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The muscular tissnes throughout exhibited fatty degeneration in an advanced degree.
The author has in vain sought for an analogous case in the records of medicine. He considers that the cavities cannot be regarded as cysts, as the remains of apoplectic foci, or as the residues of abscesses. The only explanation of the condition which he offers as at all compatible with the history and post-mortem appearances of the case, is that the cavities were the result of absorption of parts which had previonsly undergone complete fatty degeneration.
III. AFFECTIONS OF THE BLOOD AND DISORDERED SECRETIONS. The Constitution of the Blood in Syphilis. (L'Union Médicale, May 16, 1857.)
In the eighth lecture on chancre recently delivered by M. Ricord, we find the following interesting contribution to hæmatology, in the shape of a series of analyses of the blood of syphilitic patients, by M. Grassi, pharmacien-en-chef of the Hôtel Dieu :
I. Blood of Patients affected with Simple Chancres.
lst patient. 2nd patient. 3rd patient. 4th patient. 5th patient. Water . . . 762.4 ... 762'4 ... 768.0 ... 763.8 ... 750.0 Fibrin... 29... 2.9 ... 3.0
2.6 ... 3.9 Albumen . . 94:3 ... 943 ... 88.5 ... 95.5 ... 112.5 Corpuscles. . 1404 ... 140.4 ... 140-5 ...
6th patient. 7th patient. Sth patient. 9th patient. Water . . . . . . . 755.2 ... 7585 ... 749 1 ... 760.9 Fibrin . . . . . . .
4:0 ... 36 ...
30 ... Albumen . . . . . . 113.7 ... 84:3 ... 109:0 ... 97.0 Corpuscles . . . . . . 127:1 ... 153.6 ... 138.0 ... 139:1
1000:0) 10000 10000 10000
These analyses show that in simple chancre the blood presents no material deviation from its physiological condition. The following cases seem to prove that in indurated chancre and secondary syphilis there is uniformly a diminution of blood-corpuscles and an increase in the amount of albumen, but no perceptible variation in the quantity of fibrin:
II. Blood of Patients affected with Indurated Chancres. 1. Indurated chancre.
2. Indurated chancre. Second bleeding,
Second bleeding, Third bleeding, after a month's First
after a week's after a month's
First treatment by
treatment by treatment by bleeding.
bleeding. iodide of
iodide of potassium,
potassium, potassium, Water . . 796-6 ... 774.2
797.0 794:6 784:0 Fibrin, . 3:0 ... 3:3
3.5 Albumen . 104.5 ... 113.5
106.0 ... 95.2
840 Corpuscles 95.9 ... 109.0
940 ... 106.7 128.5 1000.0 1000.0 10000 10000 10000
3. Indurated chancre.
4. Indurated chancre and roseola. Second bleeding,
after 25 days First after 20 days'
First treatment by
treatment by bleeding.
bleeding. iodide of
iodide of potassium,
mercury. Water ... 797.3
765.0 Fibrin . . . 2:4 ...... 2.4
3-5 Albumen . . 123.9 ......
106.0 Corpuscles. . 76.4 ...... 142-0
1000:0 1000-0 5. Indurated chancre, syphilides.
6. Indurated chancre. Second bleeding.
Second bleeding, Third bleeding, after 8 days'
after 19 days' after 28 days First
First treatment by
treatment by treatment by bleeding.
bleeding. iodide of
iodide of mercury.
potassium, Water . . 769.5 .... 7844
789.5 ... 768.7 is. 796-9 Fibrin. . 3.1 ... 3.6
3-5 Albumen . 102 6 ...
115.4 ... 1210 .. 68.0 Corpuscles 124.8 ... 122:3 ......... 90-4 ... 1065 ... 131.6
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 In the following three cases the reduction of the quantity of corpuscles is remarkably great : 7. Indurated chancre and roseola. 8. Indurated 9. Indurated
chancre. Second bleeding,
chancre, with sy. First after 12 days'
10000 In all the cases examined the outbreak of syphilis was recent, the above results must not therefore be regarded as representing the state of the blood in the later stages of the disease.
On Spanæmia, Chlorosis, and Analogous Conditions, as the predominant Charac.
