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Cas. You advise me well.

lago. I protest, in the sincerity of love, and honest kindness.

She shall undo her credit with the Moor.
So will I turn her virtue into pitch;
And out of her own goodness make the net
That shall enmesh' them all. How now, Roderigo?
Enter Roderigo.

Rod. I do follow here in the chace, not like a hound that hunts, but one that fills up the cry.My money is almost spent; I have been to-night exceedinglywell cudgell'd; and, I think, the issue 10 will be-I shall have so much experience for my pains: and so, with no money at all, and a little more wit, return to Venice. [tience! Iago. How poor are they, that have not pa What wound did ever heal, but by degrees? 15 Thou know'st, we work by wit, and not by witchcraft;

Cas. I think it freely; and, betimes in the morning, I will beseech the virtuous Desdemona 5 to undertake for me: I am desperate of my fortunes, if they check me here.

Jago. You are in the right. tenant; I must to the watch.

Good night, lieu

Cas. Good night, honest Iago. [Exit Cassio. Iago. And what's he then, that says-I play the villain?

When this advice is free' I give, and honest,
Probable to thinking, and (indeed) the course
To win the Moor again? For 'tis most easy
The inclining Desdemona to subdue
In any honest suit; she's fram'd as fruitful
As the free elements: And then for her [tism,
To win the Moor,-were 't to renounce his bap-
All seals and symbols of redeemed sin,--
His soul is so enfetter'd to her love,
That she may make, unmake, do what she list,.
Even as her appetite shall play the god
With his weak function. How am I then a villain,
To counsel Cassio to this parallel 3 course,
Directly to his good? Divinity of hell!
When devils will their blackest sins put on,
They do suggest at first with heavenly shews,
As I do now: For, while this honest fool
Plies Desdemona to repair his fortunes,
And she for him pleads strongly to the Moor,
I'll pour this pestilence into his ear,-
That she repeals' him for her body's lust ;
And, by how much she strives to do him good,

And wit depends on dilatory time.

Does 't not go well? Cassio hath beaten thee, And thou,by that small hurt,hast cashier'd Cassio: 20 Though other things grow fair against the sun, Yet fruits, that blossom first, will first be ripe: Content thyself a while.-By the mass, 'tis morn ing:

Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short.-25 Retire thee; go where thou art billeted: Away, I say; thou shalt know more hereafter: Nay, get thee gone.—' [Exit Roderiga

Two things are to be done,My wife must move for Cassio to her mistress; 30I'll set her on;



that I know. But, masters, here's money for you: and the general so likes your music, that he 45 desires you, of all loves, to make no more noise with it.

Before the Castle.

Enter Cassio, with Musicians.

Cas. MASTERS, play here, I will content

your pains, [general. Something that's brief; and bid-good-morrow, [Musick plays, and enter Cloren. 50 Clown. Why, masters, have your instruments been at Naples, that they speak i' the nose thus ?? Mus. How, sir, how?

Clown. Are these, I pray you, call'd wind in



Mus. Ay, marry, are they, sir.

Clown. O, thereby hangs a tail.
Mus. Whereby hangs a tale, sir?
Clown. Marry, sir, by many a wind instrument

Myself, the while, will draw the Moor apart,
And bring him jump when he may Cassio find
Soliciting his wife:-Ay, that's the way;
Dull not device by coldness and delay. [Eri

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1i. e. has an appearance of honest openness, of frank good-will. elements, out of which all things are produced. • Pestilence, for poison. That is, recalls him. ? The venereal disease first appeared at the siege of Naples,

* Liberal, bountiful, as the i. e. a course level, and even with his design.



A metaphor from taking birds in meshes.


that attends the general's wife, be stirring, tell her, there's one Cassio entreats her a little favour of speech: Wilt thou do this?

Clown. She is stirring, sir; if she will stir hither, I shall seem to notify unto her. [Exit Clown. Enter lago. Cas. Do, good my friend. In happy time, Iago. Jago. You have not been a-bed then? Cas. Why, no; the day had broke Before we parted. I have made bold, Iago, To send in for your wife: My suit to her Is, that she will to virtuous Desdemona Procure me some access.

Jago. I'll send her to you presently: And I'll devise a mean to draw the Moor Out of the way, that your converse and business May be more free.


