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Officers, Gentlemen, Messengers, Musicians, Sailors, and Attendants.
SCENE, for the first Act, in Venice; during the rest of the Play, in Cyprus.

SCENE I.

VENICE.

A Street.

Enter Roderigo, and Iago.

Rod. NEVER tell me --I take it much un

kindly,

DESDEMONA, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife to Othello.

EMILIA, Wife to Iago.

BIANCA, Mistress to Cassio.

A C T I.

OR

Iago. But you'll not hear me?

If ever I did dream of such a matter, abhor me.
Rod. Thou told'st me, thou didst hold him in
thy hate.
[of the city, 15
Iago. Despise me if I do not. Three great ones
In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
Oft capp'd to him; and, by the faith of man,
I know my price, I am worth no worse a place:
But he, as loving his own pride and purposes,

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Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,

That thou, Iago,-who hast had my purse,

A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife';

As if the strings were thine, should'st know of 10 That never set a squadron in the field,

this.

Nor the division of a battle knows

More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric“,
Wherein the toged consuls' can propose

As masterly as he mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had the election:
And I,-of whom his eyes had seen the proof,
At Rhodes, at Cyprus; and on other grounds
Christian and heathen,must be be-lee'dand calm'd
By debtor and creditor, this counter-caster';
120 He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,

3 On

2 i. e. certainly, in truth. Obsolete.

The story is taken from Cynthio's Novels. these lines Dr. Johnson observes, "This is one of the passages which must for the present be resigned to corruption and obscurity. I have nothing that I can, with any approach to confidence, propose.' Mr. Tyrwhitt ingeniously proposes to read, "damn'd in a fair life," and is of opinion, that "Shakspeare alludes to the judgement denounced in the Gospel against those of whom all men speak well.” He adds, that "the character of Cassio is certainly such, as would be very likely to draw upon him all the peril of this denunciation, literally understood. Well-bred, easy, sociable, good-natured; with abilities enough to make him agreeable and useful, but not sufficient to excite the envy of his equals, or to alarm the jealousy of his superiors. It may be observed too, that Shakspeare has thought it proper to make lago, in several other passages, bear his testimony to the amiable qualities of his rival." Theoric, for theory. Consuls, for counsellors. It was anciently the practice to reckon up

sums with counters.

And

3 X 2

ancient.

And I, sir, (bless the mark ').his Moor-ship's
[hangman.
Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his
lago. But there's no remedy; 'tis the curse of
service;

Preferment goes by letter, and affection,
Not by the old gradation, where each second
Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge your-
Whether I in any just term am affin'd
To love the Moor3.

[self,

Rod. I would not follow him then.

Iago. O, sir, content you;

I follow him to serve my turn upon him:
We cannot all be masters, nor all masters
Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark
Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,
That, doting on his own obsequious bondage,
Wears out his time, much like his master's ass,
For nought but provender, and, when he's old,
cashier'd;

[Is spy'd in populous cities.

Rod. What ho! Brabantio! signior Brabantis, ho! [thieves! Jago. Awake! what, ho! Brabantio! thieves! 5 Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags! Thieves! thieves!

Brabantio, above, at a rvindow.

Bra. What is the reason of this terrible sumWhat is the matter there?

[mons?

[10]

Rod. Signior, is all your family within?
Iago. Are your doors lock'd?'

Bra. Why? wherefore ask you this?

Iago. Sir, you are robb'd; for shame, put on
your gown;

15 Your heart is burst, you have lost half your souls
Even now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise;
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you:
20 Arise, I say.

Bra. What, have you lost your wits?
Rod. Most reverend signior, do
voice?

Whip me such honest knaves: Others there are,
Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty,
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves;
And, throwing but shows of service on their lords,
Do well thrive by them, and, when they have|25|
lin'd their coats,
[soul;
Do themselves homage; these fellows have some
And such a one I do profess myself.
For, sir,

It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:
In following him, I follow but myself;
Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end:
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
For daws to peck at: I am not what I am.

Rod. What a full fortune does the thick-lips 40
If he can carry 't thus!

[owe,

Bra. Not I; What are you?
Rod. My name is-Roderigo.
Bra. The worse welcome:

I have charg'd thee, not to haunt about my doors:
In honest plainness thou hast heard me say,
My daughter is not for thee: and now, in madness,
30 Being full of supper, and distempering draughts,
Upon malicious bravery, dost thou come
To start my quiet.

you know my

Iago. Call up her father,

Rouse him: make after him, poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets; incense her kinsmen,
And, though he in a fertile climate dwell,
Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy,
Yet throw such changes of vexation on 't,
As it may lose some colour.

