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will become criminals, without some preventive agency intervene, we give the following details in proof:Children both parents being dead
boys 22 girls 13 mothers only alive .
7 deserted by parents
6 having worthless parents
21 » parents alive, but sick and disabled
12 motherless ; drunken or worthless fathers alive
1 fatherless; drunken or worthless mothers alive
1 motherless,-father in prison
2 sent by the parish authorities
1 step-mother only
1 mother only alive, but blind
1 mother only alive, but in prison
In the Industrial department the first germ of reformation is generally brought to light. It has been again and again proved, that the best way of insuring honesty in the man, is to encourage industry in the child. Everything, therefore, that can be done to make work attractive has been adopted by the Committee. In the course of the past year a new variety of employment has been provided for the children. Besides the usual occupations of making and printing paper bags, picking bristles, etc., a piece of ground, rather more than an acre, was taken at Everton, in the spring of the
year. This has been cultivated by the boys, and, although the Committee cannot şay it has proved profitable in a pecuniary point of view, still some sales of vegetables have been made, and a large quantity grown for the use of the establishment. But it was not with a view to the money-profit that the garden was taken--the object was something higher-it was to coax and induce idle boys to become workers, by seeing the result of their own labours ; and, through the pleasing work of gardening, to humanize, as a step towards Christianizing, the “City Arabs” and the “Home Heathen.” This experiment, so far, has proved most successful. The following table shows how the children have been industrially occupied :Number of boys employed in the printing room
6 in making paper bags
26 in tailor's room
The elder boys are engaged in almost all the above occupations by turns. Number of girls employed in making up clothing, to be sold at a reduced price
14 in making corn sample-bags, etc.
20 in washing and household work
12 as door-keepers, etc.
The elder girls
are engaged in almost all the above occupations by turns. In the course of the year the girls have made the following articles :—156 shirts, and 30 blouses for the boys. For their own use they have made 120 chemises,
71 aprons, 60 pinafores, 31 frocks, a quantity of sheets, towels, and pocket handker
chiefs. The boys have continued to make and mend their clogs, jackets, and trow, sers. Now, independent of all this labour, in which the children have been engaged for the benefit of themselves personally, the Treasurer's account shows that £104.78. 7d. actual profit has been received for work done in the school.
In rather more than three years 112 boys and 52 girls have passed through the schools and placed out in situations.
Every Sunday afternoon a member of the Committee attends the school to meet the “Place Boys.” Sometimes more than twenty are present. Advice and instruction is given, thrift is encouraged by the establishment of a Savings' Barik; and by such means it is endeavoured to water the good seed sown, that fruit, in due season, may be reaped. Several boys have been sent to sea, many of whom, on their return to port, visit the schools on Sundays.
To make the Institution still more efficient, the Committee have had under their consideration the desirableness of having, in connection with it, a vessel moored in the river, where those lads who evince a predilection for sea may be trained as sailors,
The increasing scarcity of seamen, and the disappointments which ship-owners and masters experience in boys who go to sea without any knowledge whatsoever of their duties, lead the Committee to believe that, independent of the benefit to be conferred on the boys themselves, such an establishment afloat, if worked aright, would form not only a great boon to the ship-owner particular, but to the Liverpool community at large. The Committee, in the present state of their funds, would not be warranted in adopting, at once, such an experiment; they therefore merely throw out the sug. gestion. If the public will support them with adequate means, they are prepared to do their part in endeavouring to procure the ship.
The following Resolutions were adopted at the Meeting :
1st.-" That the Liverpool Industrial Ragged Schools are continuing completely to answer the end for which they were established ; viz., to give destitute, and even criminal children, at least a prospect of becoming honest, industrious, and useful members of society."
2nd.—“That the industrial training and diversity of employment provided in the schools and garden are found peculiarly attractive and beneficial to this class of children ; and that a ship moored in the river, wherein some of the boys might be trained as seamen, would, in all probability, prove a most valuable auxiliary to the Institution.”
3rd.—“That application be forthwith made to the Lords of the Admiralty, praying them to grant a hulk for that purpose, provided the Committee can show that the Liverpool public will supply funds for the support of the same.”
