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No. 136. White siliceous rock, with fossils, something like No. 27.
No. 138. Light gray stratum, from the new diggings in township one, range one east, of the fourth principal meridian.
No. 139. Radiated and capillary pyriles, from the White-oak Springs, near the Illinois line. .
No. 140. Sulphate of barytes, with carbonate of zinc, sulphuret of zinc, and sulphuret of lead, from Mineral Point diggings.
Note.-Of the fossils collected, many are probably yet undescribed ; but until the receipt of several recent works of reference on organic remains, I am unable to determine this point.
reek, the last of thee. The generalstrations, lists
New HARMONY, INDIANA,
February 9, 1840. Dear Sir: Last week, the last of the township maps containing our annotations were forwarded to your office. The general report will not be completed for several weeks; the maps, diagrams, illustrations, lists, and analyses of ores and minerals intended to be imbodied and to accompany it, requiring much time and consideration.
By this post I send you the appendix, containing notes giving a description of the individual townships, and embracing details intended chiefly for reference; at the end will be found two tables, showing the proportion of prairie and timber in the Dubuque and Mineral Point districts, and a descriptive catalogue of the different varieties of specimens to be forwarded to Washington as soon as those collected in Wiskonsin arrive. Since we finished our operations at Stephenson, the winter has been so severe, and the snow so continually on the ground, that it has been impossible to make the examination of the townships in Illinois, in the neighborhood of Shaw. neetown. By the time my report is completed, I shall be prepared with a corps of from six to eight, to proceed with the examination, unless I receive, in the mean time, instructions from you to the contrary.
No communications have been received from you since my last letter. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
DAVID DALE OWEN,
Principal Agent, f'e. Hon. JAMES WHITCOMB.
P. S.-I find it necessary to retain the catalogue until the analysis of several ores and minerals, which I am now making, is completed, and draw. ings are made, to which it will be frequently necessary to refer.
Containing a particular description of each township.
Note.—The numbers designating specimens refer to correspordicg numbers on the labels of the different specimens forwarded to the department, to form a nucleus for a national cabinet. A descriptive catalogue of these specimens, with the numbers prefixed, is annexed to this appendix.
For the particulars of occupancy and claims,. the department is reterred to the annotations on the township maps herewith forwarded.
All the diggings of importance, and all the new discoveries of lead ore, are indicated on the general map, and on the township maps, by dots of vermilion, and (No. 34) the number of “ sulphuret of lead” in the caialogue and national cabinet; dots of green and (No. 110) represent, in like manner, the copper diggings and discoveries of copper; dots of yellow achre and (No. 15) indicate hydrated brown oxide of iron; dots of yellow gar boge and (No. 123) indicate localities of carbonate of zinc and calamite..
Description of the individual townships, showing the face of the country:
proportion of prairie and timber ; how watered ; nature of the sou: and the kind of rocks and minerals.
IN RANGE ONE WEST, OF THE FIFTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN. · Township 78.—Nine-tenths rich rolling prairie ; one-tenth timber. On Mud creek, hickory, oak, hackberry, and walnut. On Pine creek, oak, hickory, arid a little pine. Pretty well watered in the southeast, northwest, and northeast. Soil : good second-rate; rather sandy, particularly near Mud creek. Sub-soil, clayey. Rock: on southwest corner of 26, 00 Pine creek, are found specimens similar to No. 19; some ferruginous sandstone, similar to specimen No. 18, on Pine creek. On northeast of 1. a little hydrated brown oxide of iron, like specimen No 15, and a little argillaceous iron ore, with loose masses of specimen No. 19.
Township 79.-Entirely rolling and broken prairie, with the exception of the borders of Mud creek, and a few insignificant groves of stunted timber interspersed throughout the township. A little good oak timber on Mud creek; not well watered. Soil: generally third-rate, sandy, lightcolored, except on the creek. No rocks discovered.
Township 80.--About four fifths broken prairie; about one-fifth good oak timber, in the northeast corner, on the creek; not well watered, except in the northeast corner. Soil : third-rate, light, sandy; some loose masses of limestone in the northeast, on the creek.
Township 81.–Chiefly broken prairie; some scattering stunted oak and hickory bushes; and on the creek, in the north, a little good timber; not well watered, except in the north. On 15, some loose masses of siliceous limestone, (specimen No. 3:) on 9 and 10, numerous boulders, (specimens No. 16.)
Township 82.-All rolling prairie, except the northeast corner, on the east side of Wapsipinecon river ; well timbered on 1, 12, and part of 11, with white and black oak; not well watered, except in the northeast cor. ner. Soil: third rate, light-colored, sandy. Sub-soil : coarse saud. Rock: (specimen No. 3) between 22 and 15; also hydrated brown oxide of iron in loose fragments, (specimen No. 15.) A very large granite boulder on southeast of 1, twenty-five feet in diameter, fourteen feet high.
