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acquiesce in their idea. The word rendered goodly, not directly, but indirectly; not by energy of immesignifies majestic, noble, grand, magnificent ; and diate description, but by inevitable inference, arising the word rendered branches radically signifies to di- from observation of its effects. In fact, the lot of this verge, to spread forth. The whole passage, translat- tribe was rich in pasture, and “his soil,” as CALMET ed on these principles, will read thus,
observes," was very fruitful in corn and oil." So that
we have both correct verbal propriety, and subseNaphtali is a deer roaming at liberty, He shooteth forth noble branches [majestic antlers.]
quent fulfilment of the prophecy, in favour of our
interpretation of this passage. In support of this N.B. The English word vranches is applied to the opinion I shall add further, stag, with exactly the same allusion as the Hebrew That the residence of Naphtali was a beautiful word: the French say bois, wood, for a stag's horns. woodland country, is generally understood: it ex
To justify this version, observe, that the horns of tended to mount Lebanon, and produced fruits of a stag are annually shed, and annually reproduced ; every sort. Moses says, Deut. xxxiii. 23. Naphthey are ample, according to the plenty and the nu tali shall enjoy abundance of favour, and be filled tritious quality of his pasturage, or are stinted in their with the blessings of the Lord. Josephus, de Bello, growth, if his food has been sparing or deficient in lib. iii. cap. 2. speaks highly of the fertility of Gali. nourishment. Buffon reasons at length on this subject, lee, which comprised the lot of Naphtali, and, de Vita Art. Cerf. “There is so intimate a relation between sua, p. 1017. he reckons two hundred and fourteen nutrition and the production of the antlers, &c. that towns in this province. we have formerly established its entire dependence We consider the source of the Jordan as rising in on a superabundance of nourishment. In animals in Naphtali; and from the name of the city near which general, and in the stag in porticular, this supera- it rose, Paneas, which is thought to originate from the bundance shews itself by the most evident effects; it deity Pan, we may perceive the nature of the counproduces the horns, the swelling of the throat, the ac try; for Pan, as the god of rural economics, delightcretion of fat, &c. After the first year, in the month ed in woodlands, forests, groves, &c. Accordingly, of May, the horns begin to shoot, and form two pro William, archbishop of Tyre, in his History of the jections, which lengthen and harden, in proportion Holy Wars, lib. xviii. cap. 2. informs us, that there as the animal takes nourishment. ... This effect [of was around this city a vast forest, called in his time nourishment] appears especially on the summit of the forest of Paneades. It was adapted to feed and the head, where it manifests itself more than every fatten flocks; and a prodigious number of Arabs where else, by the production of the horns. . . Another and Turcomans, after a convention of peace with proof that the production of the horns arises wholly Godfrey of Boulogne, by permission of that hero, enfrom the superabundance of nourishment, is the dif- tered and resided in this forest, with their flocks and ference which is found between the horns of stags of cattle; among which, says the historian, there was the same age, of which some are very thick and an infinite number of horses. spreading, while others are thin and slender, which This forest extended even to mount Hermon, as depends absolutely on the quantity of nourishment; the writer last quoted observes; and he supposes it for a stag which inhabits a plentiful country, where to be a part or continuation of the famous forest of he feeds at his will; where he is not molested by dogs, Lebanon.
Lebanon. It needs little proof that a country, thus or by men ; where, having eaten quietly, he may af- described, was likely to yield abundance of nourishterward ruminate at his ease, will always shew a head ment, adapted for deer, and even a superabundance, beautiful, high, and spreading ; palms large and well which might display its prolific effects in the growth furnished ; the stem of his horns thick, well pearled, and magnitude of the horns, and their branches : so with numerous antlers, long and strong; whereas, he that this country might literally fulfil the patriarch's who inhabits a country where he has neither quiet blessing, which is not always to be expected in figunor nourishment sufficient, will shew but an impover rative and prophetic language. ished head, few antlers, and feeble stems ; insomuch, It should not be forgot, that at about one mile distant that it is always easy to determine, by examining from Paneas, stood Laish or Dan, of which it is exthe head of a stag, whether he inhabits a plentiful pressly remarked, the inhabitants dwelt therein careand quiet country, and whether he has been well or less, quiet, and secure, Judg. xviii. 7. which implies il fed.”
