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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by
DIX & EDWARDS, :: I the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York
MILLER & HOLMAN, Printers and Stereotypers, N. Y.
254 THE IcoxOCLAST .................
How I COURTED LULU ..
317 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE AND HIS PLAYS
361 --AY ISQUIRY CONCERNING THEY.. 1.
269 WASHINGTON AT BOSTON-SIXTY-SIX
DE T ........................... 393
EDITORIAL Notes, 101, 214, 326, 435, 546,
American Literature and Reprints. -Pliny
lectual Diversity of Races, by Gobineau,
OWLCOPSE-A STORY OF REFORM AND
tory-Mrs. Sarah J. Hale's Library of Stand-
Charles Lamb-Harper's Classical Library
--Watson's Xenophon's Anabasis and Me
morabilia, and Edwards's Cicero-Caste, a
Story of Republican Equality - Lily--Wood's
Modern Pilgrims--Widow Bedott Papers-
Mrs. Wirt's Flora's Dictionary-De Quincy's
PROGRESS OF RELIGIOUS IDEAS ...... 76
Poems of Home and Travel -A Batch of
Children's Books--Cranch's Last of the Hug.
372 Out of Debt, out of Danger-Bears of Au.
137 Dictionary of English Literature-Read's
House by the Sea-Songs and Ballads of
the American Revolution-Walter Savage
Landor's Writings-Cousin Veronica, by
Miss Wormley-Ravelings from the Web
of Life--Blind Girl of Wittenburg--Amy
Lee-Lily Hudson-Glances and Glimpses
-L fe of St. Bernard-Olmsted's Seaboard
Slave States-Miss Murray's America-
Squier's Central America-Dr. Kane's New
Lanmere - Wolfsden - Home - The New
Travels.-Ewbank's Sketches of Brazil -
Pfeiffer's Second Journey-The Madeira of
er's Classical Library.
Darley's “ Margaret''-A word for Hiawa-
-Landseer's "Shepherd's Prayer." . 110
Jenny Lind once more in America-Now in
The World of New York.-March, a Blusterer
The Past Winter-Our Highways-Broadway
like the Boulevards, Paris" Was the
Summer at last, and a Pleasant City--The
Contents. $.tr' ('retral America-Dr. Kane Vow Iris Year Book of Agriculare
Jenny Lind once more in America-Vie; * Church MuseThe Criterion
Landon-Madame La Marquise de ce The Cratos-The llome Journal-- Frank
-Drury Lane- Madame Alboni-a la Les liustrated Paper-Rutiui Dr. An.
Opera Buffa--Fiorini-Concerts with Cr
The Philharmonic-Mr. Gottschalk-Ram amps-Edith: or, The Quaker's Daughter
leaving Havana-King Charming a
Blue Bird-Pocahontas-- A New Pieces Almere - Wojsden - Home - The New the Français-Jaconde The Varieter's 'ha fet Dreamna and Roalities of a Pastor
Royaume des Calembours--Londen, o li lealer--Early Greek Romance
the Cloth of Gold-The Theatres-. **. * (orbidential Latter-Lte of Terms-Mr. Brougham--Mr. M. Vietor dry. by Card (waburu-The Attaché
Mrs. Bennett-Barrow's Comedier -a Be masin - The Day ser-Life of Washing lesque on Don Quixote--BloudeFACE! by Webinton Irving-race (reen
Theatre-The French Gymnase des Erica mis New Tame of Tales-Womans - Boston Importation of sculpture by de 1.'.-(reve Orbans--Lost Hunter-
Ton- A Grand Museum of Antiquas
-I Karras of Mr Green-Mr Ferris' Cold and the Ills it bring -- The Charter
--Lord Palmerston's Definition of Dita
- Dr. Raphanis Jens - Evangs and Boston-- Miss Hensler-Brignoli-B
Rossini and Meyerbeer --Our Philharmonie
The Varieties -- Wallack's-Burton's
Voyage of Life, by James Smillie.
like the Boulevards, Paris--" Was the
*** 11 off of "Senaation Buoky" 9. Ikey to take their Ploe? Our : Wa-A few Wonde as Hirt.
(yclopa dia of Braphy- Liter ! In, and other Papers, by the late Bitwy Waliace-Dr Gilman's Con on to Laterature- At llome and by Margaret Fuller Liberty and by Proteskor Biedeve-List's la **'s mn of Political Economy bla Second Journey--The Madeira of
by Lieut. Brewerton's Kansuribraries-smyth • Lectures on the sivuution-Beaumont and Fletch.
