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good rich land, without timber ; also, in the northwest, strips of bottom between the numerous ridges ; about one section of prairie bottom on 30 and 31 ; thin oak openings in the bottoms on the northwest and northeast ; the south part, burr oak opening and numerous ridges. Well watered by streams and springs. Soil: in the bottoms, black, rich mould, first-rate ; on the ridges, poor and thin. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 98 and 3) imbedding masses of rock (Nos. 68 and 74.) Masses of very ferruginous sandstone (No. 118) frequently passing into iron ore (No. 15.)
Fractional township 9.—Mostly wet prairie; on 31, some oak openings; at the bottom of the bluffs in the east are some small patches of burr oak. Surface : on the east, very rocky and broken ; between the bluffs some fine level strips of bottom land ; swampy in the centre of the township, with some mounds connected by ridges. Soil : on the bluffs, nearly a pure sand, poor third-rate; in the bottoms, first-rate, dark and deep. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 98 and 118) with fragments of specimens Nos. 68 and 74. No discoveries of lead ore.
IN RANGE SEVEN EAST, OF THE FOURTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN.
Township 1.—About one-third prairie ; a strip running from northeast to southwest of fine rolling prairie, (excellent farming land :) two thirds, a heavy growth of oak, waluut, hickory, and ash timber. Very well watered by streams and springs. Soil: a first-rate, dark, rich mould. Sub-soil : clay. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 80, 129, 102, and 3.) Some boulders (No. 16.) There are some diggings in this township, but no important discoy. eries of lead ore have been made, although it is said that “ gravel mineral” has been found. Though out of the range defined as mineral land, the rock in some places is of the same character as that which bears lead ore; so that it is possible that lodes of lead ore may hereafter be struck in this township.
Township 2.- Nearly half, fine rolling prairie; in the northwest, oak openings ; in the south west, good oak, walnut, and maple timber. Very well watered by streams and springs. Soil : in the prairie, a first-rate, dark, upland mould. Sub-soil: generally clay. Prevailing rock (No. 80.) On 3, 10, and 11, are · Skinner's diggings," which have been worked for six or seven years, and it is supposed that 250,000 lbs. of lead ore have been raised. On the northwest of 10, a crevice was struck, and lead ore found; but, on account of some quarrel, the lode was not worked. On 28, and southwest of 35, some “ gravel mineral” was discovered, and small pieces of “gravel mineral” are said to have been found occasionally as low down as Buffalo Grove. On the southwest of 13, some “ float mineral" (loose masses of lead ore in clay or sand) have been found. No important discoveries of lead ore have been made in Wiskonsin, farther southeast than this township.
Towriship 3.--Ten or eleven sections of rolling prairie; on Sugar creek a little marshy prairie; in the northeast and southwest, oak openings; in the northwest, good oak timber. Very well watered by streams and springs. Soil : in the prairie and well-timbered land, second-rate; in the oak openings, third-rate, sandy. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 102, 130,) on high ridges; in the base of the ridges, sandstone (No. 98.) In the southern part of the township this rock dips low; south of this, it is only seen in very low places. “Skinner's diggings" extend to the line between townships 2 and 3. No other important discoveries of lead ore have yet been made in this township. The ridge dividing the principal streams of this township is the commencement of the poor land extending towards the north.
Township 4.-One or two sections of rolling prairie; a small grove of good timber where 26, 27, 34, and 35 corner; the growth is ash, walnut, and oak; there are one or two other small groves of timber, of the same des. cription; in all, not more than forty acres: the rest is oak openings. Very well watered by streams and springs. Soil : sandy, (but not as much so as farther north ;) third-rate. Sub soil : sandy. On the ridges, the prevailing rocks are Nos. 130 and 102 above, and Nos. 98 and 3, below, imbedding No. 100. No discoveries of lead ore have yet been made in this township.
Township 5.--About three sections rolling prairie; the rest is a very stunted growth of oak; no good timber. Well watered in the north and south by streams and springs. Soil: third-rate, sandy, and light colored. Sub-soil : sandy. Iron ore (No. 15,) scattered in loose detached masses on every section, and even quarter section, in the township. The prevailing rocks in the ridges are specimens Nos. 98 and 119. No diggings, and no discoveries of lead ore.
Township 6.—About three sections of rolling prairie; the rest, oak openings. Tolerably well watered ; a few goods prings. Soil: third rate, sandy. Sub-soil : sandy. Prevailing rocks: Nos. 102 above, and 98 belov. No discoveries of lead ore. Some diggings for lead ore have been attempted in this towusnip, but nothing was raised but sand. On 7, 8, 9, 15, and 17, large quantities of loose masses of iron ore (No. 15) were discovered. and the same ore occurs occasionally all over the township.
