Imagens das páginas

should persist in loading the raw tobacco and the other principal stapie productions of the United States with heavy duties; and that there was nothing in the li compromise bill of March, 1832,” to prevent Congress from anticipating the epoch of 1842, when the existing tariff is to be reduced to the minimum provided by the law of 1832, by revising it for the distinct purpose of retaliation, as above mentioned, whenever Congress might think fit.

The American planters are also fully aware that the periods fixed for the termination of several of our commercial treaties with foreign powers are also approaching; and, unquestionably, in the renewing those treaties, or in the making of new ones, the greatest regard will be had to their favorable operation on the great products of our soil.

The motion of Mr. Senator Renton, the last session of Congress, calling for papers and documents relative to our commercial relations with foreign countries, to be produced at the approaching session, shows that it is intended to examine strictly into the operations of the tariffs of foreign na. tions, in regard to their being more or less favorable to the produce of our country.

The question then at issue is, will the zoll-verein refuse our demand, froin the apprehension of a slight difference in its finances, and of some supposed injury it might do the native cultivation of tobacco (and which apprehension I have shown, in both instances-see pages 103 to 109—to be unfounded)? will the zoll-verein run the risk of ruining thousands of industrious manufacturers, throwing on the world a large mass of men, women, and children, now usefully and industriously employed, crippling for years the rising and now prosperous industry of Germany; or, by granting to us that diminution which we ask, secure to themselves a continuation of the most friendly relations with the United States, and preserve to their manufacturers the all-important markets of our country ?

I have the honor to remain, with sentiments of the highest esteem and respect, your excellency's most obedient servant,

His Excellency HENRY WHEATON,
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

of the United States of America, Berlin.

Mr. Throop to Mr. Forsyth.


· [Despatch No. 6.]

Naples, March 6, 1939.

Tobacco here is a government inonopoly, from which it derives great profit, and which it would relinquish with the greatest reluctance. However small may be the prospect of success, its importance to us makes it worthy of a struggle.

Mr. Throop to Mr. Forsyth.


[Despatch No. 8.]

Naples, May 9, 1839.

eir marte us. Temurn, thato muchemad

I then reminded him, that a treaty should one be made with us, would be so much in their favor; that they had so much to send to us, and we so little of domestic products to return, that I should like to know what equivalent they could give us. That almost our only production of any value, adapted to their market, was tobacco, and that it was now excluded by a monopoly. That it was a subject of deep interest with us, and one which I was especially charged by my Government to press upon their consideration; and I wished to know whether the Government would relinquish the monopoly, or was prepared to make some arrangement by which we should be able to bring them that article.

He answered that we would be able to bring them West India and other foreign productions, and that they would place our commerce with them on the same footing with their own. That tobacco was a source of great revenue to the government, and that it would be utterly hopeless to attempt to induce them to relinquish the monopoly. That we might make some arrangement concerning it as respects Sicily, and a depot, and that we might contract to sell to the Government. That for himself individually he was for a free trade, and was opposed to all monopolies, but that it was impossible to induce the Government to concur in these views. I told him that I should make this a question of importance, and had made these suggestions now, in order that the subject might be under consideration. I added that measures had been taken by Congress to have the state of our commercial relations with foreign Governments before them at their next session, in or. der to adapt our laws to the state of things they might find existing with the several Governments; and that this made me more anxious upon the subject of their tobacco regulations, which operated so severely upon one of our most important staples.

I learn that the exclusive privilege of cultivating and selling tobacco has been sold to Torloni, the banker at Rome, who pays for it an annual sum of one million four hundred thousand ducats. No person plants, or imports, or sells, without his permission.

Mr. Throop to Mr. Forsyth.


[Despatch No. 12.]

NAPLES, September 23, 1839.

As I did not see the Prince of Cassaro yesterday, he called upon me at my house to-day. I explained to him that I had been anxious for some time past, to have a free conversation with him upon the topics in the projet of a treaty which I had submitted to him; and particularly upon that part of it, which relates to a modification of their duties and laws, regulating the introduction into this kingdom, of merchandise, the production of our country. That the few articles we were permitted to bring here, were loaded with duties, ranging from seventy to two hundred per cent, while we imposed moderate duties upon the importation of three or four articles only produced in this kingdom, and admitted every thing else free of duty. That this inequality was unjust and ought to be remedied; but that our importations into this kingdom were so small, that the grievance was nothing compared to the injury which we sustain by their refusal to permit us to traffic in tobacco, one of the most important staples of our country. That this matter was in nowise dependant upon the existing or contemplated treaty with England; and that this Government was entirely free to negotiate with us upon it.

He observed that among the difficulties that surrounded this subject there was this : that the inonopoly of tobacco had been given on contract for a period which had not yet expired, probably by some years. I remarked that this need not prevent our discussing the subject on its intrinsic merits, and, if there was nothing improper in the request, I would be obliged to him if he would furnish me with a memorandum of the unexpired term of the contract, the amount of revenue which the King receives from it, and the amount of tobacco consumed in the kingdom. That, upon this data, I should like to present to his Majesty my views of the policy of a change in his system, with the hope that I should be able to convince him that, opening to us the trade in tobacco would both increase his revenues and promote the industry of his kingdom. I, therefore, proposed that, as a prelim. inary, we should discuss this question. I told him that the trade was now all on one side, and of very little importance to us, unless we could have some further encouragement to come here with our productions. I added, also, that the question was assuming a serious aspect in our country, and that it was agitated in both Houses of Congress, whether it was not our duty to adopt a countervailing tariff against those countries who refuse to admit our tobacco, and give us no other equivalent advantage in trade. He replied that they would be very willing to look over the tariff which affected the importation of our produce, and make reasonable reductions; and that he would very cheerfully furnish me the information I desired, and consent to enter into the preliminary discussion as I proposed; but, he said, the tobacco was a difficult question; that it was an old established source of rev. enue ; and, although he would be very willing to see the monopoly abol. ished, the proposal would be fiercely opposed by the minister of finance; and he feared that I would find insuperable difficulties with the King. Sull, he was willing to give me every facility for making an impression upon his Majesty; he would furnish me with the information as soon as he could collect it, and after a few weeks he would enter upon the subject. I told him that I should not despair of being able to convince his Majesty, as he had shown himself, by his assent to the principles engrafted into the treaty with England, capable of rising above the prejudices in favor of long-established systems, which require reform.

