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Emil. Do not you chide; I have a thing for
[mon thing.
Iago. You have a thing for me?-It is a com-
Amil. Ha!
[now 5

lago. To have a foolish wife.

Emil. O, is that all? what will you give me
For that same handkerchief?

Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner; and all quality,

Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!
And O you mortal engines, whose rude throats
The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit,
Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!

lago. Is it possible?—My lord,—

Oth. Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore;
10 Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof;
[Catching hold on him.
Or, by the worth of mine eternal soul,
Thou hadst been better have been born a dog,
Than answer my wak'd wrath.
Iago. Is it come to this?

Emil. No; but she let it drop by negligence;
And, to the advantage, I, being here, took it up'.
Look, here it is.

15

Oth. Make me to see it; or (at the least) so prove it,

Iago. What handkerchief?
Emil. What handkerchief?

Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona;
That which so often you did bid me steal.

Iago. Hast stolen it from her?

Jago. A good wench; give it me.
Emil. What will you do with it, that you have
been so earnest
To have me filch it?

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Look, where he comes! Not poppy, nor man-
dragora,

Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever med'cine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou ow'dst ' yesterday.

Oth. Ha! ha! false to me? to me?
Jago. Why, how now, general? no more of that.
Oth. Avaunt! be gone! thou hast set me on the
rack:-

I swear, 'tis better to be much abus'd,
Than but to know a little.

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop,
To hang a doubt on: or, woe upon thy life!
Iago. My noble lord,—

Oth. If thou dost slander her, and torture me,
Never pray more: abandon all remorse *;
On horror's head horrors accumulate;

Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amaz'd;
For nothing canst thou to danination add,
Greater than that.

Iago. O grace! O heaven defend me!
Are you a man? have you a soul, or sense?—
God be wi' you; take mine office.-O wretched
fool,

30

That liv'st to make thine honesty a vice!-
O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O
To be direct and honest, is not safe.- [world,
I thank you for this profit: and, from hence,
35I'll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence,
Oth. Nay, stay:-Thou should'st be honest.
Iago. I should be wise; for honesty's a fool,
And loses that it works for.

Oth. By the world,

40I think my wife be honest, and think she is not;
I think that thou art just, and think thou art not;
I'll have some proof: Her name, that was as fresh
As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
45 Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,

I'll not endure it.-'Would, I were satisfied!
lago. I see, sir, you are eaten up with passion;
I do repent me, that I put it to you.
You would be satisfied?

Iago. How now, my lord?

Oth. What sense had I of her stolen hours of lust?
I saw it not, thought it not, it harm'd not me:
I slept the next night well, was free, and merry; 50
I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips:
He that is robb'd, not wanting what is stolen,
Let him not know it, and he 's not robb'd at all.
Jago. I am sorry to hear this.

Oth. I had been happy, if the general camp,
Pioneers and all, bad tasted her sweet body,
So I had nothing known: O now, for ever,
Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content!
Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
That make ambition virtue! O, farewell!

Oth. Would? nay, I will.

[lord?

Iago. And may; But, how? how satisfied, my Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on? Behold her tupp'd"?

Oth. Death and damnation! O!

55

Iago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think,
To bring 'em to that prospect: Damn them then,
If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster,
More than their own! What then? how then?
What shall I say? Where's satisfaction?
60 It is impossible, you should see this,

i. e. I being opportunely here, took it up. 2 The mandragoras, or mandrake, has a soporific quality, and the ancients used it when they wanted an opiate of the most powerful kind. i.e. possessedst, or hadst. i. e. pity. A ram, in Staffordshire and some other counties, is called

a tup.

Were

3Y4

Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,
If imputation, and strong circumstances,-
Which lead directly to the door of truth,-
Will give you satisfaction, you might have it.
Oth. Give me a living reason that she's dis-
Iago. I do not like the office;
[loyal.
But, sith I am enter'd in this cause so far,-
Prick'd to it by foolish honesty, and love,-
I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
I could not sleep.

