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3. When danger darkened around his name, she loved him the more ardently. Page 91.

4. Poetry is one of the great instruments of our happiness. Page 70. 5. The desperate state of our army abroad, is in part known. Page 115.

Music which has no other aim, cannot be justified. Page 67. 6. To look on music as a mere amusement, cannot be justified. Page 67.

7. There is doubtless a great difference in the constitution of indivíduals; but all mankind are endowed with the faculty of song. Page 67.

The telescope led me to see a system in every stár; the microscope leads me to see a world in every atom. Page 7.

8. In three campaigns we have done nothing, and suffered much. Page 115.

9. A soldier of the Legion lay dying in Algiers,

There was lack of woman's nursing, there was dearth of woman's tears. Page 72.

The Falling Inflection takes place-1, at the end of a sentence-2, at the end of a clause forming sense of itself, except in a series-3, after exclamations of solemnity, admiration-and 4, after questions introduced by pronouns and adverbs.

1. Poetry is one of the great instruments of our happiness. Page 70.

In this sentence, the voice makes what is called a cadence, that the fall on "happiness" may not be violent like that of emphasis. In doing this, the voice sinks down after "poetry" into a lower key, ascends a little on "instruments," and comes down on "happiness" with a fall partaking little of the slide.

2. By a series of criminal enterprises, the liberties of Europe have been gradually extinguished; and we are the only people in the eastern hémisphere who are in possession of equal laws and a free constitution. Page 34.

I consider a human soul without education, like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties till the skill of the polisher fetches out the colours, &c. Page 1.

Here the relative does not limit or modify the antecedent, therefore a fall takes place before it.

The fall on "extinguished" differs from that on "constitution"-the interval should be small, and should convey to the hearer that more is to be said-the fall on "constitution" proceeds from a cadence as mentioned above.

3. What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! 4. Who shall resist me in a parent's cause?


A succession of single words in the same relation to other words in the sentence is called a Simple Series. If it commences the sentence, the last of the series requires a rise as the sense then begins to be formed; if it concludes, the one before the last requires a rise in order to anticipate the final fall.

He was tried, condemned, and executed, on a charge of treason. Cromwell's energy was natural, healthful, and temperate.

When the series consists of clauses bearing the same relation, it is called a Compound Series. If it commences a sentence, the falling inflection takes place on every member but the last; if it concludes, on every member except the one before the last.

These abominable principles, and this more abominable avówal of them, demand the most decisive indignation. Page 116.

In her family, in her court, in her kíngdom, Mary remained equally mistress.

Mary remained equally mistress in her family, her court, and her kingdom.

Such notions shock every precept of morality, every feeling of humánity, every sentiment of honour. Page 116.

As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was vàliant, I honour him; but as he was ambitious, I slèw him.

In this last form of sentence, the speaker is supposed to anticipate the last clause. But in extempore speaking, especially in excitement, this artificial mode might not be adopted - thus, in the following sentence of Lord Brougham's:

Now, then, let the planters beware-let their assemblies beware let the government at home beware-let the Parliament beware. Page 162.

This applies also to climax which falls under the series.

You are called upon as members of this house as mèn- as Christians. Page 116.


Emphasis is the stress which is laid on those words which are in opposition to, or contradistinction with each other. It is effected by force accompanied with inflection. If the emphatic word occurs in a declarative sentence, the falling inflection is used. The word opposed is sometimes expressed, sometimes understood. In the sentence

Nathan said unto Dávid, Thou art the man.

"Thou" is the emphatic word, and the inflection on it is different from that on "Nathan," being more circumflex. Prominence is also given to the emphatic word by the light pronunciation of "art the man," as these words are common to both parts of the antithesis.

Brutus-Go, show your slaves how choleric you are.

Lady Macbeth-Give me the daggers.

Approach and read (for thou canst read) the lay`
Graved on the stone, beneath yon aged thorn. P. 391.
Antithesis-I cannot read.

Such plays alone should please a British ear,
As Cato's self would not disdain to hear.

Antithesis-As not only a person of nice morals would approve, but such as even a rigid moralist, like Cato, would approve. (WALKER.)

If the antithesis is expressed in a negative clause preceding the emphasis, it is given with the rising inflection.

Nelson has left us not merely a náme, but an example.

Emphatic words in questions asked by verbs, require a rise; by pronouns and adverbs, a fall.

Macbeth-Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible

To feeling as to sight? or art thou but
A dagger of the mind?

The reason of the fall on "mind" is, that the "or" is disjunctive.
Who shall resist me in a parent's cause?

A pronoun followed by a relative has a force anticipatory of the coming relative.

He cannot be said to have fallen prematurely, whose work was done. Page 51.

