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Of my whole course of love; what drugs, what charms,

What conjuration, and what mighty magic, (For such proceeding I am charg'd withal) I won his daughter with.

Bra. A maiden never bold;

Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion
Blush'd at herself; And she,-in spite of nature,
Of years, of country, credit, every thing,-
To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on?
It is a judgement maim'd, and most imperfect,
That will confess-perfection so could err
Against all rules of nature; and must be driven
To find out practices of cunning hell,
Why this should be. I therefore vouch again,
That with some mixtures powerful o'er the blood,
Or with some dram conjur'd to this effect,
He wrought upon her.

Duke. To vouch this, is no proof;
Without more certain and more overt test',
Than these thin habits, and poor likelihoods
Of modern seeming, do prefer against him.

1 Sen. But, Othello, speak ;

Did you by indirect and forced courses
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections
Or came it by request, and such fair question
As soul to soul affordeth?

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Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
Of moving accidents, by flood and field;
Of hair-breadth 'scapes i' the imminent deadly
Of being taken by the insolent foe, [breach;

5 And sold to slavery; of my redemption thence,.
And portance in my travel's history:
Wherein, of antres vast, and desarts idle 4,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch
heaven,

10It was my hint to speak, such was the procesa;
And of the Cannibals that each other eat,

The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their shoulders'. These things
to hear,

15 Would Desdemona seriously incline:

Oth. I do beseech you,

Send for the lady to the Sagittary 2,
And let her speak of me before her father:
If you do find me foul in her report,
The trust, the office, I do hold of you,
Not only take away, but let your sentence
Even fall upon my life.

Duke. Fetch Desdemona hither.
[Exeunt Two or Three.
Oth. Ancient, conduct them; you best know
the place.
[Exit lago.
And, 'till she come, as truly as to heaven
I do confess the vices of my blood,
So justly to your grave ears I'll present
How did I thrive in this fair lady's love,
And she in mine.

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But still the house affairs would draw her thence;
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with greedy car
Devour up my discourse: Which I observing,
20 Took once a pliant hour; and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
But not intentively': I did consent;
25 And often did beguile her of her tears,

When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
She swore,-In faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing
strange;
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:

30

She wish'd, she had not heard it; yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man: she
thank'd me;

35 And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this hint, I spake:
She lov'd me for the dangers I had past;
And I lov'd her, that she did pity them.
40 This only is the witchcraft I have us'd;
Here comes the lady, let her witness it.

Enter Desdemona, Iago, and Attendants. Duke..I think, this tale would win my daughter

too.-
45 Good Brabantio,

Take up this mangled matter at the best:
Men do their broken weapons rather use,
Than their bare hands.

Bra. I pray you, hear her speak;

50 If she confess, that she was half the wooer,

1

1i. e. open proofs, external evidence.

2 This means the sign of the fictitious creature so called, i. e. an animal compounded of man and horse, and armed with a bow and quiver. 3 i. e. caves, dens. Dr. Warburton remarks, that " Discourses of this nature made the subject of the politest conversations, when voyages into, and discoveries of, the new world were all in vogue. So when the Bastard Faulconbridge, in King John, describes the behaviour of upstart greatness, he makes one of the essential circumstances of it to be this kind of table-talk. The fashion then running altogether in this way, it is no wonder a young lady of quality should be struck with the history of an adventurer." Dr. Johnson adds, that "Whoever ridicules this account of the progress of love, shews his ignorance, not only of history, but of nature and manners. It is no wonder that, in any age, or in any nation, a lady, recluse, timorous, and delicate, should desire to hear of events and scenes which she could never see, and should admire the man who had endured dangers, and performed actions, which, however great, were yet magnified by her timidity." i. e. wild, useless, uncultivated. ' Dr. Johnson says, "Of these men there is an account in the interpolated travels of Mandeville, a book of that time." • Intention and attention were once synonymous.