2

There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs;
One of this kind is Cassio:

To the Propontic, and the Hellespont;
Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace,
Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love,
'Till that a capable and wide revenge

6

5

Swallow them up.-Now, by yon marble heaven,
In the due reverence of a sacred vow [He kneels.
I here engage my words.
Iago. Do not rise yet.-

[Iago kneels,

Witness, you ever-burning lights above!
10 You elements that clip us round about!
Witness, that here lago doth give up
The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
To wrong'd Othello's service! Let him command,
And to obey shall be in me remorse,

15 What bloody work soever'.

Oth. I greet thy love,

[teous,

Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance boun-
And will upon the instant put thee to 't:
Within these three days let me hear thee say,
That Cassio 's not alive.

20

[quest: Jago. My friend is dead; 'tis done at your reBut let her live.

In sleep I heard him say,-Sweet Desdemona,
Let us be wary, let us hide our loves!

And then, sir, would he gripe, and wring my hand;
Cry,-O sweet creature! and then kiss me hard,
As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots,
That grew upon my lips: then lay his leg
Over my thigh, and sigh, and kiss; and then
Cry,-Cursed fate! that gave thee to the Moor!

Öth. O monstrous! monstrous!
lago. Nay, this was but his dream.
Oth. But this denoted a foregone conclusion 3;
"Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream.
Jago. And this may help to thicken other proofs,
That do demonstrate thinly.

30

Oth. I'll tear her all to pieces.

Iago. Nay, but be wise; yet we see nothing done;

Jago. If it be that, or any, if 'twas hers,
It speaks against her, with the other proofs,
Oth. O, that the slave had forty thousand lives;
One is too poor, too weak for my revenge!
Now do I see 'tis true.-Look here, Iago;
All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven:
'fis gone.-

Oth. Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her!
Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw,
25 To furnish me with some swift means of death
For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant,
Iago. I am your own for ever. [Excunt.

She may be honest yet. Tell me but this,-
Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief,
Spotted with strawberries, in your wife's hand?

35

Oth. I gave her such a one; 'twas my first gift.
Iago. I know not that: but such a handkerchief
(I am sure, it was your wife's) did I to-day
See Cassio wipe his beard with.

Oth. If it be that,

SCENE IV.

Another Apartment in the Castle.
Enter Desdemona, Æmilia, and Clown.

Des. Do you know, sirrah, where lieutenant
Cassio lics?

Clown. I dare not say, he lies any where.
Des. Why, man?

Clown. He's a soldier; and for me to say a soldier lies, is stabbing.

Des. Go to; Where lodges he?

40

Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.

Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
Yield up, O love, thy crown, and hearted throne, 50
Totyrannous hate! swell, bosom, with thy fraught',
For 'tis for aspicks' tongues!

Iago. Pray, be content.

Oth. O, blood, Iago, blood!

[change.

Jago. Patience, I say; your mind, perhaps, may 55
Oth. Never, Iago: Like to the Pontic sea,
Whose icy current and compulsive course
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on

Des. Can any thing be made of this?

Clown. I know not where he lodges; and for me to devise a lodging, and say—he lies here, or 45 he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat.

Des. Can you enquire him out? and be edify'd by report?

Clown. I will catechize the world for him; that is, make questions, and make them answer.

Des. Seek him, bid him come hither: tell him, I have mov'd my lord in his behalf, and hope, all will be well.

7

Clown. To do this is within the compass of man's wit; and therefore I will attempt the doing of it.

[Exit, Des. Where should I lose that handkerchief, Emilia?

Emil. I know not, madam.

2 Living for speaking, manifest. Con j. e. swell,

Prime is prompt, from the Celtic or British prim. clusion, for fact. * Hearted throne, is the heart on which thou wast enthroned. because the draught is of poison. • i. e. ample; capacious. 7 Mr. Tollet explains this passage thus: "Let him command any bloody business, and to obey shall be in me an act of pity and com passion for wrong'd Othello.-Remorse frequently signifies pity, mercy, compassion, or a tender, ness of heart, unattended with the stings of a guilty conscience,

Des

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Enter Othello.

Oth. Well, my good lady:-[Aside.] O, hard-15
ness to dissemble!-
How do you, Desdemona?
Des. Well, my good lord.

