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of tobacco are perfectly free, and are treated as any other commercial produce of the soil. The Government neither encourages nor protects it, but at the same time subjects it to no tax, with the exception of one-third of a florin per 100 pounds, when sent out of Hungary. In these tobacco districts they consume none but their own tobacco. The produce of Hungary, one year with the other, may be estimated at 450,000 to 500.000 centners of 123 pounds American each.
Deducting that quantity which is consumed in the country, the bulk of the residue is purchased for the Government contractors for the manufacturers of the rest or second part of the empire, and 50,000 to 60,000 centners are annually exported by speculators for Italy, for ports in the Mediterranean and for Germany.
In other parts of the monarchy tobacco is a prohibited article, and its culture, manufacture, and sale, forbidden, being a Government monopoly.
The Austrian Government supplies all its wants with Hungarian tobacco, but in the finer manufactories of the article, uses a limited quantity of foreign annually, which may be calculated at about 6,000 centners of Virginia, 3,000 centners of Maryland, and 8,000 centners of Levant. In the years 1835 and 1836, the crops having failed in Hungary, large quantities of foreign tobacco were imported, and chiefly of American, but as this was a most unusual circumstance it cannot be taken as a criterion.
After these remarks, the following answers may be given to your ques. tions :
1st. The whole monarchy, including Hungary, consumes about 100,000 centners.
2d. Hungary alone produces tobacco to the amount of 450,000 to 500,000 centners.
3d. The quality of tobacco grown in Hungary is divided into two sorts, dark and light colored. - 4th. The quantity of tobacco annually exported may be calculated at 50,000 to 60,000 centners.
5th. The quality of tobacco exported, called “ seghedin,” is very good for cigars, and for fermented tobacco.
6th. The quantity of foreign introduced into Austria, may be calculated at 9,000 to 10,000 centners from the United States, and 8,000 to 10,000 centners from the Levant.
7th. The Government purchases the tobacco at a much more adrantageous price than they would have to pay for American. It may be estimated that the average annual price is 8 florins per centner, Vienna weight, laid down at the respective manufactories of the empire, which the Government pays for tobacco in bulk.
Sth. Being a Government monopoly, there is no introduction of tobacco farther than that which is brought up by the Government, and on that account there is no duty on it.
9th. As above stated, the traffic of tobacco in Austria is Government property, as it is in France, and is considered as an indirect tax. The bulk of the tobacco exported, being through the port of Trieste, in the leaf, you will find in a note of the quantities exported from hence and to where, during the year 1836. The articles of Austrian produce, sent through this port to the United States, are noted at port. On other points specified in your letter, I have not been able to collect information suiiciently authentic to merit communication.
I have the honor to be, &c.
· Note of tobacco exported through the port of Trieste in 1836.
193 174 73 73 13
To Alexandria, centners of 123 pounds American
do. - To Hanse Towns, do.
do. To Greece,
do. To Turkey in Asia, do. To Turkey in Europe,
do. To England,
do. To Gibraltar,
do. To Ionian islands, do.
do. To Malta,
do. To Sardinia,
do. To Spain,
2,100 2,100 (150
10 - 32,606 - 2,224
Note of the Austrian produce sent to the United States in 1836. Wine produced in Hungary and other parts of the empire, 151 packages. Whether that which was exported was Austrian growth or not, I have not the means of ascertaining.
Rosolio, principally Maraskino of Zara, 196 boxes.
Ironmongery, such as scythes, files, harps, &c., from Carniola, Carinthia, and Styria, 318 packages.
Steel, from Carniola, 1,300 boxes..
Mr. Moore to Mr. Niles.