Mr. Throop to Mr. Forsyth.


[Despatch No. 14.]

NAPLES, January 21, 1840.

I asked the Prince of Cassaro if I might take the liberty to call his & ention to my note, requesting information of the state of the tobacco cut

tract; and he replied, that he had the information collected ready for me, and would send it in the course of two days; but I have not yet received


Mr. Heap to Mr. Forsyth.

Tunis, January 8, 1840. SIR: I have the honor, herewith, to transmit a translated copy of a circular issued by his highness, the Bey of Tunis, prohibiting the importation of tobacco into this country; having disposed of the exclusive privilege of trading in this article to one of his subjects, contrary to an article in the treaty made with France in 1830.

The Bey having, within the last two years, greatly increased his military and naval forces, finds that the ordinary revenues of his country are inadequate to meet the consequent increase of his disbursements—has created a number of monopolies; and this has caused great discontent with those interested in the commerce of the country.

With sentiments of the highest consideration, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your most obedient servant,

S. D. HEAP. Hon. John Forsyth, Secretary of State

of the United States, Washington.

Praise to God, to whom all things return. From the servant of God, to whom be praise.

Achmet Bacha, Bey of the Tunisean Government, to our ally Heap, con

sul of the American Government in Tunis. We have made a regulation in our country respecting tobacco, which . it is necessary that we do not receive from other places; and we desire

that you may make this known to all your subjects, that they bring no s tobacco to our country.

To add no more, but peace and happiness.
Written on the 28th of Shawwal, 1255—6th January, 1840.

Mr. Niles to Mr. Forsyth.

Vienna, October 13, 1837. SIR: The interest felt by the Government in the extension of the trade in tobacco, and the intrinsic importance of the subject to a large body of planters, induced me, on my arrival in France on my way hither, to examine, more fully than I had ever before done, into the existing monopoly in that country, the force of opinions and interests for and against its continuance, and the probability of its being done away with, and the trade in this staple commodity of American growth becoming once more free. The interests of the Treasury, and the conflicting representations of various parties for and against the present state of things, induced the Chamber of Deputies, in the year 1835, to appoint a committee to collect facts and documents concerning the culture, the fabrication, and the sale of tobacco, in the kingdom, in regard to the financial interests of the Government, and also those of agricu ture and commerce. With a view of enlightening these important questions, the committee sent forth a first report, containing a great variety of inquiries bearing on the subject, and addressed them to all the societies of agriculture and chambers of commerce in the kingdom, calling for information and opinions from those bodies, as such, and also from individuals composing them. These inquiries were also addressed to some hundreds of intelligent citizens whose positions were thought likely to enable them to furnish use. ful information and sound opinions. It was assumed, however, as a basis of this investigation, that the amount of revenue at present derived from the monopoly of tobacco should be provided for in any new plan that might be proposed as a substitute. The facts and opinions collected from these various sources were being printed in the form of a voluminous report when I left Paris. The able reporter, Monsieur Vivien, kindly promised me two copies, as soon as it should come from the press. Before leaving Paris. I made arrangements with the Baron de Rothschild to receive the two copies. and to forward one of them to the State Department, and the other to me at ! this place. The report, as I learn from Monsieur Vivien, after resuming the facts and reasonings contained in it, leaves the solution of the question as to the propriety of extending the régie, and continuing the cultivation of tobacco, entirely to the Chambers, without any recommendation whatever. The general tendency, however, of the opinions which are suffered to es. cape in the report, rather incline to the policy of bringing the siz depart. ments of France where, and where only, tobacco is at present permitted to be grown, UNDER THE COMMON prohibitory law which applies to the rest of the kingdom. This is precisely the branch of the question which par. ticularly interests the American planters; for it is of little consequence to them, comparatively, to what amount, in any shape, this article is taxed by ! the French Government, provided the tobacco required for the consumption of that country is supplied by us. The superiority of American qualities of tobacco, and the constantly increasing preference given to it in France, for all forms of use, leaves no doubt of our furnishing the chief supplies of this article, as soon as its cultivation is abandoned or prohibited. The suppression of the cultivation of tobacco in France is, therefore, a subject which seems to require the particular attention of our Government at the present time, a moment, in my opinion, very important, since many circumstances concur to render the chances of its accomplishment peculiarly favorable, and of thus securing to our planting interests material advantages, from which we have hitherto been excluded. I will proceed to indicate the leading considera. tions which can be made to favor the total suppression of the cultivation of tobacco in France. The rapid and wide extension of the cultivation of the beet-root, for making sugar, is likely to endanger, at no distant day, the more necessary culture of wheat, and other bread-stuffs. This is a fact of more importance, in relation to the subject of tobacco, than it would appear to be at first sight, and must of itself, before long, predispose the Government to abolish the growth of this plant, whenever a certain supply and an equivalent revenue can be depended upon from any other sources. The redundant finances of our country have enabled us to afford to France and other European silk manufacturing countries the immense advantage of introducing the products of this branch of their industry into our markets

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