which she shall bèar; for she shall eat them for want of all things sècretly in the siege and stráitness wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee in thy gates."
Stíll, as if the fóe and the famine were not scourge enough, citizens smote and múrdered each other' as they met in the way—false prophets' ran hówling through the streets -every image of despair! completes the ghastly picture of the fall of Jerusalem. And now the temple itself was set on fire, the Jews rushing through the flames to perish amidst its rùins. It was a calm summer night, the 10th of Aùgust, the whole hill on which stood the temple was one gigantic blaze of fire, the roofs of cedar crashed, the golden pinnacles of the dome were like spikes of crimson flame. Through the lurid átmosphere all was carnage and slaughter; the echoes of shrieks and yells' rang back from the Hill of Zíon
and the Mount of O'lives. Amongst the smoking rùing and over piles of the déad, Titus planted the standard of Rome. Thus were fulfilled the last avenging pròpheciesthús perished Jerusalem. In that dreadful dáy, men were still living who might have heard the warning voice of Hím whom they crucified: "Vèrily I say unto you, All thése things shall come upon this generàtion.
O Jerúsalem, Jerúsalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee behold, your house is léft unto you! dèsolate!" And thus were the Hebrew people! scattered over the face of the earth, still retaining to this hóur their mysterious idèntity—still a living proof of the truth of those prophets they had scorned or sláin-stíll vàinly awaiting that Messíah whose divine mission was fulfilled eighteen centuries ago upon the Mount of Calvary. BULWER LYTTON.
Fallen is thy thróne, O Israel!
Lórd, thou did'st love Jerusalem;
Till èvil camel and blighted
Thy long-loved òlive-tree,
And Salem's shrines were lighted
Then' sank the star of Sólyma,
"Go," said the Lord, "ye cónquerors,
But soon' shall other pictured scenes
When Zion's sun shall sevenfold shíne
And on her mountains beauteous stánd
THAT quality in any object which renders it capable of gratifying our desires, is called its value. It is not always the most useful things that are of the most value. Nothing is more useful than air and water, without which we could not live; yet these are, in most places, of no value in the proper sense of that word: that is, no one will give anything in exchange for them, because he can have them