Cas. I hun bly thank you for 't. I never knew A Florentine more kind and honest.

Enter Emilia.

Emil. Good morrow, good lieutenant: I am


For your displeasure; but all will soon be well.
The general, and his wife, are talking of it;
And she speaks for you stoutly: The Moor replies, 25
That he, you hurt, is of great fame in Cyprus,
And great affinity; and that, in wholesome wisdom,
He might not but refuse you: but, he protests, he
loves you;
And needs no other suitor, but his likings,
To take the safest occasion by the front,
To bring you in again.

Cas. Yet, I beseech you,

If you think fit, or that it may be done,Give me advantage of some brief discourse With Desdemona alone.

Des. O, that's an honest fellow.-Do not doubt,

But I will have my lord and you again
As friendly as you were.


Cus. Bounteous madam,

Whatever shall become of Michael Cassio, He's never any thing but your true servant. Des. O, sir, I thank you: You do love my lord, [assur'd, 10 You have known him long; and be you well He shall in strangeness stand no farther off Than in a politic distance.

Cas. Ay, but, lady,

That policy may either last so long,

15 Or feed upon such nice and waterish diet,
Or breed itself so out of circumstance,
That, I being absent, and my place supply'd,
My general will forget my love and service.

Des. Do not doubt that; before Æmilia here, 20I give thee warrant of thy place: assure thee, If I do vow a friendship, I'll perform it

To the last article: my lord shall never rest;
I'll watch him tame, and talk him out of pa-


Emil. Pray you, come in; I will bestow you where you shall have time To speak your bosom freely. Cas. I am much bound to you.

His bed shall seem a school, his board a shrift;
I'll intermingle every thing he does
With Cassio's suit: Therefore be merry, Cassio;
For thy solicitor shall rather die,
Than give thy cause away.


Enter Othello, and Iago, at a distance.
Emil. Madam, here comes my lord.
Cus. Madam, I'll take my leave.
Des. Why, stay, and hear me speak.
Cas. Madam, not now; I am very ill at ease,

[Exit Cassio.

35 Unfit for mine own purposes.

[Exeunt. 40


A Room in the Castle.

Enter Othello, Iugo, and Gentlemen.
Oth. These letters give, lago, to the pilot;
And, by him, do my duties to the state:
That done, I will be walking on the works,
Repair there to me.


lago. Well, my good lord, I'll do 't. [see't? Oth. This fortification, gentlemen,-shall we Gent. We'll wait upon your lordship.


Des. Well, do your discretion.
Iago. Ha! I like not that.
Oth. What dost thou say?
Jago. Nothing, my lord: or if I know not
Oth. Was not that Cassio parted from my wife?
Iago. Cassio, my lord? No, sure, I cannot
think it,

That he would steal away so guilty-like,
Seeing you coming.

Oth. I do believe, 'twas-he.
Des. How now, my lord?


I have been talking with a suitor here,
A man that languishes in your displeasure.
Oth. Who is 't, you mean?

Des. Why, your lieutenant Cassio.

If I have any grace, or power to move you,
His present reconciliation take;

For, if he be not one that truly loves you,
55 That errs in ignorance, and not in cunning,
I have no judgement in an honest face:
I pr'ythee, call him back.
Oth. Went he hence now?


Another Room in the Castle.

Enter Desdemona, Cassio, and Æmilia. Des. Be thou assur'd, good Cassio, I will do All my abilities in thy behalf.


Emil. Good madam, do; I know it grieves my 60 As if the case were his.

Good my

Des. Ay, sooth; so humbled, That he hath left part of his grief with me, To suffer with him: Good love, call him back.


It is said, that the ferocity of beasts, insuperable and irreclaimable by any other means, is subdued by keeping them from sleep. 2 Cunning, for design, or purpose, simply.

3Y 2


Oth. Not now, sweet Desdemona; some other


Des. But shall 't be shortly?
Oth. The sooner, sweet, for
Des. Shall 't be to-night at supper?
Oth. No, not to-night.

Des. To-morrow dinner then?

Oth. I shall not dine at home.
I meet the captains at the citadel.


