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orchards of date-trees, which produced fruit enough “ After my return to Suez, I was desirous to exto sustain some thousands of people. [5] Fruit must, amine also the western side of the Gulf, and the adindeed, be very plenteous there ; for the Arabs of joining hills. I could prevail with no person to acthe valley bring every year to Cairo an astonishing company me in so dangerous an expedition, for, at quantity of dates, raisins, pears, apples, and other the smallest distance from the city, the passenger is fruits, all of excellent quality. Some Arabs, who in no less danger of being robbed, than in the desert. came to see us, offered us fresh dates, which were At length, however, an Arab undertook to be my yellow, but scarcely ripe. The chief of our schi- guide. But he trembled at the sight of every human ech's wives, for he had two, came likewise to see us, being that we met; and indeed those whom we met, and presented us with some eggs and a chicken. seemed to be no less afraid of us. Thus teased and One was placed at some distance from where our vexed as I was, I could make but' few interesting obtents happened to be pitched, in order to manage a servations in these pretty excursions. garden of date-trees. [6] The other was our neigh “In the neighbourhood of Suez I could find no bour, and superintended the cattle and servants. trace of any canal ; unless the valley of Mosbeiha, be

“We left this place 14th of September, and, after tween Bir Suez and the city, may be regarded as such. travelling two German miles further, in the valley of After the rains, a considerable quantity of water reFaran, arrived at the foot of Jibbel Musa. Up this mains stagnant in this vale, which the inhabitants draw mountain we ascended a mile and a half, and encamp for use; and when the waters are gone off, it is soon ed near a large mass of stone, which Moses is said by covered with grass." [9] the Arabs to have divided into two, as it at present

Such is the character of this region, as it appears appears, with one blow of his sword. Among those in Heron's translation of Niebuhr. I shall now (from mountains we found several springs of excellent French edit.] translate, in addition, Niebuhr's account water, at which, for the first time since my arrival in of the desert of Sinai, as it accompanies bis map: exEgypt, I quaffed this precious liquid with real satis- tracting only what is capable of being employed in ilfaction.

lustrating Scripture. “ In the afternoon of the 16th of September, we The Arabic name of the country, situated bedescended Jibbel Musa, and passed the night at the tween the two arms of the Gulf of Arabia, is called, bottom of that cliffy mountain, at the opening into I believe, Bahr el Tour Sinai, the Desert of Mount the valley of Faran. [7] Next day, after advancing Sinai. This country, so famous anciently, is now althree miles through the vale, we halted near the most uninhabited; only a few villages now stand on dwelling of our schiech of the tribe of Said. Our its coast, whose inhabitants live wholly by their Ghasirs left us again, and went to see their friends in fishing. The whole interior of the country belongs the gardens of date-trees. Our Ghasirs return to wandering and independent Arabs. [10] ed, and we continued our journey on the 20th of the The eastern arm of the Arabian Gulf, which the month. On the day following we had an opportuni- natives call Bahr el Akaba, is commonly delineated ty of seeing a part of the road which we had passed very wide on our maps; but, according to the acby night, when travelling to Jibbel Musa. In this counts which I received, it is not wider than admits place, near a defile, named Om-zer-ridg-lein, I found of people on one side of it, calling to others on the opsome inscriptions in unknown characters, which had posite side, and being heard. At the further end of been mentioned to me at Cairo. They are coarsely this Gulf is the ancient city of Ailab, called Eloth in engraven, apparently with some pointed instrument Scripture. of iron, in the rock, [8] without order or regularity. “On the western arm of this Gulf is the well known

“On the 25th of September we arrived again at port of Tor or Bender Tor, where the vessels going Suez. Before we could reach the city we had to from Suez to Djidda land, because they take, gratis, cross the same arm of the sea, over which we had been a tolerable water from a well near the port; and they ferried when we set out on our journey; but we purchase, at a low price, a still better water, brought could find no boat on the eastern side. Perceiving, from the mountains. however, that the tide was ebbing, we ventured to “ The elevated mountain of St. Catherine stands ford this part of the Gulf. We succeeded happily, N.E. six or six and a half German miles from Tor, a little north from the ruins of Kolsum. Our camels adjacent to mount Sinai. Mount Sinai is but the walked steadily; and the Arabs who waded, were highest peak of a chain of mountains, at the foot of only in water to the knees. This was perhaps the which is the famous Greek convent. The mount and first time that any Europeans attempted to pass here its convent stands on a mountainous mass, which our in this manner. This attempt shewed us that the Arab guides called Dsjebbel Musa, and which is waters in the Gulf are much influenced by the tides, many days journey in circuit. It is composed in and convinced us, that in the ebb, the Red Sea may great part of gritstone ; there is also granite ; and be safely passed on foot.

