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movement in the ducts of the genital glands, and concludes by a consideration of this movement in closed cavities.

As regards the epithelium of the female organs after birth, Becker notices several differences. Whilst Kolliker describes the pavement epithelium of the vagina as passing into the ciliated form in the cervix of the uterus, Henle and Gerlach seemed to have traced it towards the fundus; and in the dead bodies examined by Becker it was also found to be so. The average length of the cylindrical cells was 0036 millimetre. In the Fallopian tubes and on the fimbria: they were onlv about one-half this length. On the posterior surface of the fimbria?, ciliary epithelium existed, in various transitional forms, passing into the pavement epithelium of the abdominal cavity. The author notices the observation of Bischoff,* that the inner genital organs after birth, until puberty, arc wanting in ciliated epithelium; and also that of Valentin, f who describes it as wanting in young animals and in the woman at the catamcnial periods, and, for the most part, during pregnancy. Becker says that this is only correct as regards the mucous membrane of the uterus. As regards the fimbriae and the tubes, on the contrary, the epithelium in the newly^born mammals and human being is ciliated, and this is specially seen at the free borders of the fimbria?, and at the uterine end of the tubes. In very young rabbits the movement of the cilia is most easily to be seen. Becker also, contrary to Bischoff, declares that the ciliated movement of the epithelium of the Fallopian tubes and fimbria? exists in the pregnant rabbit, and that it does not cease on the passage of the ovum. In the uterus of the newly-born child no ciliated epithelium exists, and this is also the case in the rabbit. At the time of puberty, however, ciliated epithelium is found in animals at the fundus of the uterus. The author then alludes to the observations of Kolliker, who found that during the catamenial periods and pregnancy, the time of periodic removal and reformation of epithelium, the ciliated form of epithelium alone was concerned; but asserts that, as far as he himself has examined the matter, ciliated epithelium was to be found at the top of the horns of the uterus in the rabbit that was pregnant. As regards the epithelial lining of the accessory ovaries (Kanale ier Nebentientocke), which Kolliker says are probably of a ciliated charactcr.the author declares that it varies according to the stage of development of the ovary; but that in two newly-born children, and once in a woman, aged twenty-nine, who possessed a greatly-developed parovarium, the ciliary projections were easily seen. This was also the case in the parovarium of a rabbit fourteen days old.

Proceeding next in order to the male organs, Becker speaks of the ciliated epithelium of the epididymis. He had examined very many of the lower animals—such as the amorous sparrow, the swallow, the fowl, the goose, duck, pig, deer, horse, rabbit, cat, and dog—and in all he had found the vasa efferentia to be possessed of a simple ciliated epithelium. He notices, however, certain differences observable in several of these animals, especially as regards the course and direction of the vasa efferentia, which do not concern us here. He declares the presence of a double epithelium in the epididymis of all mammals; of which one, a simple ciliated epithelium with conical cells, covers the vasa efferentia; whilst the other, a complex laminated layer with cylindrical cells, beset, according to age and species, with unusually long cilia, occupies the entire tube of the epididymis as far as the vas deferens, and there, by means of a simple form of cylindrical epithelium, passes into the pavement variety. The epithelium of the canal of the epididymis at the time of birth and before puberty, consists of cells, of which the uppermost layer is hardly larger than the younger ones beneath. As the epididymis grows, these elongate and

* Entwicklungsgeschichte dcr Saugethiere und des Menschen, p. 492.
t Lehrbuch der Physiologies Band ii. p. 28.

become laminated. The fibrous tunic of the seminal canals of the testis is so firmly united in the rele of Haller with the areolar tissue of the corpus of Highrnore, that the canals almost appear to be without any special membrane. In the "coni vasculosi" there intervenes, between the fibrous layer and the structureless membrane, a circular layer of contractile fibre cells, which appears to be wanting at the summit of the cones. In man, as in most animals, the vascular cones possess a simple ciliated epithelium, whose cells are sharply contoured, being conical, with cilia from 0008 to 0010 millimetre long. It is very persistent, and is to be found in the newly-born subjects just as in the adult, and can often be expressed out of the seminal canals connected together so as to form hollow cylinders. Becker speaks of his finding this epithelium even in diseased parts, in which induration, along with obstruction of the excretory ducts, has taken place, and describes the cilia in one case of a testis destroyed for the most part by fibrous cancer, as distinctly seen in a state of motion.*