Des. Why then, to-morrow night; or Tuesday 10 Or Tuesday noon, or night; or Wednesday morn; I pray thee, name the time; but let it not Exceed three days: in faith, he 's penitent; And yet his trespass, in our common reason, (Save that, they say, the wars must make ex-15 amples


Out of their best) is not almost a fault

To incur a private check: When shall he come?
Tell me,
Othello. I wonder in my soul,
What you could ask me, that I should deny,
Or stand so mammering on'. What! Michael
That 'came a-wooing with you; and so many a
When I have spoke of you dispraisingly,
Hath ta'en your part; to have so much to do
To bring him in! Trust me, I could do much,—
Oth. Pr'ythee, no more: let him come when
he will;

Iago. But for a satisfaction of my thought;
No further harm.

Oth. O yes; and went between us very oft., lago. Indeed?

Oth. Indeed! ay, indeed;- -Discern'st thou
aught in that?
Is he not honest?

Iago. Honest, my lord?
Oth. Honest! ay, honest.

Jago. My lord, for aught I know.
Oth. What dost thou think?
Iago. Think, my lord?


Oth. Think, my lord;-By heaven, he echoes As if there were some monster in his thought, Too hideous to be shewn.-Thou dost mean some


20I heard thee say but now,-Thou lik'dst not that,
When Cassio left my wife; What didst not like?
And, when I told thee-he was of my counsel
In my whole course of wooing, thou cry'dst,

I will deny thee nothing.

Des. Why, this is not a boon;

"Tis as I should entreat you wear your gloves,
Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm;
Or sue to you to do a peculiar profit
To your own person: Nay, when I have a suit,
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed,
It shall be full of poize and difficulty,
And fearful to be granted.

Oth. I will deny thee nothing:
Whereon, I do beseech thee, grant me this,-
To leave me but a little to myself.

Des. Shall I deny you? no: Farewell, my lord.
Oth. Farewell, my Desdemona: I will come to
thee straight.
[teach you:
Des. Emilia, come:-) -Be it as your fancies
Whate'er you be, I am obedient.

[Exit with Emil.

Oth. Excellent wretch'! Perdition catch my soul, But I do love thee! and when I love thee not, Chaos is come again*.

Oth. Why of thy thought, Iago?

Iago. I did not think, he had been acquainted

with it.

25 And didst contract and purse thy brow together,
As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain
Some horrible conceit. If thou dost love me,
Shew me thy thought.

Jago. My noble lord.

Oth. What dost thou say, Iago?


Iago. Did Michael Cassio, when you
Know of your love?
Oth. He did, from first to last: Why dost thou

woo'd my

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Iago. My lord, you know I love you.
Oth. I think, thou do'st;


And, for I know thou art full of love and ho-
And weigh'st thy words before thou giv'st them
Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more:
35 For such things, in a false disloyal knave,

Are tricks of custom; but, in a inan that 's just,
They are close delations', working from the heart,
That passion cannot rule.

Iago. For Michael Cassio,—

401 dare be sworn, I think that he is honest.

Oth. I think so too.


Iago. Men should be what they seem;

Or, those that be not, 'would they might seem


Oth. Certain, men should be what they seem.
Iago. Why then, I think Cassio's an honest


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To hesitate, to stand in suspence. 2 i. c. of weight. 3 The word wretch, in some parts of England, is a term of the softest and fondest tenderness. It expresses the utmost degree of ainiableness, joined with an idea, which perhaps all tenderness includes, of feebleness, softness, and want of protection. * i. e. When I cease to love thee, the world is at an end; i. e. there remains nothing va fuable or important. i. e. occult and secret accusations, working involuntarily from the heart, which, though resolved to conceal the fault, cannot rule its passion of resentment. they might no longer seem, or bear the shape of men.

⚫ i. e. would


Utter my thoughts? Why, say, they are vile and

As where's that palace, whereinto foul things intrude not? who has a breast so pure,
But some uncleanly apprehensions
Keep letts, and law-days, and in session sit
With meditations lawful 1?

Oth. I hou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago, If thou but think'st him wrong'd, and mak'st his A stranger to thy thoughts.

[ear 10

Tosay-my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company,
is free of speech, sings, plays, and dances well;
Where virtue is, these are more virtuous;
Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw
The smallest fear, or doubt of her revolt;
For she had eyes, and chose me: No, Iago;
I'll see, before I doubt; when I doubt, prove;
And, on the proof, there is no more but this,-
Away at once with love, or jealousy.