TRIESTE, December 3, 1837. MY DEAR SIR: In continuation of my letter of yesterday : American tobacco is admitted into the ports of Venice and Trieste, whether in a natural or manufactured state, and can be received into the merchant's
ernment store of all de la color nor ar
store; but under double keys, one of which is to be delivered to the tobacco department; with the exception of cigars, which must always be deposited in the Government stores, but free from any charge of store rent. Very small parcels of tobacco of all descriptions must also be de. posited in the Government stores. Neither tobacco nor any other article must be re-exported within any fixed time. Foreign cigars may be taken from the deposite store by a box or two at a time for private use, but not for resale, paying a duty of two florins, convention money, per Vienna pound; and the office gives the parties a certificate to accompany the cigars. The cities of Venice and Trieste, though free from duties in in other respects, are subject to the same regulations as the rest of the empire. With regard to tobacco and salt, this latter can only be deposited in the Government stores. Tobacco has been so very seldom received here from the United States, that from actual experience I can say little about it. I have been upward of twenty-two years established at Trieste, and, in the whole of that period, have received but one parcel of Maryland tobacco—9 hhds., weighing gross 8,576 pounds, and net 7,668 pounds; which arrived here in October, 1836; the freight on which was $7 per hhd. After sending samples to Venice, and keeping it here upward of five months, without obtaining an offer, I shipped it off to Malta, where, I believe, it is still unsold.
I am persuaded that little or no tobacco coming from the United States is smuggled into Austria, beyond a trifle that sailors may occasionally bring on shore in their pockets, and an occasional box of Havana segars for private use.
I have no means of ascertaining the difference in value between Hangarian and American tobacco; but at Vienna you might learn this from Messrs. Hamety & Co., who, I believe, have been the principal contractors; and also from Baron Sina, the banker.
They have in Hungary various qualities of tobacco to suit the different ways of manufacturing, whether for smoking, snuff, or chewing; but in this latter mode there is very little consumption in Austria Were the monopoly removed, and a moderate rate of duty substituted, of course the consumption of tobacco would be greatly increased ; but to what extent, it is impossible to say.
With the exception above mentioned, the natural or manufactured products of the United States are admitted to consumers in Trieste and Venice, free from any duty; but manufactures of all descriptions are prohibited to be sent into the interior, save nankeens, upon payment of 40 kreutzers per lb.
Cotton twist, at 15 kreutzers per 100 lbs.
Whale oil I have never known to be sent here. Cod-fish oil used formerly to be frequently sent from Boston ; but it appears it did not answer, as of late very little has been sent.
There is a trifling consumption of spermaceti candles from America at Trieste, which is gradually increasing. They may be sent into the interior, paying 17 kreutzers per net Vienna lb.
In this neighborhood and in Italy, Italian rice is preferred. In Hungary and Germany, the preference is given to Carolina; the duty is 54 kreutzers per centner, as the price of American rice is in some measure reg. ulated by the price of Italian. I believe, on an average, the shipments
from America, which have seldom exceeded a few hundred casks in the course of the year, have not turned to account.
In the course of next week, I propose again having the honor to pay you my respects, and, in the meantime, remain, My dear sir, &c., &c.,
GEO. MOORE. Mr. Niles.
Mr. Niles to Mr. Forsyth.
VIENNA, May 10, 1838. Sir: The late inundation in Pest, which occurred on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of March, totally destroyed 2,200 houses, and seriously injured 800 more; so much so that 300 of them will require to be rebuilt. 1,400 houses, only, remain uninjured. The ground on which the city was built is of sand, on a deep clay bottom. The buildings swept away were, for the most part, inhabited by the poorer classes, and were originally erected on this sandy foundation, of a single story, carried up a second and a third story, as their inhabitants increased in wealth. They were constructed, for the most part, of bricks baked in the sun, but not burnt. Previous to the rivers overflowing and breaking through the dikes, the water had penetrated the town through the common sewers, washing away the sandy foundations of the houses destroyed, and softening the underground clay-baked materials of which they were built. When an impetuous current of water, from 12 to 15 feet deep, swept through the city, all the houses of this description crumbled in ruins, and were carried away. The buildings remaining uninjured, were erected on piles or on foundations of brick and stone, carried down through the sandy to the clay bottom.