As to the canal of the epididymis, the epithelium is found to be laminated, the cells being quite cylindrical, perpendicularly placed, with strong but minutely contoured walls, very long, and with large nuclei. The head of the epididymis offers the longest cilia that can be seen in the human body. The epithelium here is remarkable for its frailty and liability to change, and its proneness to reproduce itself. At birth, as well in man as in animals, it is but slightly formed; and in voung children, no cilia arc to be found in the whole course of the canal. But about the time of puberty, the cells exhibit fluctuations in the size and length of the cilia, the contour becomes bolder, the contents granular and less transparent, the cell-membrane indented, crumpled, and in some cases folded together; but the character of the epithelium in the epididymis seems in a great degree to be dependent on the quantity of perfect seminal fluid therein collected; and this accords well with the completeness of the epithelium found in animals that are yet rutting. The cilia of the epithelium in the head of the epididymis are peculiar, as indicating a tendency to adhere to eaeh other, thus giving the appearance as of a solid stem projecting from the interior of the cell, but not of cilia at the edge of the cell. Becker had never seen cilia ou cells removed from the lower end, and had never missed them in the head of the epididymis. At the lower end he had observed epithelial cells of unusually large dimensions. In the vas deferens the epithelium was simply cylindrical, and in the upper third passed into the pavement form, which covers the vesicula? seminales. The efferent ducts of the testis are not, however, the only places possessing ciliated epithelium. The so-called non-pedunculated hydatids of Morgagni, situated in the head of the epididymis, and described by Luschka as being generally, though not always, in connexion with the seminal canals of the part, are seen to possess ciliated epithelium as well as seminal threads, which two structures appear to bear a certain proportion to eaeh other.

The ciliated epithelium of the hydatids is always small and varied in form; at one time regularly cylindrical and slightly conical, at another time irregular and small. In like manner the pedunculated hydatids or cysts which generally exist where the vesicles of Gosselin are found, as remnants of foetal structure, as also the parovarium and the " uterus masculinus," contain ciliated epithelium.

As regards the embryonal structures, the author ascertained that ciliated epithelium does not exist in the Wolffian bodies of the rabbit. Their existence at birth lead to the supposition that perhaps the Fallopian tubes and the head of the epididymis of the embryo might possess ciliated epithelium, but, although sought for in various embryos, none was found; nevertheless, their existenee before birth seems certain.

* For a beautiful instance, with illustrations, of the presence of ciliated as well as pavement epithelium In cysts within the testicle, see vol. vii. of the Pathological Society's Transactions, p. 241, as described by Mr. Athol Johnson. The specimen was removed from a child aged two years and three quarters, and was probably congenital.

The author then proceeds to demonstrate the best method of watching the movements of the ciliated epithelium, and describes those which he observed for the space of two hours, in a part of the testicle which had been removed, from a man aged forty-two, during life. He speaks of the ease with which the stream of fluid established by the cilia in a direction from the seminal gland, can be watched in certain animals, the walls of whose vascular cones are very transparent, and this the more so as seminal particles are carried along. He tninks that the stream in the vascular cones is not parallel with the long axis of the vessel, but observes a spiral direction.

As regards the ciliary movement in closed cavities, the author alludes to a case of cysts of the testicle related by Billroth in the 'Deutsche Xliuik,' 1856, No. 10.

Upon the Epithelium of the Oall-Bladder, and also upon an Intermediate Melamorphoiii of Fat.—Under this title R. Virchow has a paper of the following nature.• After alluding to his former mention of a peculiar appearance in the cylindrical epithelium of the gall-bladder—i.e., its gradual filling with finely granular fat, he draws a comparison between this and analogous processes in the intestinal epithelium cells, as also the changes in the fatty metamorphosis of cells. In general, but not invariably, the nucleus of the cells remains com

filete. Often also a collection of finely granular fat was observed in the netike folds of the mucous membrane itself of the gall-bladder, and in one case in the sub-mucous tissue, anastomosing canals were seen, in which larger and smaller fat masses were seen. Virchow alludes to the observations of Gobley.f to the effect that only a very slight quantity of the neutral fat of the bile is found in the excrements, and henee most probably it is reabsorbed in the intestines. This absorption is thought by Virchow to occur in the gallbladder. He observed the epithelium of this organ in man, the dog, and cat, and found it in all places to be comparable to the intestinal epithelium. In the dog the cylinders are very long, snowing their free surface and a side view very well. On the free end of the cells a broad bright border, with radiating stripes, is to be seen (just as Kolliker has piet urea of the intestinal epithelium), having, when quite fresh, a smooth margin. After a time, as Kolliker shows in the intestines, the margin becomes toothed, and the projections often have the look of cilia, and other appearances arise—such as the lifting up of the cell membrane from the contents, as Kolliker and Remak had seen in the intestinal epithelium.