Destruction

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I here do give thee that with all my heart,
Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
I would keep from thee.-For your sake, jewel,
I am glad at soul I have no other child;
For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
To hang clogs on them.—I have done, my lord.
Duke. Let me speak like yourself; and lay
sentence,

a

the place is best known to you: And though we have there a substitute of most allow'd sufficiency, yet opinion, a sovereign mistress of effects, throws a more safe voice on you: you must therefore be 5 content to slubber the gloss of your new fortunes, with this more stubborn and boisterous expedition.

+

Oth. The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
My thrice-driven bed of down: I do agnize
10A natural and prompt alacrity,

I find in hardness; and do undertake
This present war against the Ottonrites.
Most humbly therefore bending to your state,
I crave fit disposition for my wife;
15 Due reverence of place, and exhibition;
With such accommodation, and besort,
As levels with her breeding.
Duke. If you please,

Be 't at her father's.

Bra. I will not have it so.
Oth. Nor I.

Des. Nor I; I would not there reside,
To put my father in impatient thoughts,
By being in his eye. Most gracious duke;
To my unfolding lend a gracious ear;
And let me find a charter in your voice',
To assist my simpleness.

20

25

Which, as a grise', or step, may help these lovers
Into your favour.

When remedies are past, the griefs are ended,
By seeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.
To mourn a mischief that is past and gone,
Is the next way to draw new mischief on.
What cannot be preserv'd when fortune takes,
Patience her injury a mockery makes.
The robb'd, that smiles, steals something from
the thief;

Duke. What would you, Desdemona?

Des. That I did love the Moor to live with him,
30 My down-right violence and storm of fortunes
May trumpet to the world; my heart's subdu'd
Even to the very quality of my lord:

I saw Othello's visage in his mind 10;
And to his honours, and his valiant parts,
35 Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,
A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
The rites, for which I love him, are bereft mc,
And I a heavy interim shall support

He robs himself, that spends a bootless grief.
Bra. So let the Turk, of Cyprus us beguile;
We lose it not, so long as we can smile.
He bears the sentence well, that nothing bears
But the free comfort which from thence he hears':
But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow,
That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.
These sentences, to sugar, or to gall,
Being strong on both sides, are equivocal:
But words are words: I never yet did hear, [ear'.
That the bruis'd heart was pierced through the
I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of

40 By his dear absence: Let me go with him.

Oth. Your voices, lords :-I do beseech you, let Her will have a free way.

Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not,
To please the palate of my appetite;
45 Nor to comply with heat, (the young affects,
In me defunct) and proper satisfaction;

But to be free and bounteous to her mind ":
And heaven defend your good souls, that you think
I will your serious and great business scant,
50 For she is with me; No, when light-wing'd toys
Of feather'd Cupid seel with wanton dullness
My speculative and active instruments 13,

13

state.

Duke. The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for Cyprus:-Othello, the fortitude of

1

6

10

1 Grize, from degrees. A grise is a step. 2 Meaning, the moral precepts of consolation, which are liberally bestowed on occasion of the sentence. 3 Dr. Johnson observes, that the consequence of a bruise is sometimes matter collected; and this can no way be cured without piercing, or letting it out. 4 To slubber, here means to obscure. 5 A driven bed, is a bed for which the feathers are selected, by driving with a fan, which separates the light from the heavy. i. e. acknowledge, confess, avow. i. e. precedency suitable to her rank. * Exhibition is allowance, and here implies revenue. i. e. Let your favour privilege me. ° i. e. The greatness of his character reconciled me to his form. Affects, stands in this passage, not for love, but for passions; for that, by which any thing is affected.-I ask it not, says Othello, to please appetite, or satisfy loose desires, the passions of youth which I have now outlived, or for any particular gratification of myself, but merely that I may indulge the wishes of my wife. 12 To defend, is to forbid; from defendre, Fr. these words mean no more than this: When the pleasures and idle toys of love make me unfit either for seeing the duties of my office, or for the ready performance of them.

13 All

That

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Oth. Please your grace, my ancient;
A man he is of honesty, and trust:
To his conveyance I assign my wife,
With what else needful your good grace shall think
To be sent after me.

Duke. Let it be so.
Good night to every one.-And, noble signior,
[To Brab.

shame to be so fond; but it is not in my virtue to amend it.

