Systems For All
The need for a new approach to systems is now widely recognized in business and industry, and numerous “Systems” courses have been introduced in universities. This book offers a new systems paradigm, presents a systems outlook, defines key concepts, and outlines the principles of characterizing complex systems in a qualitative way and by the systematic use of models and measures.The book presents the Product/process (P/p) methodology: a coherent collection of generic but readily understandable concepts, rigorous but applicable methods, and principles of reasoning. This methodology assists in understanding any system, and helps in the formulation and effective solution of complex problems, regardless of the field in which they arise, and irrespective of the specialist disciplines needed for supplying the solution.Systems for All is aimed at three kinds of readers: practising professionals (managers, administrators, engineers and scientists) whose job is to develop, operate and manage complex systems; students (both undergraduate and postgraduate) whose courses demand an integrated study of several disciplines; members of the public who would wish to know what makes sophisticated systems tick, and why some important systems fail.A separate booklet, containing guidelines for developing solutions to some selected exercises, is available to instructors who wish to adopt the book for a lecture course.
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activity arcs attribute values bipartite graph bipartite tree black box model black box representation business transaction cactus candidate solution chapter characteristics characterized collection gate complete concepts conformance constructively contract customer's defined definition deliverable diagram directed graph distribution gate domain domain of discourse domain theory duration elements engineering Example Exercise explicit expression figure finite set formal hard systems identify implementation indirect individual input product instant integration interrelation set ISO/FDIS labelled language nodes notion operation ordinal scale organization output product P/p framework P/p graph P/p methodology P/p modelling P/p network parameter passive entities priority manager problem owner problem solving process product cluster products and processes quality management system referent represent requirement specification scale shows soft soft systems methodologies solver specialist stage stamp standard strategy structural representation supplier symbol systems methodology task theory valid variable