Iago. I am glad of this; for now I shall have
To shew the love and duty that I bear you
20 With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound,
Receive it from me:-I speak not yet of proof.
Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio;
Wear your eye-thus, not jealous, nor secure :
I would not have your free and noble nature,
Out of self-bounty", be abus'd; look to 't:
I know our country disposition well;
In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks
They dare not shew their husbands; their best



30 Is not to leave undone, but keep unknown.
Oth. Dost thou say so?

Iago. She did deceive her father, marrying you;
And, when she seem'd toshake,and fear your looks,
She lov'd them most'.


Iago. I do beseech you,

Though I-perchance, am vicious in my guess,
(As, I confess, it is my nature's plague
To spy into abuses; and, oft, my jealousy
Shapes faults that are not) that your wisdom yet, 15
From one that so imperfectly conceits,
Would take no notice; nor build yourself a trouble
Out of his scattering and unsure observance :-
It were not for your iet, nor your good,
Nor for my manhood, honesty or wisdom,
To let you know my thoughts.

Oth. What dost thou mean?

Iago. Good name, in man and woman, dear
my lord,

Is the immediate jewel of their souls:
Who steals my purse, steals trash; 'tis something,

'Twas mine,'tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
But he, that filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that, which not enriches him,
And makes me poor indeed.

Oth. By heaven, I'll know thy thought.
Iago. You cannot, if my heart were in your

Nor shall not, whilst 'tis in my custody.

Think'st thou, I'd make a life of jealousy, To follow still the changes of the moon With fresh suspicions? No; to be once in doubt, is once to be resolv'd: Exchange me for a goat, 5 When I shall turn the business of my soul To such exsuffolate and blown surmises", Matching thy inference. "Tis not to make me jealous,

Cth. Ha!

Iago. O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-ey'd monster, which doth mock'
The meat it feeds on: That cuckold lives in bliss,
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger;
But,O,what damned minutes tells he o'er, [loves!
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly

Oth. O mise

Iago. Poor,and content, is rich, and rich enough;
But riches, fineless, is as poor as winter,
To him that ever fears he shall be poor :-
Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend
From jealousy!

Oth. Why? why is this?


I humbly do beseech you of your pardon,
For too much loving you.

Oth. I am bound to thee for ever.

Oth. And so she did.

Jago. Why, go to, then;

She that, so young, could give out such a seeming,
To seel her father's eyes up, close as oak 3,—

He thought, 'twas witchcraft:-But I am much
to blame;


Iago. I see, this hath a little dash'd your spirits.
Oth. Not a jot, not a jot.

Iago. Trust me, I fear it has.

I hope, you will consider, what is spoke
Comes from my love :-But, I do see, you are


The poet's meaning is, "Who has a breast so little apt to form ill opinions of others, but that foul suspicions will sometimes mix with his fairest and most candid thoughts, and erect a court in his mind, to enquire of the offences apprehended?" i. e. am apt to put the worst construction on every thing. 3i. e. loaths that which nourishes and sustains it. This being a miserable state, lago bids him beware of it. * i. e. unbounded, endless, unnumbered treasures. "The allusion is to a bubble. Self-bounty, for inherent generosity. 'Dr. Johnson observes, that "this and the following argument of lago ought to be deeply impressed on every reader. Deceit and falsehood, whatever conveniencies they may for a time promise or produce, are, in the sum of life, obstacles to happiness. Those who profit by the cheat, distrust the deceiver; and the act by which kindness was sought, puts an end to confidence. The same objection may be made with a lower degree of strengthagainst the imprudent generosity of disproportionate marriages. When the first heat of passion is over, it is easily succeeded by suspicion, that the same violence of inclination, which caused one irregularity, may stimulate to another; and those who have shewn, that their passions are too powerful for their prudence, will, with very slight appearances against them, be censured, as not very likely to restrain them by their virtue." Close as oak, means, close as the grain of the oak: To seel is an expression taken from falconry.

I am

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Iago. Long live she so! and long live you to think so!