* Works-Memoirs of Philip de 26ey s Dutch Republic-Harp
Laura Ketne, and Wallack-Mr. Walcotiral Library.
Knights of the Round Table-Heir-at-Law
-Poor Plays and Poor Actors--Their Faali Puteratura England. -Burton's -What is Needed -Craving for Amuse I to El Medineh Dep's Spaninh ment-The Academy-Astor Place-Cliu America-Rogers 's Table Talk. ton llall-Mr Curtis's Lectures-Cordial
('riticieme - Crawford's Beethoven "Inau The End of the Opera - What
guration" in the Music Hall of Boston. 445 di for l'e-The Italians at A Welcome to May-The Ancient Holiday
New York Fiorentini- Pozzi - Rustic Hay--Máy in the City---May-dayrepanti-Ingelini--Borglii Ma May in the Country and on Broadway"; - Mine. Lagrange-Miss Hen. Winter Gone~The Ball Room-Lord Meluter Didier-Salviani - Brig. bourneThe “ Ball for the Nurses"-Our
Ano Rio Javerio robbing Opera HouseSignor Arditi-" The Spy" Ile Ravels Pantomimes and
-Brignoli-Hensler-Lagrange-Mr. Paine ** Falao Pretenses" and our Maretzek-The Ravels -- Our Theatres-- Juvenile Comedians, what The Lecturers-Miss Koene--Mr. Wallack w and what they should not - Miss Luisa Howard- Mr. Burton -That
Books of Beauty," and Blessed Baby--The "Imperial Prince" of
Ilustrated Poems --Ten the Freuch--A Layette The Dramatic * Eve of St. Agner-Birket Fund Dinner-Judge Daly—The Academy
553 of Design. me,' and “Penseroso"-Mr. intA word for Hiawa
Suminer at last, and a Pleasant City-The vitt And his Contemporaries
practice of “ Emptying" the Town-A few Stepherd s Prayer."'. 110
Years ago, and those who then “went into
the Country”-A Chango-And is it for Paine-Back and Richard
Health 1-Monotony is the Mother of all
Wise-June has Come, etc.
vr and Rimi- Mr. Paine *** Bumton did for Mr. Hac. lige, liensler, salviani, and
2 Magazine of Literature, Science, and Art
VOL. VII. -JAN., 1856.—NO, XXXVII.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE AND HIS PLAYS;
AN INQUIRY CONCERNING THEM.
HD For the literary miracles of anti
COW can we undertake to account tic characters, which the learned P
cian and Egyptian had brought in quity, while this great myth of the to the singing Greek of the H modern ages still lies at our own door, Ages, began, in the new modifica unquestioned ?
of national life which the later ac This vast, magical, unexplained phe tures of foreign elements createnomenon which our own times have pro length to be put to their true uses, duced under our own eyes, appears to song of the nation, even in its 1 be, indeed, the only thing which our form, was already old on the lips o modern rationalism is not to be per learned, and its origin a tradition. mitted to meddle with. For, here the the history of that wonderful indicritics themselves still veil their faces, ality,wherein the inspirations of so na filling the air with mystic utterances ages were at last united-the circ which seem to say, that to this shrine at stance, the vicissitude, the poetic least, for the footstep of the common rea that had framed that dazzling mirrc son and the common sense,
there is yet no old time, and wrought in it those de admittance. But how can they instruct of clearness—all had gone before th us to take off here the sandals which of writing and memories had foun they themselves have taught us to wear way into Greece, or even the facult into the inmost sekos of the most ancient perceiving the actual had begun to sanctities?
developed there. THE SHAKESPEARE DRAMA-its im And yet are the scholars of our port, its limitations, its object and content to leave this matter here, w sources, its beginning and end for the
they find it! With these poetic modern critic, that is surely now the mains in their hands, the monument question.