5

Iago. Virtue? a fig! 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus. Our bodies are our gardens; to the which, our wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce; set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry; why, the 10 power and corrigible authority of this lies in our wills. If the balance of our lives had not one scale of reason to poise another of sensuality, the blood and baseness of our natures would conduct us to most preposterous conclusions: But we have rea15 son, to cool our raging motions, our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts; whereof I take this, that you call-love, to be a sect✶ or scyon.

Rod. It cannot be.

If virtue no delighted' beauty lack,
Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.
Sen. Adieu, brave Moor! use Desdemona well.
Bra. Look to her, Moor; have a quick eye to

lago. It is merely a lust of the blood, and a 20 permission of the will. Come, be a man: Drown thyself? drown cats, and blind puppies. I have profess'd me thy friend, and I confess me knit to thy deserving with cables of perdurabletoughness; I could never better stead thee than now. Put 25 money in thy purse: follow thou these wars; defeat thy favour with an usurped beard: I say, put money in thy purse. It cannot be, that Des demona should long continue her love to the Moor, -put money in thy purse;-nor he his to her: it

see;

She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee.

[Exeunt Duke and Senators. 30 was a violent commencement in her, and thou Oth. My life upon her faith.-Honest Iago, My Desdemona must I leave to thee: I pr'ythee, let thy wife attend on her; And bring them after in the best advantage1.Come, Desdemona; I have but an hour Of love, of worldly matter and direction, To spend with thee: we must obey the time. [Exeunt Othello, and Desdemona.

shalt see an answerable sequestration';-put but money in thy purse. These Moors are changeable in their wills-fill thy purse with money: the food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall 35 be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. She must change for youth; when she is sated with his body, she will find the error of her choice.— She must have change, she must therefore put money in thy purse.If thou wilt needs damn 40 thyself, do it a more delicate way than drowning. Make all the money thou canst: If sanctimony and a frail vow, betwixt an erring Barbarian and a super-subtle Venetian, be not too hard for my wits, and all the tribe of hell, thou shalt enjoy her; 45 therefore make money. A pox of drowning thyself! it is clean out of the way: seek thou rather to be hang'd in compassing thy joy, than to be drown'd and go without her.

Rod. Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on the issue?

Rod. Iago,-
Jago. What say'st thou, noble heart?
Rod. What will I do, think'st thou ?
Jago. Why, go to bed, and sleep.
Rod. I will incontinently drown myself.
Iago. Well, if thou dost, I shall never love thee
after it. Why, thou silly gentleman!

Rod. It is silliness to live, when to live is a torment: and then have we a prescription to die when death is our physician.

Iago. O villainous! I have look'd upon the world for four times seven years: and since I could 50 distinguish betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how to love himself. Ere I would say, I would drown myself for the love of a Guinea hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon.

Rod. What should I do? I confess, it is my

Jago. Thou art sure of me;-Go, make money: -I have told thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I hate the Moor: My cause is hearted; thine hath no less reason: Let us be conjunctive in our revenge against him: if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, and me a sport.

55

1

1 Delighted, for delighting, or delightful.-Shakspeare often uses the active and passive participles i. e. fairest opportunity. 3A Guinea-hen was anciently the cant term

2

indiscriminately.

To defeat,

for a prostitute.

A sect is what the more modern gardeners call a cutting.

is to undo, to change. The poet probably here uses sequestration for sequel.-Sequestration, however, may mean no more than separation. The fruit of the locust-tree is a long black pod, which contains the reeds, among which there is a very sweet luscious juice, of much the same consistency as fresh honey.

There

He has done my office: I know not, if't be true;
But I for mere suspicion in that kind,

5

Will do, as if for surety. He holds me well;
The better shall my purpose work on him.
Cassio's a proper man: Let me see now;
To get his place, and to plume up my will,
A double knavery,-How? how!-Let me see:-
After some time, to abuse Othello's ear,
That he is too familiar with his wife:-
10 He hath a person, and a smooth dispose,
To be suspected; fram'd to make women false.
The Moor is of a free and open nature,
That thinks men honest, that but seem to be so;
And will as tenderly be led by the nose,
As asses are.