Rod. Here is her father's house; I'll call aloud.
Jago. Do; with light timorous accent, and dire 50
yell,

As when, by night and negligence, the fire

Rod. Sir, sir, sir,—

Bra. But thou must needs be sure,

35 My spirit, and my place, have in them power To make this bitter to thee.

Rod. Patience, good sir.

[Venice;

Bra. What tell'st thou me of robbing? this is My house is not a grange'.

Rod. Most grave. Brabantio,

In simple and pure soul I come to you.

Jago. Sir, you are one of those, that will not serve God, if the devil bid you. Because we come to do you service, you think we are ruflians. 45 You'll have your daughter cover'd with a Bar

bary horse; you'll have your nephews' neigh to ́ you: you'll have coursers for cousins, and geanets for germans.

Bra. What profane 10 wretch art thou?

Iago. I am one, sir, that comes to tell you, your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two "backs.

compare person to person, use this exclamation. The meaning is, Do I stand within any such. 4 Knave is here Full fortune may mean a complete piece

It has been observed, that the Scots, when they 2 i. e. by recommendation from powerful friends. terms of propinquity or relation to the Moor, as that it is my duty to love him? used for servant, but with a mixture of sly contempt: of good fortune. To owe is in ancient language, to own, to possess. • i. e. broken. ''That is, You are in a populous city, not in a lone house, where a robbery might easily be committed." Grange is strictly and properly the farm of a monastery, where the religious reposited their corn. But in Lincolnshire, and in other northern counties, they call every lone house, or farm which stands solitary, a grunge. Nephew, in this instance, has the power of the Latin word nepos, and signifies a grandson, or any lineal descendant, however remote. A jennet is a Spanish horse. 10 That is, what wretch of gross and licentious language? "This is an ancient proverbial expression in the French language, whence Shakspeare probably borrowed it.

9

Bra

How didst thou know 'twas she?-O, thou deceiv'st me

[Roderigo.

Bra. Thou art a villain.
Jago. You are-a senator.
Bra. This thou shalt answer; I know thee,
Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But I be-
seech you,

Past thought!-What said she to you?-Get more
tapers;

5

Raise all my kindred.-Are they marry'd, think you?

Rod. Truly, I think, they are.

If't be your pleasure, and most wise consent,
(As partly, I find, it is) that your fair daughter,
At this odd' even and dull watch o' the night,
Transported-with no worse nor better guard,
But with a knave of common hire, a gondalier,-10
To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor:-
If this be known to you, and your allowance,
We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs;
But, if you know not this, my manners tell me,
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe,
That, from the sense of all civility,

Bra. O heaven!-how got she out?-O treason
of the blood!-
[minds
Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters'
By what you see them act.-Are there not charms,
By which the property of youth and maidhood
May be abus'd? Have you not read, Roderigo,
Of some such thing?

15

Rod. Yes, sir; I have, indeed.

Bra. Call up my brother.-O, 'would you had had her!

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I thus would play and trifle with your reverence:
Your daughter,--if you have not given her leave,--
I say again, hath made a gross revolt;
Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes,
To an extravagant and wheeling stranger, [self:
Of here and every where: Straight satisfy your-
If she be in her chamber, or your house,
Let loose on me the justice of the state
For thus deluding you.

Bra. Strike on the tinder, ho!

Give me a taper;-call up all my people :-
This accident is not unlike my dream,
Belief of it oppresses me already :-
Light, I say light!

Iago. Farewell; for I must leave you:
It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place,
To be produc'd (as, if I stay, I shall)
Against the Moor: For, I do know, the state,-
However this may gall him with some check,-
Cannot with safety cast him; for he 's embark'd
With such loud reason to the Cyprus' war,
(Which even now stands in act) that, for their souls,
Another of his fathom they have not,
To lead their business: in which regard,
Though I do hate him as I do hell pains,
Yet, for necessity of present life,
I must shew out a flag and sign of love,
Which is indeed but sign. That you shall surely

find him,

Lead to the Sagittary the rais'd search;
And there will I be with him. So, farewell.

4

[Exit.

Enter, below, Brabantio, and Servants.
Bra. It is too true an evil: gone she is ;
And what's to come of my despised time,
Is nought but bitterness.-Now, Roderigo,
Where didst thou see her? O unhappy girl!-
With the Moor, say'st thou?-Who would be a

father?

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Oth. 'Tis better as it is.