The emphasis is said to be double when four emphatic words occur. Regions Caèsar never knew,

Thy postérity shall swày. Page 6.

While you are engaged in the field, mány will repair to the closet. Page 35.

Emphasis is often strengthened by the adoption of a lower key. This gives effect in climax.

You are called upon as members of this house, as mén, as Christians.

"As Christians" is given in a lower key.

Ironical emphasis is given with an exaggerated circumflex of tone. Proceed, Catiline, in your honourable career.


Those clusters of words which do not come within the grammatical points, are separated by short pauses, and their inflection is regulated by the grammatical clause-thus, if there is a fall at the end of the grammatical clause, there is generally a rise at the pause before it, and vice versa.

By a series of criminal enterprises, the liberties of Europe' have been gradually extinguished; and we are the only people in the eastern hémisphere who are in possession of equal láws' and a free constitution. Page 34.

These pauses, forming what some call oratorical words, occur between the nominative and verb, especially if the nominative is followed by a prepositional adjunct-in short intervening clauses-before prepositional clauses, if long-before infinitives not immediately preceded by a verb-at ellipsis-before clauses introduced by the conjunction "that," expressed, or

understood-and sometimes before a word to mark it out emphatically. Many of the preparatory slides take place at the close of these oratorical words. The marked pieces in this collection show the situation of those pauses, and render the giving of examples here unnecessary. It may be remarked here, that though there is generally a pause at the grammatical points, there are situations where no pause is made-thus, words of address are given without a pause, "I cannot, my lords, join in this address." There is no pause before "my lords."


I consider a human soul without education, like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties1 until the skill of the pólisher' fetches out the còlours, makes the surface shíne, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spòt, and véin' that runs through the body of it.

The inflections in the above sentence are all within the rules already given, but preparatory slides might be added.

I consider a human soul without education, like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties' until the skill of the pólisher' fétches out the colours, makes the surface shíne, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spòt, and véin' that rúns through the body of it.

The words between these inflections follow without a pause the inflection of the previous word-thus, "in the" follow "marble" as if the whole were spoken márbleinthe, and "of the" after "skill," follow in the slide of "skill" as if it were skillofthe; "through the" after "runs," as if it were runsthroughthe; and " of it" after "body" as if it were bodyofit, forming in sound one word.


The variety of modulation within a sentence has been marked out in forming a cadence. The parenthesis, the modifying clause, the simile, and the second clause in an antithesis, also require a varied tone. The parenthesis is generally lower; the modifying clause lower at the commencement, but rising towards the termination; the simile, generally lower. In answering questions also, a lower key is assumed after a


Approach and read (for thou canst read) the lay
Graved on the stone, beneath yon aged thorn.

P. 391.

A man conspicuous in a high station, who multiplies hopes that he may multiply dependents, may be considered as a beast of prey. Philosophy makes us wiser; Christianity makes us better men. Has the dark ádder venom? So have I when trod upon.

Intervening clauses, especially when antithetic, pathetic, or prompted by passion, require a marked change of key.

I knew the eye, though faint its light, that once so brightly shone-
I knew the voice, though feeble now, that thrilled with every tone-
I knew the ringlets, almost grey, once threads of living gold. P. 388.

He smote me on the cheek-I did not stab him,
That were poor revenge. E'er since, his folly
Hath striven to bury it beneath a heap
Of kindnesses-and thinks it is forgot:
Insolent thought! and like a second blow.

A grand conception, a striking thought, or a desire in the speaker to arrest the attention of his audience, leads to a change of key.

Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather
The multitudinous sea incarnadine,

Making the green, One Red.

Ships, by thousands, lay below,

And men, in nations. Page 342.

In all the clauses in Italics a lower key is adopted, except "insolent thought," which is higher and louder. "He smote me on the cheek" is high and loud.

In the succession of sentences, there is frequently assumed a different key. A second sentence following a general remark, if giving a number of particulars illustrating that remark, beyins a lower key. The beginning of a new paragraph also often commences in a lower key. The representation of the varied play of passion cannot be given without frequent shifts of the voice.


The monotone is at times well fitted to express impressions of solemnity, sublimity, and admiration. It is marked out by horizontal lines.

O Thōu that rūlest abōve, round as the shield of my fathers-whence are thy beams, O sun, thy everlasting light?


This modulation is only adopted in lively and poetic pieces. It is given in such words as whirl, dash, pour, crash, clash, boil.

In the notation of the following lessons, the emphatic words are marked with the common signs of inflection. The judgment of the teacher will guide the pupil in distinguishing the words which should have emphatic force. It may be stated also, that the preparatory slide is frequently marked out, that the monotonous mode of reading between the grammatical slides may be prevented.

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