Township 7.--About three sections of bottom prairie in the north, and about six sections rolling prairie in the south; the rest a thin and stunted growth of burr.oak. Tolerably well watered in the north by Black Earth creek, and in the south by Sugar creek. Soil : a second-rate, sandy mould in the prairie; in the south on the ridges, poor and sandy. On southeast of 11, rocks No. 26' above, and No. 98' beneath. Ground frequently covered with loose pieces of crystallized brown oxide of iron, No. 15;) there is hardly a section but is covered with it. Veins of iron ore, three or four feet wide, were discovered in the sandstone. Unfortunately, much of it in these situations is contaminated with sand. Large quantities of the pure crystallized variety could, however, be collected in the township, and there is every probability that many veins of good ore can also be found disseminated in the rock. In the township north of this, the upper sandstone (No. 98) runs out, and the inferior strata (Nos. 3 and 95 ) occupy even the high ridges.
Township 8.—Some small strips of wet prairie ; the greatest part of the township has a growth of burr oak openings; surface of land very broken. The south part and west half tolerably well watered by streams and springs; the rest of the township is almost destitute of water. Soil: poor, sandy, third-rate. Sub-soil: sand, gravel, and rocks. Prevailing rocks, (Nos. 109 or 3', 98' and 26!;) no fossils. Small pieces of iron ore (No. 15) very frequent. No discoveries of lead ore.
Township 9.-No prairie ; the whole township has a very thin and stunted growth of burr oak; stuface very broken; not well watered. Soi. poor, third-rate, sandy; where the surface is level, the ground is wet, Prevailing rocks Nos. 109 or 3', and 112, above, and No. 9S' below. Coc siderable masses of iron ore (No. 15) all over the township. No appearances or discoveries of lead ore.
Fractional township 10.—About five sections of rolling prairie ; the rest burr and white oak openings, with the exception of three-fourihs of a section on the west half of 34, east half of 33, and all of fractional section 1, where there is some tolerably good timber. Not well watered ; no water but some ponds and part of a lake on 1 and 2. Soil: generally poor, sandy, third-rale; on the sides of the ridges gravelly. Sub soil: sand and rock. The surface is studded with small knobs, Prevailing rocks : lower sandstone, (No. 98';) on the tops of the ridges, in places, (Nos. 3' or 109.) Iron ore, (No. 15,) in small pieces, strewed over the surface; in some places the ground is covered. No appearance of lead ore.
IN RANGE EIGHT EAST, OF THE FOURTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN.
Township 1.-Chiefly high, rolling prairie; the west tier of sections have a growth of good timber ; in the northeast there are about two sections of timbered land; well watered by streams and springs. Soil: a dark, second-rate, and rather sandy mould. Sub soil : rather savdy. Prevailing rock (No. 130.) In travelling north, (rising for the first time to the surface,) the upper sandstone (No. 98) is to be seen in the lower part of the ridges, on a branch of Sugar creek, on the northeast of 10. A few boulders to be seen now and then. On the northeast of 17, lead ore has been found in small quantities. On the northeast of 21, "gravel mineral” was discovered, but no important lodes of ore have been struck.
Township 2.-About one-third rolling prairie in the south and north ; a strip of good young black, white, and burr oak timber, through 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, and 26, and part of 28, 29, and 30 ; the rest is oak openings. Well watered by streams and springs. Soil: second-rate, sandy, Sub-soil : sandy. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 102 and 98.) No discoveries of lead ore, but in a few places there are some indications of mineral.
Township 3.- About one-half high rolling prairie ; the north half chiefly good tall black and white oak timber; on 6, 7, and part of 18, are oak openings. Very well watered by streams and springs. Soil: very candy. Prevailing rocks : Nos. 130 and 3, above, and No. 98 below. No discoveries of lead ore have yet been made in this township.
Township 4.-On 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 35, and part of 5, 7, and 8, high, rolling prairie; a strip of low, marshy prairie in the east ; tolerably good timber in the west; the rest oak openings. Well watered by streams and springs. Soil : third-rate ; sandy, with flinty fragınents disseminated in it; in places the ground is almost covered with pieces of chert, (No. 68.) Prevailing rocks : Nos. 130 and 80 above, and No. 98 below. There are several important diggings in this township, called the “Sugar-creek diggings.” On the southwest of 26 are “ Kelly's diggings," where about 8,000 pounds of lead ore are raised in three weeks. On the north of 34, are " Slater's diggings," where 15,000 pounds of lead ore are raised in a month. On the southwest of 27 are valuable diggings, owned by “Inman & Breese.” No lodes of lead ore in Wiskonsin, east of Sugar creek. Some loose pieces of iron ore (No. 15) on the surface.