EDINBURGH ORIGINAL RAGGED AND INDUSTRIAL
SCHOOLS. The Annual Meeting of this Institution was recently held, when the im. mense Music Hall of the northern capital was densely crowded in every part. A highly interesting Report was read, of which the following were some of the particulars :
“ The Report states that the number of children admitted into the schools during the year was 157, which, with the number on the roll at 31st December, 1851, 302, made a total of 459. Of this number, there were 156 boys, 126 girls, and 177 infants. One of the tables in the Report, illustrating the principle of taking up the children before they had reached the age of ten years, showed that while, in 1847, 204 of the children in the school were above, and 175 children below, ten years of age, the latter class had, in 1852, decreased to 121, and the former class had increased to 338. Tables are given in the Report showing the kind of education and progress of the pupils. The Report adverted favourably to the skill and energy of the teachers, the diligence of the pupils
, and the discipline of the School. The discipline that prevails in the School is excellent, “ being such as (to use the language of two most competent authorities,—the Rev. George Vavidson and Mr. James Fulton, the rectors of the two normal schools in Edinburgh) could obtain only in schools pervaded, as the Original Ragged and Industrial School is, by the influence of a sound and thorough
Scripture training." Dr. Woodford, one of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, in his general Report to the Committee of Council on Education, for 1851-1852, bears his testimony to the admirable management of the Schools. "Dr. Woodford states that in the five years “ during which the School has been in operation, 216 of the mere off-scouring of the streets [the number now is 242] of whom 78 in 112 could neither read nor write when admitted, have been rescued from vice and misery, and are now engaged in honest, industrious, and thriving occupations." The Report then adverts to the soundness of the principle of making the Bible the basis of education in the School ; and to show the proficiency of the children in superficial knowledge, states that some of the scholars had competed for and carried off six prizes given by & gentleman in London, to be competed for by the children in all the Ragged Schools in the United Kingdom. The industrial department had been conducted with as much vigour and success as the educational. There were ten boys employed in tailoring, five in shoemaking, four in carpentering, thirty in box-making, fifteen in brace-making, and forty young boys in hair-teasing and other simple work. Sixtyfive girls were learning to knit, and ninety-two to sew. Forty-two had taken their turn in washing, forty-two were able for kitchen work, and sixty had taken their turn in cleaning the school-rooms. Three girls were employed daily in assisting in the kitchen, twenty-four in washing the rooms three times a week, and twenty in washing their own and the boys' school clothes once a-week. The boys and girls were employed in these branches of industry three hours a-day. All the clothing was made and repaired by the children. The Report next states that twenty-six children who left the school have during the year got employment ; sixteen are said to be working ; thirty-two were sent to parishes on which they had a claim; nine had gone to higher schools ; thirteen had gone to Roman Catholic schools ; thirty-nine had deserted, and would not return ; twenty-three had left Edinburgh ; and four had died. The number of children who had, since the commencement, obtained employment out of the schools was, in 1847, 35; in 1848, 45 ; in 1849, 50; in 1850, 50 ; in 1851, 36; in 1852, 26 ; total, 242. There were at present very few children above twelve in the school, excepting those sent by the magistrate, and the diminution in the number who had gone to employment was the result of endeavouring to get the children at as early an age as possible. On the subject of the ultimate disposal of the pupils, the following minute had been come to by the Committee of the Directors : “ The Committee, finding that an outlet for the children is required, and having anxiously considered what that outlet ought to be, are of opinion, --1st, That emigration is that which is most likely to be permanently available ; 2d, That all that the Directors of Ragged Schools, as such, can do, is to endeavour to induce some party, say the Government, to take up the case of the Ragged School children where the Directors of Ragged Schools of necessity must lay it down. But fourteen years of age is that at which the children are dismissed, and this is perhaps too early an age for individuals to commence to labour as emigrants. The Committee, therefore, think that an additional period should be spent, either at home or abroad, in extending their education, and in special training for the occupation which is to engage them in the colonies.” The Report proceeded to say,—"The Directors would again earnestly commend this subject to public attention, for they are well assured that removal from the scene of early association is the safest and best way to provide for children educated and trained in Ragged Industrial Schools. This mode of providing for the children has been tried on a limited scale, and with entire success. During the last two years fourteen girls and one boy have been sent to New Zealand and America. It
may be observed that these girls were not selected on account of any peculiar fitness, but simply because they were of a suitable age, and willing to emigrate. The sum required for the purpose of emigration is not extravagant. Îf America is chosen as the place to which the children should be sent, £200 would suffice to send thirty of them to that country, fully equipped. We fear that the whole of this sum would not be expended the first year, for there is a serious barrier to overcome, to wit, the unwillingness of parents to allow their children to emigrate. A prejudice, and in very many cases a worse reason, causes these people to oppose the emigration of their children.' Judicious management alone will overcome this." The Report concludes with an abstract of accounts, that, including £1,715 of donations, £89, the proceeds of work done at schools, and a balance of £160 from last year, etc., the entire receipts for the year were £2,050. 78. 8d.
RAGGED CHURCHES WHO WILL HELP?
