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certain products of decomposition are peculiar to certain organs and tissues, and which are the products met with in all, or almost all, the organs. Referring to the essay itself for the method of examination, we mention only 1. That the lungs of oxen yielded uric acid, inosite, taurin (which Cloëtta considers to be the substance mistaken by Verdeil for pulmonic acid), and leucin, but no glycin and tyrosin; 2. The kidneys of oxen contained, according to the first analysis, a large amount of inosite, cystin, and a small proportion of either xanthin or hypoxanthin, the quantity of the latter having been too minute to allow a distinction between these two bodies. A second analysis of the kidney of an ox manifested the same indefinite body, no cystin, but a large quantity of taurin; a circumstance which suggests the hypothesis, that these two bodies (viz., cystin and taurin) may sometimes take each other's place; 3. Neither in the urine of cows, nor in the normal urine of man, was inosite found; it was discovered, however, in that of a woman suffering from Bright's disease; 4. In the spleen the author proved the presence of inosite (in a similar quantity as in the lungs), of uric acid, hypoxanthin, leucin, and two other substances, the nature of which was not ascertained. Scherer's lienin is considered by Cloëtta as identical with inosite. 5. The liver of oxen contained as well uric acid as inosite. 6. Only a single examination of the blood of the jugular veins was performed, which did not show the presence of either of the two last-named substances.
Délore defends the correctness of Bernard's inferences regarding the formation of sugar in the liver; against the views propounded by Figuier. * He further corroborates the fact observed by Bernard, † that formation of sugar takes place in the liver, even after this organ has been most carefully washed out. He shows by experiment that the transformation of the glycogenic substance into sugar is not influenced either by electricity or by an atmosphere of pure oxygen, but that it is arrested by an atmosphere of hydrogen. In one of Délore's experiments, the formation of sugar lasted six days.
Chauveau communicated to the Académie des Sciences a series of experi, ments, perforined as well on herbivorous animals provided with their usual food, as also on dogs fed exclusively on meat. He found sugar in the larger vessels even after several days' (one to six) abstinence from food; the arterial blood of the same animal contained the same proportion of sugar from whatever vessel it was taken; the veins of the various parts of the body, too, with the exception of the vena hepatica and the lower part of the vena cava, and of the vena portæ during the digestion of food, rich in sugar or starch, exhibited no remarkable difference regarding the per-centage of sugar in their blood. The following are the inferences arrived at by the author : 1. There does not exist any essential diversity between herbivorous and carnivorous animals regarding the sugar contained in their nutritive fluids, but the quantity of sugar is rather larger in the former than in the latter; 2. The sugar contained in the blood of the right heart is not destroyed in its passage through the lungs, but is transmitted unchanged into the left heart, and from thence into the aorta ; 3. A certain amount of the sugar of the arterial blood disappears during the circulation through the capillaries, but part of this returns through the lymphatics to the right heart; 4. The large quantity of sugar in the blood of the hepatic vcin, contrasted with its absence in that of the portal vein of animals deprived of food, or exclusively fed on meat, is a certain proof in favour of the formation of sugar within the liver.
Hensen's memoirs contain the results of his researches, made at Würzburg, in Scherer's laboratory. By the former of the two, the author does not only corroborate Bernard's discovery, already mentioned, regarding the presence of
• See British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, No. 33, p. 282. 1856.
Ibid., No. 35, p. 232. 1856.
a glycogenic substance within the tissue of the liver, but he throws further light on the nature of this substance by the observation, that saliva and pancreatic extract materially accelerate the transformation into sugar. The experiments made, with the view to examine whether, perhaps, the ferment contained in the pancreatic juice is absorbed by the portal vein, and thus carried into the liver, do not allow of any decided conclusion
In the second memoir, Hensen claims the merit of having isolated, independently of Bernard, the glycogenic substance of the liver. It appears certain that he has exhibited this substance before the Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, at Würzburg, in December, 1856, and again in Virchow's and Hoppe's Pathological Institution on the 1st of April, 1857; but the great French physiologist has the advantage in his favour of having first published an account of the nature of this substance, and of the manner in which it is to be obtained. As we have not yet received Bernard's publication, contained in the “Gazette Médicale' of March 28th, we will defer our communication, as well on Bernard's as on Hensen's paper, to the next Report.