Township 83.--Mostly rolling prairie; a strip of tiniber along Wapsipinecon river; a grove of hickory and oak on the southwest quarter of 16, and some scattering timber on 1, 12, and 13; well watered in the south, but not in the north. Soil: third-rate ; coarse sand, light-colored ; small bottoms along the river, pretty good soil; some rock (specimen No. 3) in the centre of the township; some boulders on 34, 27, and 33, several of them very large; on 16, some pieces of iron ore, (specimens No. 15.)
Township 84.-Chiefiy broken prairie ; some timber along Bear creek; good timber on 25 and 26; dwarf oak growth on the creek towards the north, and occasionally bushes through the prairie ; tolerably well water. ed; some good springs. Soil : third-rate, clayey, light colored. Sub-soil: clay. Numerous cliffs of rocks along Bear creek, like specimen No. 12, with crystallized carbonate of lime, (specimen No 31 ;) siliceous masses scattered over the township; some loose masses of iron ore (specimen No. 15) on the surface, principally on southeast of 15, northwest of 21, and northeast of 27.
Township 85.—Nearly half prairie; surface very broken on Mineral creek, and on the Makoqueta river; good black and white walnut timber in the east and south; well watered. Soil: generally clay; the small bottoms, along the cliffs, rich; the ridges third rate land ; township full of rocky cliffs, (specimen No. 12,) containing fossils, (specimens Nos. 54, 56, and 73.) Specimen No. 31 very common, disseminated, or in crevices, in the rock; a great variety of finty masses similar to specimen No. 68. On southwest of 28, some iron ore, (specimen No. 15.) Here are also diggings, and some lead ore has been discovered, but no body of it found'; it is supposed that there has not been more than one hundred pounds raised.
Township 86.-About two thirds rolling prairie; about one-third good oak timber, chiefly strips along the north fork of the Makoquela river, also along Fu mer's creek, and a branch of the Makoquieta river in the northeast; very well watered both by streams and springs. Soil: generally second-rate; along the stream, and on east side, land broken. Sub-soil : clay. Rock: specimen No. 3 very frequent with specimen No. 3); Fossils : specimens Nos. 51, 29, and 54. No diggings. No appearances of lead ore.
Township 87.- About three-fourths broken prairie ; one-fourth timber, chiefly stunted, with some spots of good quality; well watered by streams and springs. Soil : along White-water creek, second-rate, rather sandy, dark colored. Sub soil: mostly clay; the rest of township surface broken. Rock (No. 3) frequently exposed in cliffs with specimen No. 31 imbedded. Fossils : specimens Nos. 51 and 73; some agate (specimen No. 72) found in this township on 22.
Township 88.—The greatest part high, broken prairie; in the northern part of the township, very thin openings; remarkably well watered by streams and springs. Soil: first-rate, upland, rather dark sandy loam ; the soil of this whole township is nearly as good as in the valleys genérally. Sub soil, sandy. Rock (No. 3) often exposed in cliffs; no appearances i Dead ore.' : Township 89.--About seven sections rolling prairie ; the rest very broken timbered land; pretty well, timbered generally; on the ridges. consid. erable basswood and American aspen ; well watered by streams and springs, Soil: second rate, clayey. Cliffs (specimen No.3) containing fossiis speci. mens Nos. 54, 29, and 64.)
Township 90.–Eight or nine sections in the west, rolling prairie; also, part of 15 and 23; ihe rest of the township broken timbered land; the southwest corner is ouk openings; well watered both by streams and springs. Soil : in the timbered land, second-rate, sandy, rather dark; a small strip of boitom along the north fork of Little Makoqueta river firstrate. Numerous rocky cliffs, (specimen No. 3;) on northwest of 9, below specimen No. 87, a bluish green clay. The northeast half of this lornship shows symptoms of lead ore. There are, however, no pro’uctive lodes at present discovered. Some iron ore (specimen No. 15) on southwest of 9; also, on northeast of 8, and northwest of 4; but no exter.site bodies of it discovered. On the southwest of 28 a crevice was struck, tot no lead ore was found.
Fractional township 91.--Liitle or no prairie; high and broken land and precipitous cliffs. Timber : chiefly oak. Well watered by streams and springs. Soil: second and third rate; clay. Rock on top of blutis lite specimen No. 79; below, specimen No. 91. Diggings on 35 and 36; about five hundred pounds supposed to have been raised.
IN RANGE TWO WEST, OF THE FIFTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN.