teristic of the present Age, By Dr. PoLLITZER, Director of the first Chilorms Hospital in Vienna. (Zeitschr. der K. K. Gesellsch. der Aerzte, February, 1857.) Dr. Pollitzer takes a very gloomy view of the condition of the human race at the present time, and considers it to be an established fact that the physical deterioration in Europe is profound, " a sad memorial of civilization." He admits the general diminution of mortality in all civilized countries, but affirms this to be a fallacious test, as there is not a corresponding increase in the health and vigour of the race, or in the number and character of the diseases. The reduction of the mortality, the author attributes to the increase of hos. pitals and similar charitable institutions,—to quarantine, vaccination, and numerous sanitary regulations. The boundaries of health and disease, he observes, are daily becoming less marked, and be considers it characteristic of modern pathology to affirm that there are numerous conditions which are undoubted deviations from the healthy standard, though it is impossible to delineate or give definite portraits of them, because they make their appearance during a state of “relative health.” The physician has no name for the disease, but the patient maintains that, not feeling in health, he has no alternative but to call himself ill. This anomalous condition, Dr. Pollitzer accounts for by the spanæmia and chlorosis, which he regards as the feature peculiar to our times-the soil in which the feebleness and deterioration of our race take root. After developing his views more in detail, the author proceeds to show how these conditions are fostered by modern civilization. A constant stretch of the mental powers,-a restless excitement of the passions,-a perpetual struggle for advancement,--the fresh wants of every day, science and the arts themselves being subservient even to the luxury and demoralization of the times,-the destruction of all moral harmony and peace,-are advanced by Dr. Pollitzer as the evils of modern civilization. And these evils react especially upon the younger generation; and the demands made upon the youth of eighteen or twenty of the present, would formerly have been considered a sufficient tax for the strength of a man of upwards of five and twenty. He inveighs especially against the polymathy (if we may coin the word) of children, among whom the spanæmia and chlorosis of the age especially flourish.
Having for seventeen years devoted himself to the study of children's diseases, he has arrived at the conclusion that the features which characterize our age have their source in the treatment of childhood, and that the deterioration of the race at large takes its origin in that of childhood.
The facts upon which Dr. Pollitzer bases his remarks are, that anæmia and chlorosis occur alone, or associated with rickets, hypertrophy of the lymphatic glands, and of the spleen and liver, to an incredible extent, even from the first month of life. Of 1000 children that were treated in the children's hospital, on an average 700-800, or from 70-80 per cent., were thus affected. He also observed that the anomalies of the blood and constitution, which are so widely diffused, invariably appear where the nutrition of the child has been imperfectly effected. The stomach and intestinal tract are the parts that first suffer, hence it is in these organs that we discover the prevailing morbid conditions of childhood; and while they materially influence the mortality of children they equally affect the state of their future health when they survive childhood.
An Investigation of the Urine in Remittent and Intermittent Fevers, proving the
Hyperphosphatic state of the Blood; also the eliminating Properties of Quinine. By H. M. STUART, M.D., of Beaufort, South Carolina. (Charleston
Medical Journal and Review, May, 1857.) On a Physiological Action of the Disulphate of Quina. By H. RANKE, M.D.
(Medical Times and Gazette, May 30th, 1857.) The observations and experiments of Drs. Ranke and Stuart appear to directly contradict one another, inasmuch as the former shows that, in health, at least, the effect of the disulphate of quina is to diminish materially the quantity of uric acid excreted by the kidneys; while the latter demonstrates, that in intermittent and remittent fevers the administration of quina induces an increased excretion of uric acid, urate of soda, biliary matter and mucus, and triple phosphates. Dr. Stuart's essay has received the College Premium at the commencement of the Medical College of South Carolina, and therefore comes before us with a special claim upon our attention. We will examine his paper first, premising that his determination of the salts and other deposits of the urine was made with the urinometer and the microscope; the different elements were not isolated, nor was the balance employed, as in the experiments by Dr. Ranke.
Four cases of remittent, three of intermittent, fever were examined by Dr. Stuart. The accounts are very scanty, but in all the urinary salts appear to
have been increased during the administration of the quinine. We select the two best cases as illustrations:
"Roper Hospital, Bed No. 6.-Remittent. June 21st, admitted. Urine examined before medicine had been given. Sp. gr. 1.037; colour high; slight sediment, consisting of urate of soda, uric acid, and biliary matter. Quinine (grs. x. and v.) given, seven hours after which urine was examined. Heary deposit of triple phosphates, uric acid in small crystals, colouring matter, and a little mucus.-June 22nd: Sp. gr. 1.040; high colour; more uric acid than on 21st; triple phosphates in same proportion; other things as on 21st.June 24th : No sever; sp. gr. 1.055 ; colour very dark, and very heavy sediments of phosphate of lime and uric acid. Quinine (grs. X. and v.) given.“ June 25th: Sp. gr. 1.040; colour high; ammoniaco-magnesian phosphates in very large crystals, but not so abundant; other things the same. Quinine (grs. x. and v.) given.—June 26th: Sp. gr. 1.050; colour high; triple phosphates in large quantities; uric acid, &c., in same proportion. The sp. gr. of this patient's urine before leaving the hospital had fallen to 1.030, and it began to appear natural
“Roper Hospital, Bed No. 14.-Intermittent. June 28th, admitted. Before quinine was given, nothing unusual under the microscope. Sp. gr. 1.010; sediment scarcely perceptible, consisting of a little uric acid; colour rather dark. Quinine given (grs. x. and v.).—June 29th : Sp. gr. 1.050; very heavy sediment of urate of soda, and the triple phosphates; uric acid; colour very high. Quinire given (grs. x.) during day. No fever.- June 30th : Sp. gr. 1:056; colour high; sediment even greater than on the 29th; the triple phosphates increased both in size and quantity; uric acid also in large quantity. Repeated quinine. This patient's urine quickly fell to the normal standard, and he recovered speedily."