Bérard endeavours to disprove the correctness of Bernard's view, contained in the following words : "Le foie de l'homme, à l'exception de tous les autres tissus du corps, renferme de la matière sucrée.” Bérard found sugar in the chyle of a bull fed exclusively on meat; he found this not only in the fluid of the thoracic duct, but also in the contents of a large chyliferous vessel situated on the mesenteric artery, thus showing that the sugar of the fluid examined was not derived by communication with the lymphatics of the liver. Bérard infers from this observation, that the sugar is not exclusively formed in the liver, and proposes, for further investigation, the questions,—whether not independently of the liver, sugar is constantly being formed in all parts of the body, and conveyed through the lymphatics to the centre of the circulation; and whether there does not exist, besides this constant production of sugar, another one of an intermittent, but much more active, nature under the influence of digestion.
V. Nervous System. 1. CHAUVEAU : New Experimental Inrestigations on the Properties of the Spinal
Marrow. (L'Union Méd., Nos. 61, 62, 66; 1857.) 2. KÖLLIKER : On the Vitality of the Nerre-Fibres of Frogs. (Verhandl. d.
Würzb. Gesellschaft., vol. vii. p. 145, 1856; and Schmidt's Jahrb., vol. xcii.
p. 145, 1857.) 3. FLOURENS : On the Sensibility of the Dura Mater, the Ligaments, and the
Periosteum. (L'Union Méd., tome xi. No. 53, 1857.) 4. SAMUEL: On the Ertirpation of the Plexus Cæliacus. (Wien. Med. Wochen
schrift, No. 30, 1856 ; and Schmidt, vol. xciii. p. 146, 1857.)
Chauveau, the distinguished professor at the Veterinary College at Lyons, whose observations on the movements and sounds of the heart we have related in the last Report on Physiology, has recently communicated to the Académie des Sciences the results of his experiments, performed on more than a hundred horses, asses, and mules, as also on many dogs and rabbits, regarding the nature of the spinal marrow. Although we have not yet before us the conclusion of the author's lectures, we will give the principal inferences as far as we are acquainted with them. 1. The grey substance of the spinal marrow is the conducting organ of the reflex phenomena. The posterior, as well as the antero-lateral white columns, may be dissected without the loss of the reflex function ; but as soon as the grey substance of any part of the spinal marrow is thoroughly destroyed, no reflex action is observed to transgress that point, either from above downwards, or in the opposite direction. Thus, for instance, the grey substance having been destroyed in the middle of the dorsal
portion of the spinal marrow, pricking of the anterior limbs would cause reflex action in those limbs themselves, but none in the posterior limbs; and pricking of the posterior limbs would never cause any reflex motion in the front part of the body-i.e., in that part which is provided by the portion of the spinal marrow above the section of the grey substance. 2. The grey substance of the spinal marrow has nothing to do with the transmission of peripheric impressions to the encephalon. Thus this substance may be completely destroyed in the cervical portion, and yet the animal retain its sensibility undisturbed. 3. The achite columns of the spinal marrow are the means of conveying the sensitive impressions to the brain. 4. The posterior of these columns do not form the principal organs for the transmission of sensitive impressions.
It will be seen from this preliminary report, that Chauveau is in opposition to Brown-Séquard in a most important point-namely, in denying that the grey substance conducts the sensitive impressions. Chauveau explains this discrepancy between Brown-Séquard's results and his own, by the supposition that Brown-Séquard has interpreted reflex motions as signs of pain. At the same time it will be observed, that our author is in accordance with the just named physiologist on a point of not less importance-viz., in asserting that our views regarding the posterior columns, as fulfilling the function of transmitting sensitive impressions to the brain, are entirely erroneous.