I have 't; it is engender'd: Hell and night
Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's
light,
[Exit,

There are many events in the womb of time,
which will be delivered. Traverse; go; provide
thy money. We will have more of this to-mor-
row. Adieu.

Rod. Where shall we meet i' the morning?
Jago. At my lodging,

Rod. I'll be with thee betimes.

Jago. Go to; farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?
Rod. What say you?

Jago. No more of drowning, do you hear?
land.
my
Rod. I am chang'd. I'll go sell all
Iago. Go to; farewell; put money enough in
[Exit Roderigo.
your purse.
Thus do I ever make my fool my purse:
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane, 15
If I should time expend with such a snipe,
But for my sport, and profit. I hate the Moor;
And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my

sheets

ACT

Mont. How! is this true?

3 Gent. The ship is here put in, 30 A Veronese 2: Michael Cassio, Lieutenant to the warlike Moor, Othello, Is come on shore; the Moor himself 's at sea, And is in full commission here for Cyprus.

Mont. I am glad on 't; 'tis a worthy governor, 3 Gent. But this same Cassio,-though he speak of comfort,

SCENE I.

The Capital of Cyprus.
A Platform.
Enter Montano, and two Gentlemen.

Mont.

W 7HAT from the cape can you discern

at sea?

[flood;
1 Gent. Nothing at all: it is a high-wrought 35
I cannot, 'twixt the heaven and the main,
Descry a sail.

[land;
Mont. Methinks, the wind hath spoke aloud at
A fuller blast ne'er shook our battlements:
If it hath ruffian'd so upon the sea,
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them,
Can hold the mortice? What shall we hear of this?

II.

2 Gent. A segregation of the Turkish fleet:
For do but stand upon the foaming shore,
The chiding billow seems to pelt the clouds;
The wind-shak'd surge, with high and monstrous
Seems to cast water on the burning bear, [main,
And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole':
I never did like molestation view
On the enchafed flood.

140

Mont. Pray heaven he be;

For I have serv'd him, and the man commands
Like a full soldier. Let's to the sea-side, ho!
As well to see the vessel that's come in,

Touching the Turkish loss,-yet he looks sadly,
And prays the Moor be safe; for they were parted
With foul and violent tempest,

Mont. If that the Turkish fleet

Be not inshelter'd, and embay'd,they are drown'd;}
It is impossible they bear it out.

Enter a third Gentleman.

3 Gent. News, lords! our wars are done :
The desperate tempest hath so bang'd the Turks,
That their designment halts: A noble ship of
Venice

Hath seen a grievous wreck and sufferance
On most part of their fleet.

As to throw out our eyes for brave Othello; 45 Even 'till we make the main, and the aërial blue, An indistinct regard,

Gent. Come, let's do so:

For every minute is expectancy
Of more arrivance,

50

Enter Cassio.

Cas. Thanks to the valiant of this warlike isle, That so approve the Moor; O, let the heavens Give him defence against the elements,

For I have lost him on a dangerous sea!
Mont. Is he well shipp'd?

55

Cas. His bark is stoutly timber'd, and his pilot Of very expert and approv'd allowance'; Therefore my hopes, not surfeited to death, Stand in bold cure.

60

[Within,] A sail, a sail, a sail!

By a Veronese, a ship of Verona is denoted. Expert Alluding to the star Arctophylax. * The meaning, Mr. Steevens and approv'd allowance, is put for allow'd and approv'd expertness. thinks, is, Therefore, my hopes, not being destroy'd by their own excess, but being reasonable and moderate, are likely to be fulfilled.

Cas.

3

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Cas. What noise?

Gent. The town is empty; on the brow o' the sea
Stand ranks of people, and they cry-a sail.

Cas. My hopes do shape him for the governor.
Gent. They do discharge their shot of courtesy: 5
Our friends, at least.
[Guns heard.

Cas. I pray you, sir, go forth,
And give us truth who 'tis that is arrived.
Gent. I shall.

[Exit.

Mont. But, good lieutenant, is your general 10 wiv'd?