Iago. Nay, but he prated,

40 And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms Against your honour,

That, with the little godliness I have,

I did full hard forbear him. But, I pray you, sir,
Are you fast marry'd? for, be sure of this,-
45 That the magnifico' is much belov'd;

And hath, in his effect, a voice potential
As double as the duke's: he will divorce you;
Or put upon you what restraint and grievance
The law (with all his might to enforce it on)
50 Will give him cable.

Oth. Let him do his spite:

My services, which I have done the signiory, Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know, (Which, when I know that boasting is an honour, 551 shall promulgate,) I fetch my life and being

'Dr. Johnson observes, that the even of night is midnight, the time when night is divided into even parts.-Mr. Steevens thinks that odd is here ambiguously used, as it signifies strange, uncouth, or un2 Exwonted; and as it is opposed to even; but acknowledges that the expression is very harsh. travagant is here used in the signification of wandering. 3 That is, dismiss him; reject him.

6

Despised time, is time of no value. i. e. by which the faculties of a young virgin may be infatuated, and made subject to illusions and to false imaginations. Stuff of the conscience, is substance, or essence, of the conscience. 'The chief men of Venice are, by a peculiar name, called Magnifici, i. e. magnificoes. Double has here its natural sense.-The president of every deliberative assembly has a double voice. For example: the lord mayor in the court of aldermen has a double voice. 3 X 3 From

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Oth. What is the matter, think you?

Cas. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine;
It is a business of some heat: the galleys
Have sent a dozen sequent messengers
This very night at one another's heels;
And many of the consuls', rais'd, and met,
Are at the duke's already: You have been hotly
call'd for;

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When, being not at your lodging to be found,
The senate hath sent about three several quests,
To search you out.

Oth. 'Tis well I am found by you.
I will but spend a word here in the house,
And go with you.

[Exit.

Cas. Ancient, what makes he here?

Iago. 'Faith, he to-night hath boarded a landcarrack';

¿

If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever,
Cas. I do not understand.
Jago. He's married.
Cas. To who?

5

Good signior, you shall more command with years,
Than with your weapons,

Bra. O thou foul thief! where hast thou stow'd
my daughter?

10

Damn'd as thou art, thou hast enchanted her:
For I 'H refer me to all things of sense,
If she in chains of magic were not bound,
Whether a maid-so tender, fair, and happy,
So opposite to marriage, that she shunn'd
15 The wealthy curled 10 darlings of our nation,-
Would ever have, to incur a general mock,
Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom
Of such a thing as thou; to fear", not to delight.
Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in sense,
That thou hast practis'd on her with foul charms;
Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs, or minerals,
That weaken modon :—I'll have it disputed on;
'Tis probable, and palpable to thinking.

20

I therefore apprehend and do attach thee, 25 For an abuser of the world, a practiser

Oth. Hola! stand there!

Rod. Signior, it is the Moor.

Bra. Down with him, thief!
[They draw on both sides.
Lago. You, Roderigo! come, sir, I am for you.
Oth. Keep up your bright swords, for the dew
will rust them.-

Re-enter Othello.
Iago. Marry, to Come, captain, will y
Oth. Have with you.
Cas. Here comes another troop to seek for you.

you go?

Enter Brabantio, Roderigo, with Officers. Jago. It is Brabantio;-general, be advis’d'; He comes to bad intent.

Of arts inhibited and out of warrant;-
Lay hold upon him; if he do resist,
Subdue him at his peril.

Oth. Hold your hands,

30 Both you of my inclining, and the rest:

Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it
Without a prompter.—Where will you that I go
To answer this your charge?

Bra. To prison; 'till fit time

35 Of law, and course of direct session,
Call thee to answer.

Oth. What if I do obey?

How may the duke be therewith satisfied;
Whose messengers are here about my side,
40 Upon some present business of the state,
To bring me to him?

Off. "Tis true, most worthy signior,
The duke's in council; and your noble self,
I am sure, is sent for.

45

Bra. How! the duke in council!

In this time of the night!-Bring him away;
Mine's not an idle cause: the duke himself,
Or any of my brothers of the state,

Cannot but feel this wrong, as 'twere their own:
50 For if such actions may have passage free,
Bond-slaves, and pagans, shall our statesmen be.
[Exeunt,

1i. e. men who have sat upon royal thrones. 1i. e. without taking the cap off.

turer.

2 Demerits, here has the same meaning as merits. i. e. free from domestic cares: a thought natural to an advenConsuls seems to have been commonly used for counsellors; as before in this play. • Quests are searches. "A carrack is a ship of great bulk, and commonly of great value; perhaps what we now call a galleon. This expression denotes readiness. i. e. be cautious; be discreet, 10 Curled, is elegantly and ostentatiously dressed. i. e. to terrify. 12 Theobald proposes, and we think justly, to read," That weaken notion, instead of motion; i. e. that weaken her apprehension, right conception and idea of things, understanding, judgement, &c."-Hanmer would read, perhaps with equal probability, "That waken motion:" and it is to be observed, that motion, in a subsequent scene of this play, is used in the very sense in which Hanmer would employ it: "But we have reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts."