a genius whose date is ante-histori What, indeed, should we know of the are they content to know of their or origin of the Homeric poems? Twenty only what Alexander and Plato co five hundred years ago, when those mys know, what Solon and Pisistratus v
In commencing the publication of these bold, original, and most ingenious and interes speculations upon the real authorship of Shakespeare's plays, it is proper for the Edito Putnam's Monthly, in disclaiming all responsibility for their startling view of the question say that they are the result of long and conscientious investigation on the part of the lear and eloquent scholar, their author; and that the Editor has reason to hope that they wil continued through some future numbers of the Magazine.
fain to content themselves with, what ics, when the present discussions in rethe Homerids themselves received of gard to them commenced, not so much, him as their ancestral patron !
-not a hundredth part so much, as we No: with these works in their hands now know of Pharaoh's, who reigned in to-day, reasoning from them alone, the valley of the Nile, ages before the with no collateral aids, with scarce an invasion of the Hyksos. extant monument of the age from which But with these products of the nathey come to us, they are not afraid to tional life in our hands, with all the cofly in the face of all antiquity with their temporary light on their implied condiconclusions.
tions which such an age as that of Have they not settled among them, Elizabeth can furnish, are we going to already, the old dispute of the contend be able to sit still much longer, in a peing cities, the old dispute of the con- riod of historical inquiry and criticism tending ages, too, for the honor of this like this, under the gross impossibilities poet's birth? Do they not take him to which the still accepted theory on this pieces before our eyes, this venerable subject involves ? Homer; and tell us how many old for The age which has put back old gotten poets' ashes went to his forma Homer's eyes, safe, in his head again, tion, and trace in him the mosaic seams after he had gone without them well which eluded the scrutiny of the age nigh three thousand years; the age of Pericles? Even Mr. Grote will tell which has found, and labeled, and sent us now, just where the Iliad “cuts to the museum, the skull in which the me” the fiery Achilles "cranking in ;" pyramid of Cheops was designed, and and what could hinder the learned the lions which "the mighty hunter beSchlegel, years ago, from setting his fore the Lord" ordered for his new chair in the midst of the Delian choirs, palace on the Tigris some millenniums confronting the confounded children of earlier; the age in which we have abIon with his definitions of the term jured our faith in Romulus and Remus, Homeros, and demonstrating, from the is surely one in which we may be perLeipsic Iliad in his hand that the poet's mitted to ask this question. cotemporaries had, in fact, named him Shall this crowning literary product Homer the seer, not Homer the Blind of that great epoch, wherein these new One ?
ages have their beginning, vividly arThe criticism of our age found this rayed in its choicest refinements, flashwhole question where the art of writing ing everywhere on the surface with its found it, two thousand five hundred costliest wit, crowded everywhere with years ago; but, because the Ionian cities, its subtlest scholasticisms, betraying, on and Solon, and Pisistratus, might be pre- every page, its broadest, freshest range sumed, beforehand, to know at least as of experience, its most varied culture, much about it as they, or because the its profoundest insight, its boldest grasp opinions of twenty-five centuries, in such of comprehension shall this crowning a case, might seem to he entitled to result of so many preceding ages of somo reverence, did the critics leave it growth and culture, with its essential, there?
and now palpable connection with the Two hundred and fifty years ago, new scientific movement of the time our poet-our Homer—was alive in the from which it issues, be able to conworld. Two centuries and a half ago, ceal from us, much longer, its hiswhen the art of letters was already mil. tory ?-Shall we be able to acoept in lenniums old in Europe, when the art explanation of it, much longer, the story of printing had already been in use a of the Stratford poacher ? century and a half, in the midst of The popular and traditional theory a cotemporary historical illumination of the origin of these works was rewhich has its equal nowhere in his- ceived and transmitted after the extratory, those works were issued that have ordinary circumstances which led to its given our English life and language first imposition had ceased to exist, betheir imperishable claim in the earth, cause, in fact, no one had any motive that have made the name in which they for taking the trouble to call it in quescomo to us a word by itself, in the hu. tion. The common disposition to receive, man speech; and, to this hour, we know in good faith, a statement of this kind, of their origin hardly so much as we however extraordinary-the natural inknew of the origin of the Homeric ep- tellectual preference of the affirmative