This disaster took place during a public fair, and a vast quantity of the products of Hungary, which had been stored on the public squares and, in magazines were totally lost or materially injured. I have taken con. siderable pains to ascertain the quantity of tobacco injured or destroyed, and, from the best information I have been able to obtain from correspondents on the spot, on whom I can rely, the amount cannot be less than 35,000 or 40,000 quintals, without including losses sustained in other places.
This circumstance will probably impose upon the régie the necessity, or rather furnish it with an apology for supplying itself with a greater proportion than usual of foreign tobacco. Indeed, I happen to know the house of Godfroy, of Hamburg, is now in treaty with the régie for the supply of a considerable amount of Maryland leaf,
The constantly increasing taste for Havana and American cigars, has of late years, alimented a considerable illicit trade in that article from Hamburg, by, the Elbe, and over land, through Saxony:
A few months ago a member of the house of Godfroy before mentioned obtained of this Government a permission to import and sell foreign cigars as specimens, on the payment of 300 florins the quintal, or nearly $1 50 the pound. This establishment has sold more than 100,000 foreign
cigars within the last three months, notwithstanding this very heavy duty. One of the motives for granting Mr. Godfroy the exclusive privilege he enjoys, was to furnish the higher classes with a legitimate means of gratifying their taste for foreign cigars, and at a rate, though onerous, which should prevent smuggling. But the preference for cigars over the pipe, and particularly West India and American cigars, is becoming so general that the smuggling is still carried on to so great an extent that Mr. God. froy says he cannot successfully compete with the contraband trade while he is obliged to pay the present enormous duty. . .
He has, therefore, made a statement of his case to the Government, and demands reduction of the duty to one half or more of its present amount, as affording the only means by which he can continue to sustain his establishment.
The opportunity which Mr. Godfroy's privilege affords of essentially modifying the public taste by the supply of the richer and fashionable class with foreign cigars, has induced me to aid his schemes by my personal representations near those individuals, who have it in their power to promote his objects. The minister of finances, with whom I had an interview on the 3d instant, confidentially informed me that he should accord to Mr. Godfroy a reduction of duty to the amount of about half the sum he is now required to pay. * He also promised me to limit the authority for the importation of cigars, under the mitigated rates of duty, to such as might come from ports in the United States. This exception in favor of cigars of American manufacture, or coming through our ports, would be an object of some importance, if it could be carried into effect in regard to the importations by the Elbe and over land, as well as by the ports of the Adriatic.
Although the minister, on my suggestion, has promised to adopt this course, in granting a reduction on the importation of foreign cigars under the exclusive privilege of Mr. Godfroy, I apprehend the concessionary will successfully object to such terms. It is the intention of Mr. Godfroy to apply for the privilege of importing American snuff as soon as he is secure of the reduction on cigars. That product of our industry would find a very extensive market in this empire, if it could be introduced even at a rate that would limit its consumption to the higher classes. In anticipation of the demand to be made by Mr. Godfroy, I have urged upon the persons before alluded to, as well as the minister of finances, the policy of admitting our superior qualities of snuff ; and I am disposed to believe, with the influences Mr. Godfroy will bring to bear on his application when it is presented, that he will succeed in obtaining an exclusive right to import and sell this form of foreign manufactured tobacco also.
Although the attention which has been directed to the administration of the regie of tobacco of late, has left a very general belief, as well with the Government as with the public, that it has long been conducted more with a view to private, than to public benefit, and that the general interest as well as that of the Government requires that some other mode of raising a sum on the consumption of tobacco equal to the limited revenue it now furnishes should be substituted; yet, as the mere eristence of any institution in this empire is almost an irresistible title to its continuance, it may sus
* Mr. Godfroy believes he will be able to sell ten millions at least, of American cigars, per annum in this city alone, under a reduction of half the present duty.