Kölliker gives the result of his experiments on the influence of various solutions and fluids on the irritability of the nerves of frogs. ]. In water, and in diluted solutions of the salts of alkalies, as also in those of various indiffe. rent organic substances, as sugar, urea, and albumen, the nerves swell and lose their irritability within from one to three hours. 2. In solutions of these substances, of a certain degree of concentration, the nerves do not swell, and retain their irritability for a long time. 3. In still more concentrated solutions they shrink and die off more or less rapidly. 4. The degree of concentration keeping up the irritability longest varies in different salts. Thus culinary salt, in a solution of one-half per cent., preserves the irritability for twenty-five hours; in a solution of 9 per cent. for an hour. 5. The application of some salts, in solutions of a certain strength, causes convulsions, and even tetanus (culinary salt, in solutions of 4-5 per cent., convulsions ; of 20-30 per cent., tetanus). 6. Nerves that have lost their irritability in water or weak solutions, regain it in stronger solutions. 7. Nerves deprived of irritability by stronger solutions regain it by the application of water and weak solutions. 8. Nerves allowed to become dry (a process accompanied by active contractions of the respective muscles), may, by means of water, be restored to irritability after having completely lost it. 9. The author concludes that the neurine is not possessed of high physiological importance, as even after its coagulation the irritability of the nerve-fibres may continue. He considers himself, therefore, entitled to the inference, that the axis-cylinder is the only conducting part of the nerve-fibre. He adduces, however, no decided proof that the neurine has been really coagulated in those fibres which retained their irritability.
While Haller, after numerous experiments, considered the dura mater as perfectly insensible, Flourens found it, in the normal state, likewise so, with the exception of dogs, in whom he found it sometimes to be possessed of sensibility; but in the state of irritation and inflammation, the latter author describes the dura mater as constantly highly sensitive, while the layer of the brain immediately underneath it remained completely insensible. In the same manner, Flourens infers from his experiments that the ligaments, the tendons, and the periosteum, are altogether insensible when in their normal state, but that they become very sensitive as soon as irritation or inflammation is set up in them." From these observations, Flourens is inclined to attribute to the dura mater, the tendons, ligaments, and periosteum, during the state of health, a latent sensibility, and to reject the view of the existence of any completely insensible organ in the animal body.
Samuel found in his experiments, performed on rabbits, dogs, and cats: Ist. That the hyperæmia of the intestinal mucous membrane, produced by the extirpation of the plexus cæliacus, is so great that it exceeds all pathological hyperæmias hitherto known, even that from cholera. By comparing this result with those of other experiments, the author considers himself entitled to assert, that this hyperæmia cannot be attributed to the peritonitis caused by the operation, the less so as it does not extend to the lower parts of the intestines. 2nd. That the secretion of the mucous membrane becomes in. creased by the extirpation of the plexus, but not to the same degree as this is the case in violent diarrhæa, and much less so than in cholera. The complication with peritonitis, the section of the ramifications of the pneumogastric nerves entering into the formation of the plexus, and the hyperæmia of the liver, may be considered as influences lessening the secretion."
The results of Iaschkowitz's experiments on the influence of section of the plexus lienalis on the structure of the spleen, are related under III. of the present Report.
VI. SEXUAL PHENOMENA. DELAFOND : On certain Physiological Phenomena connected with Parturition
and Lactation in Bitches that have not been l'ecundated when in Heat. (L'Union Méd., tome xi. No. 61, 1857.) Delafond directs the attention of the Académie de Médecine to several phenomena deserving further examination. He corroborates the observation made already by the great Harvey on doe-rabbits, and by Buffon on bitches, that the breasts of animals which have not been fecundated when in heat sometimes become turgescent, and secrete milk at the time when the parturition would take place if the animals had become pregnant. The author observed the commencement of the turgescence in bitches already two or three weeks before the term of the pregnancy would have been elapsed. In addition to this, the author witnessed, at the period when the parturition would have occurred, enlargement and swelling of the vulva, and increased viscous secretion of the mucous membrane of the vagina; he even saw the animal in a restless state arranging a resting-place, as if for an expected process of whelping; a few days later he discovered the symptoms of milk-fever, and the bitch in this state allowed a puppy placed underneath her to suck her breast, she bestowed on it the same signs of affection as if it had been her own, and the young animal was evidently thriving by the nourishment it thus received. Leblanc, Roche, and Moreau, who took part in the discussion on the subject, related observations of their own of a similar nature, and Roche mentioned that Dubois had met with analogous phenomena in women.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON PATHOLOGY AND MEDICINE.