Oth. Give me your hand: This hand is moist,
my lady.
[sorrow. 20
Des. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no
Oth. This argues fruitfulness and liberal heart;—
Hot, hot, and moist: This hand of yours requires
A sequester from liberty, fasting and prayer,
Much castigation, exercise devout;
For here's a young and sweating devil here,
That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand,
A frank one.

Des. You may, indeed, say so;
For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart.
Oth. A liberal hand: the hea
of old, gave

30

hands;

Lend me thy handkerchief.

lord.

A sibyl, that had number'd in the world'
The sun to course 3 two hundred compasses,
In her prophetic fury sew'd the work:
The worms were hallow'd, that did breed the silk;
5 And it was dy'd in mummy, which the skilful
Conserv'd of maidens' hearts.

Oth, What promise, chuck?

[you.

Des. I have sent to bid Cassio come speak with
Oth. I have a salt and sullen2 rheum offends

[me;

25

But our new heraldry is-hands, not hearts.
Des. I cannot speak of this. Come now, your
promise.

35

Des. Indeed! is it true?

Oth. Most veritable; therefore look to it well. Des. Then 'would to heaven, that I had never seen it!

Oth. Say you?

Des. It is not lost; But what an if it were?
Oth. Ha!

Des. I say, it is not lost.

Oth. Fetch it, let me see it.

Des. Why, so I can, sir, but I will not now: This is a trick to put me from my suit; pray, let Cassio be receiv'd again.

II

Oth. Fetch me that handkerchief: my mind

misgives.

Oth. Ha! wherefore?

Des. Why do you speak so startingly and rash? Oth. Is it lost? is it gone? speak, is it out of the way?

Des. Heaven bless us!

Des. Come, come;

You'll never meet a more sufficient man.

Des. Here, my

Oth. That which I gave you.

Des. I have it not about me.
Oth. Not?

Des. No, indeed, my lord.

Oth. That is a fault: That handkerchief
Did an Egyptian to my mother give:
She was a charmer, and could almost read
The thoughts of people; she told her, while she
kept it,

"Twould make her amiable, and subdue my father 50
Intirely to her love; but, if she lost it,

Or made a gift of it, my father's eye
Should hold her loathly, and his spirits should hunt
After new fancies: She, dying, gave it me;
And bid me, when my fate would have me wive, 55
To give it her. I did so: and take heed on 't,
Make it a darling like your precious eye;
To lose 't, or give 't away, were such perdition,
As nothing else could match.

Des. Is it possible?

Oth. 'Tis true; there's magic in the web of it:

Oth. The handkerchief,

Des. I pray, talk me of Cassio.
Oth. The handkerchief,-
Des. A man that, all
Hath founded his good fortunes on your love
Shar'd dangers with you;-

time,

Oth. The handkerchief.

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Sure there's some wonder in this handkerchief: 40I am most unhappy in the loss of it.

Emil. 'Tis not a year or two shews us a man: They are all but stomachs, and we all but food; They eat us hungerly, and, when they are full, They belch us. Look you! Cassio, and my husband.

45

Enter Iago, and Cassio.

Iago. There is no other way; 'tis she must do't;
And, lo, the happiness! go, and importune her.
Des. How now, good Cassio? what's the news
with you?

Cas. Madam, my former suit: I do beseech you,
That, by your virtuous means, I may again
Exist, and be a member of his love,
Whom I, with all the duty of my heart,
Intirely honour; I would not be delayed:
If my offence be of such mortal kind,
That neither service past, nor present sorrows,
Nor purpos'd merit in futurity,
Can ransom me into his love again,
60 But to know so must be by benefit;

So shall I clothe me in a forc'd content,

1 A Portugueze coin (so called from the cross stamped upon it), in value three shillings sterling.

2 i. e. a rheum obstinately troublesome. i. e. number'd the sun's courses,

i. e. vehement, violent.

And

i

1066

And shut myself up in some other course,
To fortune's alms.

OTHELLO.