“ March 7th, 1853. “Sir,—Observing in the Ragged School Magazine of this month, a suggestion for providing 'Ragged Churches or Chapels for the preaching of the Gospel to the very poor,'- '-an object which I have had some time in view—and which I am of opinion would prove of the greatest benefit, and be an excellent auxiliary to the Ragged School, and which I feel very desirous to promote.
“I write to say, that should a subscription be set on foot either for the purpose of renting suitable places in proper localities for the purpose, or of building the same, I am willing to give £10, and Mr. R— another £10 towards the same, in the hope that it may be an inducement for others to come forward in a similar way.
“I would suggest that the place should be as plain as possible, with a view to comfort and convenience, with benches instead of pews, and should be appropriated exclusively to the poorest of the poor. I am, Sir, yours respectfully,
“J. R., A Subscriber."
RAGGED SCHOOL SHOP.
To the Editor of the Ragged School Union Magazine. " Sir,—The proposition to establish a Shop for the sale of the products of our In• dustrial Classes, and of all other articles pertaining to Ragged Schools, was made in your pages about six months ago, but I could find no one to second the suggestion. This useful addition to our means of employing the poor, and disposing of the results of their labour, is, however, now in operation ; and although the depôt or shop is of course at present only in its youngest infancy, yet, if your readers will support it by sending articles for sale, and buyers to buy, there is no doubt but that a very general want will be supplied, by finding a central place for all materials connected with Ragged Schools.
Firewood, at 24 bundles for 1s., is the first article which we have resolved to commence business with ; and this may now be had at “The Ragged School Shop," No. 5, Crown Court, Chancery Lane.
HILL STREET REFUGE AND NURSERY.
February 26th, 1853. “Sir, — Recently the friends of the Huntsworth Mews and Hill Street Ragged Schools, Refuge, Infant Nursery and Laundry, held a sale of ladies' useful and ornamental work in Edward Street, Portman Square, in aid of the funds of this valuable establishment. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather the attendance on both days was numerous, and the result of this effort was very encouraging to all interested in its success. In one room was placed a small printing-press, (kindly lent for the occasion,) and a boy from the school was busily employed in printing off some appropriate verses, the production of the well-known pen of J. Payne, Esq., entitled, “An Appeal to those who can Feel.' Altogether the scene was an animated one,
kindly expressed themselves much gratified. No band was in attendance-a frequent accompaniment on such occasions—but early in the day were heard the happy voices of the youthful inmates of the Refuge, singing heartily the National Anthem.
“The Committee have every reason to 'thank God and take courage,' but while grateful for past mercies they are anxious for the future, and desire to increase the number of girls in the Refuge, which has been circumscribed on account of the low state of the funds.
“Connected with the Refuge is an Infant Nursery and a Public Laundry, which afford a variety of employment for the girls and prepare them for service; but these different branches cannot be carried on without much pecuniary aid, and it is earnestly hoped that many hearts may be inclined to give liberally, and that this important institution may not languish for want of means.
“The public are respectfully requested to inspect the whole establishment, and are invited to come over and help us.'
“I remain, Sir, your obedient servant,
“A MEMBER OF THE COMMITTEE." [It affords us much pleasure to inform our readers in general, and our friends in particular who aided the Bazaar here referred to, that the proceeds of the sales during the two days amounted to about £230, which gives the Committee great encouragement to carry on with vigour their useful labours.—ED.]
POWER OF A MOTHER'S NAME.
A YOUNG MAN ENTERING PRISON, A WRITER in the Boston Times describes a visit to a penitentiary at Philadelphia, and gives the following sketch of an interview between Mr. Scattergood, the humane warden of the prison, and a young man who was about to enter on his imprisonment. Few will read it without deep emotion.
We passed on to the ante-room again, where we encountered a new comer, who had just reached the prison as we entered. He had been sent up for five years on a charge of embezzlement.
He was attired in the latest style of fashion, and possessed all the nonchalance and careless appearance of a genteel rowdy. He twirled his watch chain, looking particularly knowing at a couple of ladies who chanced to be present, and seemed utterly indifferent about himself or the predicament he was placed in. The warden read his commitment, and addressed him with,
* Charles, I am sorry to see thee here.”—“It can't be helped, old fellow.”
“Matter of opinion.”
Well, so so.” " And thee has parents ?” “ Yes."
Perhaps thee has a mother, Charles ? " The convict had been standing during the brief dialogue, perfectly unconcerned and reckless, until this last interrogatory was put. Had a thunderbolt struck him, he could not have fallen more suddenly than he did when the name of “mother” fell on
He sank into a chair-a torrent of tears gushed from his eyes—the very fountain of his heart seemed to have burst on the instant. He recovered partially, and said imploringly to the warden :