Dr. Ranke's experiments were made upon himself and two medical volunteers. The urine was tested only for uric acid, which was determined by mixing 100 cubic centimetres of urine with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and allowing it to stand for forty-eight hours. The uric acid was carefully collected on a filter, well washed, and weighed.
Dr. Ranke found that on a mixed diet his average secretion of uric acid (deduced from twenty analyses) is 0-629 grammes in twenty-four hours. In the first experiment he took twenty grs. of disulphate of quina in twenty-four hours, and during the next forty-eight hours he passed 0542 grammes, or 0271 grammes for twenty-four hours. The second experiment gave a siinilar. result, the quantity of uric acid excreted during forty-eight hours, after fifteen grs, of quina had been taken, being equal to 0.790, or 0-395 in twenty-four hours. On the third day after quina had been taken, Dr. Ranke again overeted about his normal arerageriz., 0-621 grammes; and on the two following dars, 0 343 and 0 656 grammes respectively. He now took quinine for a thind time, and the quantity of uric acid again fell to 0:438 gradimes on the tirst, and 0:399 grammes on the second day.
Dr. S passed (344 and 0.343 grammes of uric acid respectively on two dars before the euperiment. He then took two ten-grain doses of quina, and ou that day exertel 03, o grauun's of uric acid; the next day he took grs. . of quint, and the quantity of uric acid fell to 0.317 grammes; on the three following days he pasi respectively ( 453,0 450, and 0-634 grammes.
Dr. M an four dars before taking quina, passed 0 662, 0-774, 0-555, ang Again ( JS grammes, he then text ica grs of quina, and on that day excreted PSIS on the DSS, and on the thind 0.70 grammes of uric acid; \ then emalini falmart,
Dr. Rames in two of the experiments determined the other constituents of the urity and found the walls ia spuxeral and the urs, nof materially affected by the
y ou the phone acai appeared to be augmented.
On the Abnormal Presence of Urea in the Pancreatic Juice in Man. By Dr. F.
HOPPE. (Archiv für Pathol. Anat. und Physiol., Band xi. Hest 1.) In a man who died with icterus in the Charité, at Berlin, the gall-bladder and the larger bile-ducts in the liver were found distended with bile, and the pancreatic duct was cylindrically dilated, and many of its branches in the gland converted into ampullæ of the size of hazel-nuts. A dense cicatricial tissue which surrounded the orifices of both ducts in the duodenum was the cause of the arrest of the two secretions. The pancreatic fluid was collected without the admixture of the smallest quantity of blood, and analysed with the following result:
Grammes. Per cent.
0.001 ... 0.02
0.87 Watery extract . . . . . . . . 0·030 ... 0:53 Insoluble residue . . . .
0:49 Inorganic salts . . . . . . . . 0.032 ... 0:57
5.655 ... 100.00 On evaporation of the ethereal extract, excepting a trace of fat and a few microscopic globules of leucin, nothing but crystals of urea were observed.
The author remarks that the case proves that we need not fear the excessive liability of the urea to become decomposed in the blood and other fluids of the body, as so much urea was discovered, and not even a trace of ammoniacal salts.
IV. SUNDRIES. On the Eristence of Herpes in Domestic Animals, and its Communication to Man.
By Dr. Von BARENSPRUNG. (Annalen des Charité Krankenhauses, Achter Jahrgang, Heft 1.)
The author quotes numerous writers who have directed attention to the occurrence in animals of cutaneous eruptions similar to those four.d in mau. Alibert has remarked the occurrence of herpes circinnatus in horses; Dr. Fehr has observed a peculiar herpetic eruption in Switzerland communicated froin cattle to human beings; similar observations are quoted from Hering's * Repertorium der Thier Heilkunde,' Band i. 1840; from Gurlt and Hertwig's • Magazin für die Gesammte Thierheilkunde,' Band vii. 1841; Letenneur's *Réflexions sur l'Herpès Tonsurant,' 1852; and other works. From his previous investigations into the nature of herpes in man, Dr. Von Bärensprung assumed that the eruption in question was characterized in animals as well, by the formation of a confervoid growth. In them it resembles the herpes tonsurans of man; circular, well-defined spots form, upon which the hairs are partly broken off, partly fallen out, and invested with a white asbestine scurf; the subjacent surface is red, and covered with papulæ. These spots occur in all parts of the body, but especially in those which the animal is unable to reach with its tongue. Each hair is enveloped at its base with a thin whitish sheath, a prolongation of the sheath of the root of the hair, which commonly ceascs at the point at which the hair issues from the cutis. This occurrence is due to a cryptogamic vegetation, which glues the sheath to the hair; this con