Township 78.--About two-thirds prairie; east half, high, rolling, sandy prairie ; the part near Cedar river, low, level, and sandy. Groves of im. ber between Cedar and Sugar creeks ; some heavy timber near the mouth of Sugar creek, chiefly elm and water oak ; thinner towards the northeast, where the ridges are covered with white oak; well watered in the north. west. Soil: third-rate, sandy, light throughout; on the southeast, destitute even of grass. No rocks visible on the east side of Cedar creek; on the west side, rock (specimen No. 5.)
Township 79.- The eastern portion, two-thirds broken prairie; the western part, broken barren ridges, covered with a dwarf oak growth ; on Su gar creek, some pretty good timber. Soil : third-rate, generally sinds, and light colored, better than in township 78. The first ledges of rock found in this range (specimen No. 3) near the iniddle of the township.
Township $0.--About four fifths rolling prairie ; groves along Sugar creek and Crooked creek ; about one fifth timber ; burroak on the ridges; basswood and white-oak near the streams on the richer part of llie towdle ship; west half well watered. Soil : second rate, rather sandy. Sub-soil: clay. No ledges of rocks visible in this township.,
Township 81.- The whole of this township is rolling prairie, except three spots of timber, generally burr-oak, occupying about one secuon. Soil : second-rate, rather sandy, light colored, except on the surface. No rocks visible, except a few boulders. . Township 82.-All prairie, except one grove partly on 14, and partly oa 11'; not very well watered. Soil : second-rate, rather sandy, Ledges of rock on Yankee run, chiefly on 10, 14, 15, and a few op 22, similar 10 specimen No. 3.
Township 83.-Chiesiyinecon river, and ka Not well watered,
Toronship 83.-Chiefly broken and rocky prairie ; about one-fourth timber, lying on the Wapsipinecon river, and a giove of about one section; on the river the timber is chiefly white oak. Not well watered, except in the middle of the township. Soil : sandy; in the south, second rate; in the north, third rate. Rucks appear on the points of the hills similar to specimens Nos. 12 and 3; in the south, soine large boulders (specimen No. 16.)
Township 84.- Principally broken prairie ; some scattering black oak through 31, 32, 33, and 34; no other timber, except some bushes. One small stream (Bear creek) runs through this township; very few good springs observed. Soil : third-rate, sandy. Very few rocks; at a few points, specimens No. 12 and No. 3; a good deal of chert scattered near these rocky points. This is a poor township., . Township 85.—About half broken prairie ; one-half pretty good timber along the Makoqueta river, principally white and black oak; some basswood and walnui. But few small streams; watered in the south by Mineral creek, in the north by the Makoquela river. Soil: second-rate, sandy; on the river, third-rate. Surface very broken and rocky north of the Makoqueta river; cliffs of specimen No. 3 containing fossils (specimens Nos. 51,73, and 89 ;) on 11, fossil (specimen No. 28) is found. Not much rock south of the Makoqueta river.
Township 86.-One-third broken prairie in the southeast; two-thirds timbered land: pretty good timber on 16, 17, 19, and 20 ; tolerably well watered by streains and springs. Soil : in the north and west, first-rate, upland prairie ; in the southeast, second.rate, broken timbered land. Rock : specimen No. 3. Fossils ; speciinens Nos. 28, 64, and 59.
Township 87.-The cast half, very broken prairie; west half, broken woodland ; timber stunted, black and white oak; tolerably well watered. Soil : sandy, with a great many fragments of chert disseminated through it; second rate in the southeast ; in the north and west, third-rate. Rock (No. 3) containing fossils (Nos. 28 and 56.)
Township 88.—About five-sixths rolling prairic ; in the west, some good black and white oak timber on the western range of sections; some spots of timber in the southeast; tolerably well watered by streams and springs. Soil : rather clayey ; second-rate land generally. Rock (No. 3) with fossils (No. 29 and No. 73) are found. A piece of lead ore found on 18, but no important discoveries made ; not much indication of lodes of lead ore.
Township 89.—All prairie, except thin openings in the north ; very well Wätered by streams and springs. Soil : good second-rate, rather broken, fine, black, sandy. Sub-soil : rather sandy. Rock of this township is speoimen No. 3, with fossils (Nos. 28 and 29.) No diggings; no discoveries of lead ore. Land very much broken in the north and northeast.
Township 90.- About three sections of prairie. All the middle and eastern part of township, oak openings ; pretty well watered. Soil: fine, light mixture of sand and clay. Rock (No. 2) containing fossils (Nos. 29, 28, and 54.)
Fractional township 91.- No prairie ; all heavy timber except some oak openings in the extreme south; in the bottom, black walnut, ash, elm, and maple, on the ridges, varieties of oak. Well watered by Great Turkey river, Little Turkey river, and Blue Beli creek, in the east. Soil : in bot. toms, first-rate; the rest second-rate, but surface very broken. Rocks: specimens Nos. 3 and '80 above, and Nos. 90 and 91 below; some good