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satisfaction: “ Wretched man that I am, I am condemned before I speak; and when I have spoken, I am condemned. Upon thy sentence, O queen, I see death awaits for me. In vain shall I seek to avoid it. It is thy will that I should perish, but let that little breath I have left acquit me so far with thee, as to call heaven and earth to record, that in regard of thee I die innocent. It is true that mine impetuous malice miscarried me against the nation of the Jews for the sake of one stubborn offender; but did I know there was the least drop of Israelitish blood in thy sacred person? could I suspect that Mordecai or that people did aught concern thee? Let not one death be enough for me, if I would ever have entertained any thought of evil against nation or man that should have cost but a frown from thee. All the court of Persia can sufficiently witness how I have magnified and adored thee ever since the royal crown was set on thy head, neither did I ever fail to do thee all good offices unto that my sovereign master, whom thou hast now mortally incensed against me. O queen, no hand can save my life but thine, that hath as good as bereaved it. Shew mercy to him that never meant but loyalty to thee. As ever thou wouldest oblige an humble and faithful vassal to thee, as ever thou wouldest honour thy name and sex with the praise of tender compassion, take pity upon me, and spare that life which shall be vowed to thy service; and whereas thy displeasure may justly allege against me that rancorous plot for the extirpation of that people whom I, too late, know to be thine ; let it suffice that I hate, I curse mine own cruelty, and only upon that condition shall beg the reprieval of my life, that I shall work and procure, by thy gracious aid, a full defeasance of that unjust execution. ()! let fall upon thy despairing servant one word of favour to my displeased master, that I may yet live.”

While he was speaking to this purpose, having prostrated himself for the more humility before the queen, and spread his arms in a vehement imploration up to her bed, the king comes in; and, as not unwilling to misconstrue the posture of him whom he now hated, says, “ What, will he force the queen also before me in the house?” That which Haman meant as an humble suppliant is interpreted as from a presumptuous offender. How oft might he have done so, and more, while he was in favour, uncensured ! Actions are not the same when the man alters : as charity makes a good sense of doubtful occurrents, so prejudice and displeasure take all things, though well meant, at the worst. It is an easy thing to pick a quarrel where we intend a mischief.

The wrath of the king is as a messenger of death. While these words were yet in the mouth of Ahasuerus, Haman, in turning his head toward the king, is suddenly muffled for his execution. He shall no more see either face or sun; he shall be seen no more, but as a spectacle of shame and horror.

And now he thinks, “Woe is me, whose eyes serve me only to foresee the approach of a dishonourable and painful death! What am I the better to have been great? O that I had never been ! O that I could not be! How too truly have Zeresh and my friends foretold me of this heavy destiny! Now am I ready to feel what it is that I meant to thousands of innocents. I shall die with pain and ignominy. ( that the conscience of mine intended murder could die with me!”

It is no marvel if wicked men find nothing but utter discomforts in their end. Rather than fail, their former happiness shall join with their imminent miseries to torment them. It is the just judgment of God, that presumptuous sinners should be swallowed up of those evils which they would not fear. Happy is that man who hath grace to foresee and avoid those ways which will lead him to a perfect confusion : happy is he that hath so lived, that he can either welcome death as a friend or defy it as an enemy.

Who was ever the better for favour past? Those that had before kissed the feet and smiled in the face of Haman are now as ready to cover his head and help him to the gallows. Harbonah, one of the chamberlains, seasonably tells the king how stately a gibbet Haman had newly set up for well-deserving Mordecai within his own palace. I hear not one man open his mouth to intercede for the offender, to pacify the king, to excuse or lessen the fact. Every one is ready to pull him down that is falling; to trample on him that is down; yet, no doubt, there were some of these courtiers whom Haman had obliged. Had the cause been better, thus it would have been. Every cur is ready to fall upon the dog that he sees worried. But here it was the just hand of God to set off all hearts from a man that had been so unreasonably merciless; and to raise up enemies, even among friends, to him that had professed enmity to God's Church. So let thine enemies perish, O Lord, unsuccoured, unpitied.

Then the king said, Hang him thereon. There can be no truer justice than in retaliation. Who can complain of his own measure! Behold, the wicked travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood. He made a pit and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch that he made. His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.