Des. Alas! thrice-gentle Cassio,
My advocation is not now in tune;

My lord is not my lord; nor should I know him,
Were he in favour 2, as in humour, alter'd.
So help me every spirit sanctified,

As I have spoken for you all my best;
And stood within the blank of his displeasure3,

Bian. Save you, friend Cassio!
Cas. What make you from home?

For my free speech! You must awhile be patient: 10 How is it with you, my most fair Bianca ?
What I can do, I will; and more I will,
Than for myself I dare; let that suffice
Indeed, sweet love, I was coming to your house.
Iago. Is my lord angry?

you.

Emil. He went hence but now, And, certainly, in strange unquietness.

Bian. And I was going to your lodging, Cassio. What! keep a week away? seven days and nights? Eightscore eight hours and lovers' absent hours, 15 More tedious than the dial eightscore times? weary reckoning!

Ο

Cas. Pardon me, Bianca;

I

Iago. Can he be angry? I have seen the cannon
When it hath blown his ranks into the air;
And, like the devil, from his very arm
Puff'd his own brother;-And can he be
Something of moment, then: I will go meet him; 20
angry?
There's matter in 't indeed, if he be angry. [Exit.
Des. I pr'ythee, do so. Something, sure, of
state,-

have this while with leaden thoughts been press'd:
Strike off this score of absence. Sweet Bianca,
But I shall, in a more continuate time',
[Giving her Desdemona's handkerchief.
Take me this work out'.

Either from Venice; or some unhatch'd practice,
Made demonstrable here in Cyprus to him,-
Hath puddled his clear spirit: and, in such cases,
Men's natures wrangle with inferior things,
Though great ones are their object.
'Tis even so; for let our finger ache,
And it endues our other healthful members
Even to that sense of pain: Nay, we must think,
Men are not gods;

Nor of them look for such observancy

As fits the bridal.-Beshrew me much, Æmilia,
I was (unhandsome warrior as I am)
Arraigning his unkindness with my soul;
But now I find, I had suborn'd the witness,
And he's indited falsely.

Emil, Pray heaven, it be state matters, as you
think;
And no conception, nor no jealous toy,
Concerning you.

Des. Alas the day! I never gave him cause.
Emil. But jealous souls will not be answer'd so;
They are not ever jealous for the cause,
But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster,
Begot upon itself, born on itself.

Des. Heaven keep that monster from Othello's

mind!

[Act 3. Scene 4.

Emil. Lady, Amen.
Des. I will go seek him.-Cassio, walk here-
[about:
If I do find him fit, I'll move your suit,
And seek to effect it to my uttermost.
Cas. I humbly thank your ladyship.
[Exeunt Desdemona and Æmilia.
Enter Bianca.

5

my own. conditional.

25

Bian. O Cassio, whence came this?
This is some token from a newer friend.
To the felt absence now I feel a cause:
Is it come to this? Well, well.
Cas. Go to, woman!

Throw your vile guesses in the devil's teeth, [now, From whence you have them. You are jealous 30 That this is from some mistress, some remembrance: No, in good troth, Bianca.

Bian. Why, whose is it?

[ber.

Cas. I know not, sweet: I found it in my cham-
I like the work well; ere it be demanded,
35 (As like enough it will) I'd have it copy'd:
Take it and do 't; and leave me for this time.
Bian. Leave you! wherefore?

Cas. I do attend here on the general;
And think it no addition, nor my wish,
40 To have him see me woman'd.
Bian. Why, I pray you?
Cas. Not that I love you not,
Bian. But that you do not love me.
I pray you, bring me on the way a little;
say, if I shall see you soon at night.
Cas. "Tis but a little way that I can bring you,
For I attend here: but I'll see you soon.

45 And

Bian. 'Tis very good; I must be circumstanc’d”. [Exeunt.

The meaning, according to Mr. Steevens, is, "I will put on a constrained appearance of being contented, and shut myself up in a different course of life, no longer to depend on my own efforts, but to wait for relief from the accidental hand of charity."-We think, however, it means no more than that he would try what Fortune would do for him in some other course of life. countenance. 3i. e. within the shot of his anger. handsome warrior, is unfair assailant. Some treason that has not taken effect. 'In look, in e. a time less interrupted, time which I can call more Un'i. e. "Copy this work in another handkerchief,” i. e. Your civility is now grown

5

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ACT

Iago. Or to be naked with her friend abed,
An hour, or more, not meaning any harın?