Cas. Most fortunately: he hath atchiev'd a maid
That paragons description, and wild fame;
One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens,
And, in the essential vesture of creation,
Does bear all excellency'. How now? who has
put in?

Re-enter Gentleman.

Gent. 'Tis one lago, ancient to the general.
Cas. He has had most favourable and happy 20
speed:

Tempeststhemselves, high seas, and howlingwinds,
The gutter'd rocks, and congregated sands,-
Traitors ensteep'd to clog the guiltless keel,—
As having sense of beauty, do omit
Their mortal natures, letting go safely by
The divine Desdemona.

Mont. What is she?

[captain,

Cas. She that I spake of, our great captain's
Left in the conduct of the bold lago;
Whose footing here anticipates our thoughts,
A se'nnight's speed.-Great Jove, Othello guard,
And swell his sail with thine own powerful breath;
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship,
Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms,
Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits,
And bring all Cyprus comfort!-O, behold,
Enter Desdemona, lago, Roderigo, and Æmilia.
The riches of the ship is come on shore !--
Ye men of Cyprus, let her have your knees:
Hail to thee, lady! and the grace of heaven,
Before, behind thee, and on every hand,
Enwheel thee round!

40

Iago. Sir, would she give you so much of he☛ lips,

Emil. You have little cause to say so.

Iago. Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors,

Bells in your parlours, wild cats in your kitchens, 15 Saints in your injuries, devils being offended, Players in your housewifery, and housewives in your beds.

Des. O, fie upon thee, slanderer!
Iago. Nay, it is true, or else I am a Turk;
You rise to play, and go to bed to work.
Amil. You shall not write my praise.
lago. No, let me not.

Des. What would'st thou write of me, if thou
should praise me?

25

Iago. O gentle lady, do not put me to 't;
For I am nothing, if not critical2.
Des. Come on, assay :—

the harbour.
Iago. Ay, madam.

30

Des. I am not merry; but I do beguile
The thing I am, by seeming otherwise.-
Come, how would'st thou praise me?

Des. I thank you, valiant Cassio.
What tidings can you tell me of my lord?

Cas. He is not yet arriv'd; nor know I aught
But that he 's well, and will be shortly here.

Des. O, but I fear;-How lost you company? Cas. The great contention of the sea and skies Parted our fellowship: But, hark! a sail.

[Within.] A sail, a sail ! [Guns heard. Gent. They give this greeting to the citadel; This likewise is a friend.

goes

out.

Cas. See for the news. [An attendant, Good ancient, you are welcome;-Welcome, 55 mistress. [To Amilia. Let not it gall your patience, good lago, That I extend my manners; 'tis my breeding That gives me this bold shew of courtesy.

As of her tongue she oft bestows on me,
You'd have enough.

145

Des. Alas, she has no speech.
Iago. In faith, too much;

I find it still, when I have list to sleep;
Marry, before your ladyship, I grant,
She puts her tongue a little in her heart,
And chides with thinking.

Iago. I am about it; but, indeed, my invention Comes from my pate, as bird-lime does from frize, It plucks out brains and all : But my muse labours,

35

And thus she is deliver'd :

-There's one gone to

If she be fair and wise,-fairness, and wit,
The one's for use, the other useth it.

Des. Well prais'd! How if she be black and
witty?

Iago. If she be black, and thereto have a wit, She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit.

Des. Worse and worse.

Emil. How, if fair and foolish?

Iago. She never yet was foolish that was fair; For even her folly help'd her to an heir. Des. These are old fond paradoxes, to make fools laugh i' the alehouse. What miserable praise

50

hast thou for her that's foul and foolish?
Iago. There's none so foul, and foolish thereunto,
But does foul pranks which fair and wise
es do.

Des. O heavy ignorance!-thou praisest the worst best. But what praise could'st thou bestow on a deserving woman indeed? one, that, in the authority of her merit, did justly put on the vouch [Kisses her. 60 of very malice itself?

That is, She excels the praises of invention, and in real (the author seeming to use essential for real) qualities, with which creation has invested her, bears all excellency. 2 That is, censorious. ' Dr. Johnson says, To put on the vouch of malice, is to assume a character vouched by the testimony of malice itself.

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