a plentiful country, to say the least. Now direct these remarks to the prediction of Ja Of the adjacent district of Kesroan, which Volney cob: “ Naphtali shall inhabit a country so rich, so tells us is similar to this side of mount Lebanon, Le fertile, so quiet, so unmolested, that after having fed Roque says, p. 220. Nothing equals the fertility of to the full, on the most nutritious pasturage, he shall the lands in Kesroan : mulberry-trees for the silkshoot out branches, i.e. antlers, &c. of the most mag worms; vineyards, whose wine is excellent; olivenificent, and even majestic magnitude.” Thus does trees, tall as oaks; meadows, pasturage, corn, and the patriarch denote the happy lot of Naphtali; fruit of all kinds. Such are the riches of this agree
able country, which besides abounds in cattle, large with an impossibility, and a contradiction; especand small, in birds of game, and in beasts of chase. ially, while we have such evident marks of verisimSo beautiful a country, situated in a climate which I ility and propriety, in favour of the sentiment and think is the mildest and most temperate of Syria, translation we have proposed. seems to contribute, in some manner, to the kindness
EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. of disposition, to the gentle inclinations, and to the praise worthy manners of the inhabitants.
A. Is the head of a hind, or female deer, which He proceeds to say yet stronger things of the in sex usually has no horns; though some have been habitants of that country, whereof he is particularly found with
small horns ; probably from ample feeding. speaking ; but I presume what has been offered to The attitude of this figure is listening, but braying at the reader is sufficient to justify the patriarch Jacob the same time. in allegorizing the character and the situation of Naph B. Is a stag of four years old; at which period he tali, under an allusion to a deer, rather than to any is well able to seek his own provision, and to roam at wild beast of a savage and ferocious nature, as he large in the forest. The antlers, with which he is does some of his other children.
furnished, are now in fair condition, and not unequal It is supposed, that, in the allegory, the branching to those of the generality of his age and species. horns of this deer denote fertility in children; and it C. Is the head of a stag, which, from having fed is remarked, that though only four sons are reckoned at pleasure in one of the forests of Germany, has acto Naphtali, when he went down to Egypt, Gen. quired very large antlers, very thick stems, very xlvi. 24. yet his tribe at the Exodus numbered broad horns, and so spreading, that the points they above 50,000 men. I need not add any remarks form amount to no less a number than sixty-six. Let on the maintenance, and even increase, of this pop- him, then, stand as a proof of the effects of liberty and ulation, when settled in a country such as is above plenty, like the son of Jacob, to whom he forms an described.
object of comparison. N.B. In Buffon, the reader may see the connection of this idea with those already suggested.
NAPHTALI IS A I presume now to conclude, that we are under no necessity of recurring to the simile of a tree, in order And, by the effect of plentiful feeding,
SHOOTING OUT AMPLE ANTLERS! to reduce this passage to clear and simple meaning : still less are we obliged to retain the mistaken ren N.B. These figures are from Ridinger, a famous dering of our public translation, which presents us German painter of animals.
DEER ROAMING FREELY IN THE FERTILE FOREST;
EMPLOYMENTS OF SLAVES IN THE EAST. EXODUS v.
The Plate before us is copied from a design an- gether, and intimately commixed, by constant exernexed to “A Voyage to Barbary, for the Redemp- tion and labour, continued incessantly, during many tion of Captives. It was drawn by capt. Henry hours. Boyd, while in a state of slavery; and therefore may be This mixture is then carried in baskets, to those considered as authentic: if it boast no great elegance who pour it into the cases for its consolidation ; these as a design. I doubt, the captain found it too correct workmen beat it firmly into its place, and when it is as a representation in point of fact.
hardened, they remove the boards from around it, It shews the employments, the treatment, and the and apply them elsewhere, as wanted in the continuacondition, of those who have had the misfortune to tion of the wall. Others of the workmen are employfall into the state of slavery among the Moors, and is ed in hewing stones, and preparing them for the fairly applicable to the whole of Africa : I think it stronger parts of the building : such as the corners, corresponds with the state to which the Israelites were entrances, openings, &c. reduced in Egypt, and as such I offer it to the reader. A. The furnace. This is the only delineation of
The employment of slaves, as appears by our an Eastern furnace which I have yet met with. I Plate, is, building in its various branches ; as, attend- suppose its construction is for the purpose of burning the furnace; which, I suppose, is for the burning ing lime; because I do not see how it is applicable of lime, in this delineation; sifting the materials for to the burning of brick. m ng mortar; which mortar is not of that kind to We have in the Hebrew three words rendered by be laid between bricks in their courses, but of a mix- our translators “furnace." ture to be poured into frames, &c. there to set, and 1st, Cabashen , which is used where we read, harden, and form the wall itself. After the ingredi- Exod. ix. 8, 10. Moses took handfuls of ashes of ents of the mortar are sifted, they are well beaten to- the furnace, and sprinkled them up toward heaven.