Township 5. —Abut one section of high prairie, and a strip of wet prai$ rie, on 4, 9, and 10. On 26 and 35 is good oak timber : the rest is a thin up and stunted growth of oak. Well watered both by streams and springs.
On Sugar creek and its branches are some good mill-seats. Soil : poor, sandy, third-rate. Sub-soil : sand. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 118 and a high up on the bluffs. No discoveries of lead ore. A great many peer of iron ore (No. 15) on the surface.
Township 6.--About ten or eleven sections of rolling prairie; the sol ern sections good burr oak timber; the rest a stunted growth of oak on ings. Tolerably well watered by streams and springs in the west a:. south. Soil: poor, third-rate, sandy. Sub-soil : sandy ; poor farsleg lar: Prevailing rocks (Nos. 3 and 98'.) No discoveries of lead ore; sm pieces of iron ore (No. 15) found on the surface.
Township 7.- About five sections of fine rolling prairie; the rest is pr:cipally burroak openings. In the north are numerous pouds ; tbe mus and south not well watered. Soil : in the prairie, a first-rate upard nou.c but rather too sandy; in the south, second-rate; in the norh. third-rate. Sub-soil: sandy. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 109, 26', 112, and 111. Iron ore (No. 15) in loose masses on the surface. A small piece of lead ore was found on the surface in the north west of 7, with crystallized ca bonaie c lime, (No. 31:) but no important discoveries of lead ore have been cade e the township.
Township 8.-Atout two thirds rolling prairie; about five sectos good timber on 4, 5, 6, 7, and 18; on 1, 2, and 3, are oak opeciags; o 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36, burr, black, and white oak unbe”. Not well watered. Soil: in the prairie, a first-rate sandy mould. Sabse sandy. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 109, 3, 26', and 112.) In the son 2 numerous boulders of hornblende rock, some of them very large, O2 or twelve feet high.) Iron ore (No. 15) very abundant in small de 2ded masses all over the township. No discoveries of lead ore. North o be lakes are some Indian diggings and Indian furnaces.
Township 9.- About one-half rolling prairie; the other half ork ings. Along the western margin there is some tolerably good timber. Ve · poorly watered—one small stream on 4, 5, and 8. Soil: poor third-sate
Prevailing rocks (Nos. 3', 20', 109, and 98'.) Loose masses of iron ore I many places over the township; and some thin veins of iron ore X3. 15 discovered in chert (No. 68.) Some boulders. No discoveries of lead ore.
Fractional lownship 10.-About six sections of low, rolling praine je the south. On 19, 20, 21, 7, 8, 9, 16, and 17, are about four se "nons C: low prairie; about six sections of high prairie in the east: and on 3, 4, a 5, about two sections of tamarack swamp; the rest is oak openings. Surface of land broken. Well watered both by streams and springs Soul poor and sandy. Sub-soil : a brown sand. Prevailing rocks (os. 3, 111. and 9S.) No discoveries or appearances of lead ore.
Fractional township 11.- In the southeast, about half a section of prairie; high bluffs, with a few pine and oak trees along the Wiskonsin river. A tamarack swamp runs through the centre of the iownship, parallel with Wiskonsin river. South of this is a growih of sinpied oak umber, occupying about three sections. No springs. Soil: almost a pure sand. Prevailing rocks (Nos. 3' and 98'.) On the northwest of 36 are some detach ed pieces of iron ore, (No. 15.)
Table showing the proportion (in decimals) of prairie and timber in each township in the Dubuque district.
Range 1 W.) R. 2 W.R. 3 W.of R. 4 W. R. 5 W. R. 6 W. R. 7 W.R. 8 W. | R. 1 E. | R. 2 E. R. 3 E. R. 4 E. R. 5 E. R. 6 E.
R. 9 E. of
No. of towns.
i | Timber.
geen een | Timber.
.50 .50 .88
.55 .45 .99 .011
- 11.00 .22.781 .35.65 .97 .031.00
.50 .50 .88 .12
Total, 106.57 prairie, 56.43 timber; equal to two-thirds prairie and one-third timber.