Oth. Naked abed, Iago, and not mean harm1?
It is hypocrisy against the devil:
They that mean virtuously, and yet do so,
The devil their virtue tempts, and they tempt

heaven.

Iago. So they do nothing, 'tis a venial slip:

But if I give my wife a handkerchief,

Oth. What then?

5

IV.

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Jago. With her, on her; what you will. Oth. Lie with her! lie on her!-We say, lie on her, when they belie her: Lie with her! that's 10fulsome. Handkerchief,-confessions,-handkerchief.-To confess, and be hang'd for his labour.

First, to be hang'd, and then-to confess :-I tremble at it.-Nature would not invest herself in such shadowing passion, without some instruction. 15 It is not words, that shake me thus:-Pish!Noses, ears, and lips :-Is it possible?--Confess! -Handkerchief! O devil![Falls in a trance.

[hers,

Iago. Work on,

Iago. Why, then 'tis hers, my lord; and, being 20 My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are She may, I think, bestow 't on any man.

Oth. She is protectress of her honour too;
May she give that?

Iago. Her honour is an essence that's not seen ;]
They have it very oft, that have it not:
But, for the handkerchief,-

25

Oth. By heaven, I would most gladly have for-
got it:

Thou saidst,-O, it comes o'er my memory,
As doth the raven o'er the infected house,
Boding to all, he had my handkerchief.
Iago. Ay, what of that?

Oth. That's not so good now.

Iago. What if I had said, I had seen him do
you wrong?

Or heard him say,-As knaves be such abroad,
Who having, by their own importunate suit,
Or voluntary dotage of some mistress,
Convinced or supplied them, cannot choose
But they must blab.

caught;

And many worthy and chaste dames, even thus,
All guiltless meet reproach.-What, ho! my lord!
My lord, I say!-Othello!- How now, Cassio?
Enter Cassio,
Cas. What's the matter?

Iago. My lord is fallen into an epilepsy;
This is his second fit; he had one yesterday.
Cas. Rub him about the temples.
30 Iago. No, forbear:

The lethargy must have his quiet course:
If not, he foams at mouth; and, by-and-by,
Breaks out to savage madness. Look, he stirs
Do you withdraw yourself a little while,
35 He will recover straight; when he is gone,

I would on great occasion speak with you.-
[Exit Cassio.
How is it, general? have you not hurt your head?
Oth. Dost thou mock me?

40

Oth. Hath he said any thing?

[sur'd,

Iago. I mock you! no, by heaven: 'Would, you would bear your fortunes like a man. Oth. A horned man's a monster, and a beast.

lago. He hath, my lord; but, be you well as

This observation, Dr. Warburton says, seems strangely abrupt and unoccasioned. We must suppose that Iago had, before they appear in this scene, been applying cases of false comfort to Othello; as that though the parties had been even found in bed together, there might be no harm done; it might be only for the trial of their virtue; as was reported of the Romish saint, Robert D'Arbrissel and his nuns. To this we must suppose Othello here replies; and like a good protestant. For, so the sentiment does but suit the character of the speaker, Shakspeare little heeds how these sentiments are circumstanced. 2 Concinc'd, for conquer'd, subdued. 3 Dr. Johnson's comment on this passage is as follows: "There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the sufferer by some dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external cause. This is ascribed to that general communication of one part of the universe with another, which is called sympathy and antipathy; or to the secret monition, instruction, and influence of a superior Being, which superintends the order of nature and of life. Othello says, Nature could not invest herself in such shadowing passion without instruction: It is not words that shake me thus. This passion, which spreads its clouds over me, is the effect of some agency more than the operation of words; it is one of those notices which men have of unseen calamities." ♦ Othello is imagining to himself the familiarities which he supposes to have passed between Cassio and his wife. Iago.

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