And knows all qualities, with a learned' spirit,
Of human dealings: If I do prove her haggard,
Though that her jesses' were my dear heart-strings,
I'd whistle her off, and let her down the wind,
To prey at fortune 10, Haply, for I am black;
And have not those soft parts of conversation
That chamberers" have: Or, for I am declin'd
Into the vale of years;—yet that's not much;—
She's gone; I am abus'd; and my relief
10 Must be to loath her. O curse of marriage,
That we can call these delicate creatures ours,
And not their appetites! I had rather be a toad,
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon,
Than keep a corner in the thing I love,
15 For others' uses. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones;
Prerogativ'd are they less than the base:
'Tis destiny unshunnable, like death;
Even then this forked plague " is fated to us,
When we do quicken. Desdemona comes:
Enter Desdemona and Emilia.


If she be false, O, then heaven mocks itself!-
I'll not believe it.

Oth. And yet, how nature erring from itself,Iago. Ay, there's the point: As,-to be bold with you,


Not to affect many proposed matches,
Of her own clime, complexion, and degree;
Whereto, we see, in all things nature tends:
Foh! one may smell, in such, a will most rank 3,
Foul disproportion, thoughts unnatural.-
But pardon me; I do not, in position,
Distinctly speak of her: though I may fear,
Her will, recoiling to her better judgement,
May fall to match you with her country forms,
And (happily) repent.


To scan this thing no further; leave it to time:
And though it be fit that Cassio have his place,
(For, sure, he fills it up with great ability)
Yet, if you please to hold him off a while,
You shall by that perceive him and his means:
Note, if your lady strain his entertainment
With any strong, or vehement importunity;
Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
Let me be thought too busy in my fears,
(As worthy cause I have, to fear-I am)
And hold her free, I do beseech your honour.
Oth. Fear not my government.
Jago, I once more take my leave.


Oth. This fellow's of exceeding honesty,

Oth. Farewell, farewell:

If more thou dost perceive, let me know more;
Set on thy wife to observe: Leave me, Iago.
Iago. My lord, I take
my leave. [Going. 30
Oth. Why did I marry?—This honest creature,
Sees and knows more, much more, than he un-
Iago. My lord,-I would, I might entreat your


Des. How now, my dear Othello?

Your dinner, and the generous islanders 13 25 By you invited, do attend your presence. Oth. I am to blame.

[well? Des. Why is your speech so faint? are you not Oth. I have a pain upon my forehead here. Des. Why, that's with watching; 'twill away again: Let me but bind it hard, within this hour It will be well.

Oth. Your napkin 14 is too little;


[She drops her handkerchief. Let it alone. Come, I'll go in with you. Des. I am very sorry that you are not well. [Exeunt Des. and Oth, Emil. I am glad, I have found this napkin; This was her first remembrance from the Moor: 40 My wayward husband hath a hundred times Woo'd me to steal it; but she so loves the token, (For he conjur'd her, she should ever keep it) That she reserves it evermore about her,

To kiss and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out, 45 And give it Iago:

What he 'll do with it, heaven knows, not I;
I nothing but to please his phantasy.
Enter lago.

Iago. How now? what do you here alone?.


'Issues, for conclusions. Iago means, "Should you do so, my lord, my words would be attended by such infamous degree of success, as my thoughts do not even aim at." A rank will, is self-will overgrown and exuberant. * i. e. You shall discover whether he thinks his best means, his most powerful interest, is by the solicitation of your lady. i. e. press hard his re-admission to his pay and office.—Entertainment was the military term for admission of soldiers. ì. e. do not distrust my ability to contain my passion. 'Learned, for experienced. A haggard hawk is a wild hawk, a hawk difficult to be reclaim'd.—It appears also, that haggard was a term of reproach some times applied to a wanton. "Jesses are short straps of leather tied about the foot of a hawk, by which she is held on the fist. 10 Dr. Johnson observes, that the falconers always let fly the hawk against the wind; if she flies with the wind behind her, she seldom returns. If therefore a hawk was for any reason to be dismissed, she was let down the wind, and from that time shifted for herself, and prey'd at fortune. "i. e. men of intrigue. 12 In allusion, according to Dr. Johnson, to a barbed or forked arrow, which, once infixed, cannot be extracted. Or, according to Dr. Percy, the forked plague may mean the cuckold's horns. "The generous islanders are the islanders of rank, distinction. 14

i. e. your pocket-handkerchief.

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