There hangs Haman, in more reproach than ever he stood in honour; and Mordecai, who is now first known for what he was, succeeds his favour, and changes inheritances with his enemy; for while Haman inherits the gibbet of Mordecai, Mordecai inherits the house and honour of Haman, O Lord, let the malice of the wicked come to an end; but establish thou the just.

One hour hath changed the face of the Persian court. What stability is there in earthly greatness ? He whom in the morning all knees bowed unto, as more than a man, now hangs up, like a despised vermin, for a prey to the ravens. He who this morning was destined to the gallows now rules over princes ; neither was it for nothing that he this day rode in triumph. The king's ring, that was taken from Haman, is now given to Mordecai, as the pledge of his authority; and he that even now sat in the gate is called up next to the throne. Wickedness and honest innocence have now paid their debts to both their clients.

Little joy would it yet have been to Esther that her enemy was dead, her kinsman advanced, if still her people must for all this expect their fatal day. Her next suit therefore is for the safety of her nation in the countermand of that bloody decree which Haman had obtained against them. That, which was surreptitiously gotten and rashly given, is so much more gladly reversed, by how much mercy is more pleasing to a good nature than cruel injustice. Mordecai hath power to indite, seal, send out letters of favour to the Jews which were causelessly sentenced to the slaugliter. If a Persian law might not be reversed, yet it might be counterchanged. Mordecai may not write, “Let no Jew be slain,” he may write, “Let the Jews meet, and stand for their lives against those that would slay them.” This command flies after the former so fast, as if it would overtake that which it cannot recall. The Jews are revived with this happy tidings, that they may have protection as well as enmity; that authority will not be their executioner; that their own hands are allowed to be their avengers. Who would imagine, that after public notice of this alteration

BP. HALL, VOL. II.

at the court, when the world could not choose but know the malicious ground of that wrongful edict, the shameful death of the procurer, the power of the party opposite, any one should be found throughout all the provinces that would once lift up his hand against a Jew? that with his own danger would endeavour to execute a controlled decree? The Church of God should cease to be itself if it wanted malicious persecution. There needs no other quarrel than the name, the religion of Israel.

Notwithstanding the known favour of the king and the patronage of Mordecai, the thirteenth of Adar is meant to be a bloody day. Haman bath too many abettors in the Persian dominions. These join together to perform that sentence whereof the author repented. The Jews take heart to defend themselves, to kill their murderers. All the provinces are turned into a field of civil war, wherein innocence vanquisheth malice. The Jews are victors; and not only are alive, but are feared. The most resist them not ; many assist them, and some become theirs. The countenance of the great leads the world at pleasure. Fear of authority sways thousands that are not guilty of a conscience.

Yea, besides the liberty of defence, the Jews are now made their own justices. That there may be none left from the loins of that accursed Agagite, who would have left none of the Jewish seed, they slay the ten sons of Haman, and obtain new days of further executions. Neither can death satisfy their revenge. Those ten sons of Haman shall in their very carcasses bear the reproach of their father, and hang aloft upon his gallows.

Finally, no man doth, no man dares frown upon a Jew. They are now become lords in the midst of their captivity. No marvel if they ordain and celebrate their joyful Purim for a perpetual memory to all posterities of their happy deliverance. It were pity that the Church of God should not have sunshines as well as storms and should not meet with interchanges of joy in their warfare before they enter upon the unchangeable joy of their endless triumph.

CONTEMPLATIONS

UPON

THE HISTORY OF

THE

NEW TESTAMENT.

THE FIRST VOLUME.

TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY,

CHARLES,

BY THE GRACE OF GOD KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND,

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH.

Most Gracious and Dread Sovereign,-More than twenty years are slipped away since I entered upon this task of sacred Contemplations; presuming so long ago to prefix your Royal Name to some of the first pieces of this long work, which I rather wished than hoped I might live to finish. The God of heaven hath been pleased to stretch out my days so far as to see it brought at last, after many necessary intermissions, to an happy end. Now, not with more contentment than boldness, I bring to your sacred hands, besides variety of other discourses, that work complete, whereof some few parcels saw the light before, under subordinate dedications. The whole is your Majesty's due, no less than the unworthy Author; whose age pleaseth and prideth itself in nothing more than the title of one of your Majesty's most ancient attendants, in my station, now living.

JOS. EXON.

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