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stands a figure in a cap and gown, reaching to his knees, holding a short staff in his right hand, and a round shield gracefully under his left arm, a cross-flory being embossed on his breast. Whitaker considered that it represented a pilgrim with his staff and shovelled hat, but it might be doubted whether one of those champions by whom wagers of battle was conducted, was not intended.
“ The west front of the great aisle of the nave exhibits a deeply recessed door-way surmounted by three lancet lights, with banded shafts ; and is enriched with a series of arcades, true to the still lingering spirit of the old Lombard works ; but detailed of course in the early English style.”
At the western end of the south side of the nave are traces of the roof and wall of the dormitory, and other buildings below.
“On viewing the interior, it will be found that the six fine lancet lights of this side of the church occupy the space of three opposite arches, and are
, made by two shallow pilasters into three corresponding compartments. These coupled lights,the first approach to a ramified window,--are di vided in height by a plain and original transom. Some fragments of the ceval stained glass remain in them, the principal pattern being a red quatrefoil, enclosing a miscle placed between two vertical borders. The triforium, or gallery from the dormitory of the canons to the church, crossed the base to these windows; the passage still remaining by which they entered, and left the wall."
The space of one arch at the east end of the aisle of the nave is “enclosed by an original 'perpendicular' wooden lattice; except that part which abuts on the pier of the lower tower, where there is a low wall.”
The roof is painted with broad lines of vermillion. Angels support the beams, one of which holds a staff and stands upon a crescent. cornice is painted in panels, with flowers and heads much faded, and three sculptured bosses of similar description adorn the centre beam.”
In the choir are several remains of much interest, particularly an arched recess, under which a skeleton was found, and a filleting of brass, with the Longobardic letters“ Nevi;" from which Whittaker, author of the History of Craven, infers that it might belong to Lady Margaret Neville, who was buried here, according to the compotus of the priory, in 1318. A part of the blue slab which formerly covered the remains of John, Lord Clifford, killed at Meux, in the tenth year of Henry V., is likewise preserved.
There were formerly two chapels, on the south side of the choir, in one of which the lords of Skipton, and the patrons of the abbey were buried. Under an arch near the choir was laid the effigy, now entirely lost, of the “ Lady Romille," which Johnstone saw in 1670.
The site of the chapter-house has not long been discovered. “It was an octagonal building of about thirty feet in diameter, and twelve feet in each internal face. Here have been apparently five halls on each side, resting on a base of quatre foils, and ornamented at each angle, with three roses of exactly similar character to those exhibited in the sedilia of the choir.”
On the west of the quadrangular court was a range of lofty buildings, the lower apartment being, I presume, the store-house-the
the dormitory of the canons; as it is generally found in such a situation, and, in this instance, exhibits a communication with the nave. Of the refectory, on the south, so much only remains as to show that it has been a spacious apartment, and, from its shallow buttresses, coeval with the translation of the house. At its eastern end, has been a wide passage leading to a much larger court behind, around which, and about the site of the present minister's house, were ranged the kitchens to the west, some unappropriated offices to the south, and a long chamber, not improbably the guest's hall, to the east. Still beyond this court is a small detached building, now used as a school-house, and proved by the flat and shallow buttresses to have been of an age little inferior to the refoundation."
Having thus given a general sketch of Bolton Abbey—for the architectural part of which I am indebted to John Richard Walbran, Esq., who has written an elaborate and learned description, both of this abbey, Fountain's, and Ripon Cathedral—I will, in conclusion, advise the reader to visit the spot for himself, when he will realize a far higher pleasure than he can derive from
written account of it.
RESIDENCE OF CHAS. WATERTON, THE NATURALIST.
Walton Hall, near Wakefield, is one of those fine old mansions which are to be found nowhere except in England. It is situate upon an island in the middle of a lake, and communicates with the park by means of a drawbridge. The park itself is very extensive, and rich in sloping lands, and luxuriant herbage. A far higher than mere scenic interest, however, belongs to this ancient hall and the beautiful domain that surrounds it; for it is the residence of a distinguished naturalist, who has devoted his life and fortune to enlarge the bounds of ornithological science, and whose private virtues have increased the lustre of his public honours. The name of this manly and highly-gifted person is Charles Waterton, well known to readers by his “ Wanderings in South America,” and his “ Essays upon Natural History.” I confess I am not a little proud of the honour which the birth and residence of Waterton confers upon my neighbourhood. I love to think there is one man, at least, in the landscape, and that nature has not all the glory to herself. And the history of this man, so remarkable in many ways, I shall now endeavour to lay before the reader.
Charles Waterton was born about the year 1782. His family emigrated into Yorkshire, from Waterton, in the Island of Axeholme, in Lincolnshire, at a very remote period. He was descended from ancient and honourable ancestors, who had fought at Cressy, Agincourt, and Marston Moor. Sir Robert Waterton was governor of Pontefract Castle, and had charge of King Richard II.
Sir Hugh Waterton was executor to his sovereign's will, and guardian to his daughters. Another ancestor was sent into France by the king, with orders to contract a royal marriage, and was allowed, says Charles, in the autobiography prefixed to his “ Essays,” thirteen shillings a day for his trouble and travelling expenses. Another was Lord Chancellor of England, and preferred to lose his head rather than sacrifice his conscience. Another was Master of the Horse, and was deprived both of his commission and his estate on the same account as the former. His descendants seemed determined to perpetuate their claim to the soil, for they sent a bailiff once in seven years, to dig up a sod on the territory. Charles Waterton was the first, he says, to discontinue this septennial act, seeing law, and length of time against him.
Up to the reign of Henry VIII. the Watertons were held in high esteem, and none of them appears ever to have been in disgrace. They would not, however, change their religion at the command and caprice of that arbitrary monarch, and consequently fell under his displeasure, and lost their chance of service to the state. Their fortunes were reversed for a short time under the Catholic reign of Mary, and Thomas Waterton, of Walton Hall, was high sheriff of York. This was the last public commission held by the family.