.:

SCENE

SCENE III.
A Council-chamber.
Duke and Senators, sitting.

Duke. There is no composition' in these news, 5
That gives them credit.

1 Sen. Indeed, they are disproportion'd; My letters say, a hundred-and-seven galleys. Duke. And mine, a hundred-and-forty. 2 Sen. And mine, two hundred :

2

But though they jump not on a just account,
(As in these cases where they aim reports,
'Tis oft with difference) yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.

Duke. Nay, it is possible enough to judgement; 15
I do not so secure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.

Sail. The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
So was I bid report here to the state,
By signior Angelo.

Duke. How say you by this change?
1 Sen. This cannot be,

Duke. Write from us; wish him, post, posthaste: dispatch. [Moor. Sen. Here comes Brabantio, and the valiant Enter Brabantio, Othello, lago, Roderigo, and Officers.

By no assay of reason; 'tis a pageant,
To keep us in false gaze: When we consider
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk;
And let ourselves again but understand,
That, as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
So may he with more facile question' bear it,
For that it stands not in such warlike brace *,
But altogether lacks the abilities
That Rhodes is dressed in :—if we make thought
of this,

Duke. Valiant Othello, we must straight em-
ploy you

Against the general enemy Ottoman.-
I did not see you;welcome,gentle signior;[ToBrab.
10 We lack'd your counsel and your help to-night.
Bra. So did I yours: Good your grace, pardon

me;

Neither my place, nor aught I heard of business,
Hath rais'd me from my bed; nor doth the ge-
neral care

Take hold on me; for my particular grief
Is of so flood-gate and o'er-bearing nature,
That it engluts and swallows other sorrows,
And yet is still itself..

20

Sailor [within.] What ho! what ho! what ho!
Enter an Officer, with a Sailor.
Offi. A messenger from the galleys.
Duke. Now? the business?

We must not think the Turk is so unskilful,
To leave that latest, which concerns him first;
Neglecting an attempt of ease, and gain,
To wake, and wage, a danger profitless.
Duke.Nay,in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.
Offi. Here is more news.

Enter a Messenger.
Mes. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious,
Steeringwith due course toward the isle of Rhodes,
Have there injointed them with an after-fleet.

1 Sen. Ay, so I thought:-How many, as you
guess?

Mes. Of thirty sail: and now they do re-stem Their backward course, bearing with frank ap

pearance

Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,
Your trusty and most valiant servitor,
With his free duty, recommends you thus,
And prays you to believe him.

Duke. 'Tis certain then for Cyprus.—
Marcus Lucchese, is not he in town?
1 Sen. He's now in Florence.

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Duke. Why, what's the matter?

Bra. My daughter! O, my daughter!
Sen. Dead?

Bra. Ay, to me;

She is abus'd, stol'n from me, and corrupted 25 By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks: For nature so preposterously to err,

Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
Sans witchcraft could not-

Duke. Whoe'er he be, that, in this foul proceeding,

30

Hath thus beguil'd your daughter of herself,
And you of her, the bloody book of law
You shall yourself read in the bitter letter,
After your own sense; yea, though our proper son
35 Stood in your action".

Bra. Humbly I thank your grace.

Here is the man, this Moor; whom now, it seems,
Your special mandate, for the state affairs,
Hath hither brought.

40

All. We are very sorry for it.

Duke. What, in your own part, can you say to [To Othello.

this?

Bra. Nothing, but this is so.

45

Oth. Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors,
My very noble and approv'd good masters,-
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true; true, I have married her;
The very head and front of my offending
Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech,
50 And little blest with the set phrase of peace;
For since these arms of mine had seven years pith,
Till now, some nine moons wasted, they have
Their dearest' action in the tented field; [us'd
And little of this great world can I speak,
55 More than pertains to feats of broil and battle;
And therefore little shall I grace my cause,
In speaking for myself: Yet, by your gracious

patience,

will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver

Composition, for consistency, concordancy. To aim is to conjecture. endeapour. i. e. State of defence. To arm was called to brace on the armour. here, as in many other places in Shakspeare, signifies to fight, to combat. exposed to your charge or accusation. That is, dear for which much is paid, whether money or labours. Dear action, is action performed at great expence, either of ease or safety.

i. e. more easy › Towagé ise. were the man

7

3 X 4

Of

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