By EDWARD H. SIEVEKING, M.D.
and Physician to St. Mary's Hospital.
I. AFFECTIONS OF THE Nervous SYSTEM.
Médicale, March 14th, 1857.) In the Academy of Sciences, March 2nd, 1857, M. Leudet reports four cases which had fallen under his observation, and which tended to show that lesion of the brain may be productive of glycosuria.
Case 1.-A female, aged thirty-two, in the sixth month of pregnancy, suddenly lost the sight of the left eye, without any other symptom of paralysis. Headache and vomiting supervened at the same time. Seven months and a half later there were sudden symptoms of coma, which lasted for a day, leaving paralysis of the third and fifth pairs of nerves of the left side, facial left-sided anæsthesia, great thirst, and general symptoms of diabetes. By the aid of Barreswill's test, the presence of sugar was proved in the urine. Under the use of iodide of potassium the paralysis diminished, and the liabetes disappeared. A temporary relapse in regard to the cerebral symptoms occurred five months later, when no sugar was discovered in the urine.
CASE 2.—A female, aged fifty-three, was suddenly seized with right-sided hemiplegia, depending upon cerebral lesion, and accompanied by epileptiform attacks; the power of notion was restored, particularly on the affected side ; two years after these apoplectic seizures, diabetes manifested itself; there was sugar in the urine; a year later, albuminuria and a state of general cachexia set in.
CASE 3.—A female, aged eighty, was suddenly seized with hemiplegia of the left side; at the end of eighteen months she suffered from intense thirst, sugar was found in the urine by Moore's and Barreswill's tests; humid gangrene of the right foot and death followed.
Case 4.- A female, aged thirty-nine, was seized at the sixth month of uterogestation with paraplegia and convulsions. These symptoms gradually dis. appeared ; vertigo remained. Six years later there were frequent hæmorrhages, dyspepsia, and finally diabetes mellitus. Variola supervened, which proved
We think these cases fairly open to criticism, inasmuch as, with exception of the first case, the period intervening between the occurrence of cerebral symptoms and of the appearance of sugar in the urine, was so long as to justify a doubt as to the causal relation of the former. In the first case, the fact of sugar being discovered at the time of the first apoplectic seizure confirms the observation of M. Blot of its presence in the urine of all females under those circumstances, while its absence at the time of the relapse tends to prove that there was no relation between the glycosuria and the cerebral symptoms in the first instance. We have ourselves shown that in epilepsy the presence of glycosuria is at least an event of very rare occurrence, since in fourteen cases of epilepsy in which we have examined the urine for sugar, we have failed to discover it.
Clinical Studies and Observations on Cerebral Rheumatism. By Dr. ADOLPIIE
GUBLER, Physician to the Beaujon Hospital, &c. (Archives Générales de Médecine, March, 1857.
It is well known that in by far the majority of cases of rheumatic fever accompanied by cerebral symptoms, delirium, mania, stupor, coma, or convul. sions which prove fatal, no post-mortem lesion is found to indicate local disease within the cranium. Dr. Watson, * among others, goes fully into this question, and details some interesting cases, showing how this class of symptoms may be due solely to the sympathetic irritation of the encephalon. Dr. Gubler reopens the discussion; but although he states that “the reality of cerebral rheumatism must be considered as settled,” we only find one case in which he is able to demonstrate the existence of meningitis. It occurred in an English woman, aged thirty-two, who had had twelve children, and had before her admission into Beaujon (July 2nd, 1856) been subjected to great bodily fatigue and
• Lectures, vol. ii. p. 275.