the Sinai of the Christians, near the convent, is

almost wholly a rock of red granite of a very large ports of Eloth and Ezion-geber might trace the same grain.

track. Vide Ophir. 6 The mount of Moses has numerous beautiful

2dly, Esion-geber. The chief remark on this place springs ; [11] nevertheless they are not so copious as is included in the former note. Mr. Bruce tells us, to be united, and to form streams which might last that the entrance of its port is dangerous, by reason the whole year. It seems, rather, that the vallies of of rocks which may easily be mistaken for the openthe mount of Moses only furnish water after heavy ing of the harbour. rains. Here are fertile vallies, in which are gardens 3dly, This payment for water explains Numb. xx. planted with vines, pear-trees, dates, and other excel 19. and we cannot but observe, throughout these exsent fruits. I did not go to the west of Sinai. tracts, the anxiety which is attached to the supply of

* The valley of Faran is at the northern foot of the water, and to its good qualities. The rarity of good mount of Moses, two and a half German leagues N.W. water accounts for this. from the convent. Very fine fruits are found in 4thly, The circumstance of water being found only abundance in this and the neighbouring valley. It occasionally in the torrents, and the vallies, togethwas entirely dry in September ; nevertheless the er with the distress of those who, expecting to find it, Wadi Faran becomes sometimes, after heavy rains, a are disappointed, is finely expressed by Job, chap. torrent so considerable, that the Arabs are obliged to vi. 15. pitch their tents on the declivities of the mountains.

My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a brook, The Arabs draw from the springs a water which is As the streams of brooks they pass away, tolerable, but not so good as that found on the moun

Ere they wax warm, they vanish : tain of Moses.

Ere it is hot, they are consumed out of their place. “ The valley of Girondel, like that of Faran, is inun The troops of Tema looked ; dated after great rains. In September it was so dry The companies of Sheba waited for them ; that we were obliged to dig for water a foot or foot They were confounded to the same degree as they had hoped : and a half into the sand. This water, though inferi

They came thither, and were completely ashamed. or in goodness to that of the mount of Moses, is yet

Our English ideas of brooks, and streams of better than that of Suez. I had neither the time brooks, are very feeble, compared with those of the nor the desire to stop long enough to examine whether Arabs in respect to their wadi, torrents ; nor can we this water is alternately sweet and bitter, as Michae

conceive the distress of a caravan from a remote kinglis inquires, Quest. ii. xviii. xix. During this jour- dom, when, after travelling during a sultry day, or ney we rarely encamped by a fountain; and as I had days, it comes to a place where the finding of water asked sometimes to accompany those who fetched was depended on, but in vain ! water, our guides always afterward sent to fetch it 5thly, The reader will observe that, in the Exposwithout our knowledge. If any wood was now known

ITORY INDEX, on the article Mauna, Exod. xvi. to have the properties of that used by Moses to

we have doubts, whether the whole of the camp of sweeten water, the inhabitants of Suez would not fail Israel lived on the manna ; and we think such inforto employ it.

mation as that contained in the present article, leads " Wadi Girondel is nine or ten German miles from to the conclusion that they had, or might have, other Suez, and near to Dsjebbel Hammam Faroun. This food ; such as the fruits, or other productions of this valley contains many trees, and even small woods. region, which are here described as being plentiful, Aijoun Musa ; or, the wells of Moses are distant two and capable of maintaining “ thousands of people” in German miles S.E. 30° S. from Suez, and a good half their present state. That this district of Arabia was mile from the Gulf of Arabia, in a sandy plain. Water

more fruitful formerly, than it is at present, we have is found in many places on digging a foot deep: but the elsewhere supposed. I presume to think, that when Arabs report, that of five wells seen there, only one

mortals, weak as they are, use proper means to accomyields a water fit for drinking.” So far Niebuhr. For plish what laudable purposes they undertake, they further accounts of mount Sinai, see on Exod. xxiv. may hope for the Divine blessing in addition : and 6. We shall close with a few remarks, by way of possibly this may be the allusion of those words in the notes.

Lord's prayer, “Give us this day our daily bread, ” 1st, Tor. This name is the same as that of the fa ET 180505, panem supersubstantialern, in addition to mous city of Tyre, on the Mediterranean. The cir- what had been already procured. cumstance of finding a second Tyre, and on the Red

6thly, The schiech's wife managed a garden of Sea, deserves notice, as being a very convenient sit- date-trees. Precisely according to the remark of uation for carrying on the trade to India. In fact, the bride in Solomon's Song, chap. i. 6. this city was built by the Tyrians, of which Strabo The sons of my mother treated me contemptuously : gives the history. The reader will form his own They appointed me inspectress of the fruiteries. opinion on this; but if the Tyrians traded from hence 7thly, It should seem by this passage, that Nieto India, it favours the idea that the neighbouring buhr was some hours in descending from the mount

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