As regards the absorption of fat, first of all a finely granular fat entered, and later on fat in large glistening drops. Originally the fat exists at the uppermost parts of the cell, close under the homogeneous border, the deep part* lying free. It gradually passes deeper, until it extends and fills the entire cell, excepting where the nucleus exists. At this time, owing to the linear direction of the fat drops, they have somewhat the appearanee of primitive muscular fibre undergoing fatty degeneration. Afterwards the fat ceases in the outermost parts of the cells, and finally it may only be seen at their bases. Along with the fatty infiltration, an infiltration of finely granular or finely crystallized brown or brownish-red pigment, occurs as wcU m the epithelium as in the superficial layers of the areolar tissue, easily attributable to a post-mortem deposition; but this is disproved by the examination of animals quite recently killed. In them the fatty infiltration of the epithelium coineides with the later periods of digestion, and the decrease of the fatty contents in the hepatic cells. It may be a question whether the fat in the 'Yirchow'i Archiv, Band ii. Heft 6, p. 574. t Gazette Medicate de Pari*. Sept. 18S«. cystic epithelium be derived from the bloodvessels of the gall-bladder, but the correspondence between this epithelium and that of the intestines, the gradual departure of the fat from the free side of the cells, arc adverse to the supposition, and in the best examples of fatty liver, the cystic epithelium is free from the infiltration. Portions of the fat separated by the bile from the liver, become reabsorbed and mixed with the general current of the fluids. Thus the gall-bladder has other functions besides that of a mere receptacle, and other substances, as the pigment indicates, pass along with the fat.

Part II.—Pathological Mickologt.

TUMOURS, MORBID GROWTHS, EXCRESCENCES, &C

Gelatinous Growth at the Base of the Cranium, at the Clivus Blumenbachii. By Professor H. Luschka.*—The case was that of a man, aged twenty-six, at the base of whose skull, the dura mater, corresponding to the point of union between the bodies of the sphenoid and the occipital bones, was thickened by the presence of some large and small, flattened and lobulated outgrowths, of the colour and consistence of the transparent mucous polypi of the nose. These had obviously projected from the interior of the bones at the sphenooccipital synchondrosis. These structures were seen under the microscope to be very uneven as to their surface, the smaller projections being hemispherical, the larger ones partly pedunculated and partly not so. In the jelly-like basis no traces of fibrillation existed, but a large number of finely granular nuclei, without any arrangements, of the diameter of 0008 millemctre, and also a number of very peculiar large-sized cells. These latter were for the most part rounded and elongated, their contents being homogeneous or clear, apparently not fluid, but of a slimy consistence. They were doubly contoured, their covering being of variable thickness, and at the thickest part they were the seat of from one to two nuclei, exactly like those prevailing in the basis of the new formation. Besides the above mentioned masses, a mass of the size of a barleycorn was found in the interior of the bone, and communicating with them. This was inclosed in a capsule, and of the colour and form of the so-called gelatinous nucleus of intervertebral cartilage. Under the microscope this mass was seen to consist of a partly homogeneous, partly fibrous basis, much fat, and large cells of 0-012 to 0024 millimetre broad, with partly single and partly laminated walls; many were nucleated, and many so surrounded by a variously thick layer of molecular substance, as quite to obscure the entire cell. Here and there beautiful clear laminated forms were seen; these forms reminding one of the remnants of cartilage between the sacrai vertebras of man. The author was uncertain how far any relation could be traced between these cartilage remains and the gelatinous mass, and proposes a query as to the origin of the mass found in the bone.

After making a number of investigations on the subject, he found that at times the cartilaginous disc between the occiput and the sphenoid does not entirely disappear with the termination of growth—i.e., it is not replaced by bone-tissue; but that the centre of the upper limit of its substance breaks up into a fibrous mass beset by cells. This continues throughout life, or dwindles later on, and there is formed in its place a cavity containing red bone-marrow; or it is occupied by a blastema, changing into bone-tissue, which sometimes grows ana leads to the formation of exostoses at the "clivus" of Blumenbach; or, filially, it may form the foundation of soft productions, which, as in the case above described, break forth in the cranial cavity, and grow in various ways.

» Vlrchow'« Archiv, Band xl. Heft 1, p. 8. 18M.

The author comments upon a tendeney to the breaking up of the cartilage between the bodies of the cranial vertebrae, and the formation of cavities, as a sequel of typhus.

A Case of Neuroma within the Spinal Membranes. By Dr. Lndwig Benjamin.• —It was that of a man, aged sixty, who had suffered pain in the lower limbs for seven years, preceding paralysis of the bladder. The spinal arachnoid was thickened and injected, and at the lower part was the seat, here and there, of bony plates. A tumour was found almost of the size of an olive, having several nerve-branehes surrounding it, but only outwardly adherent, and some passing directly into the mass without reappearing from it, and not at all connected with the cord itself. The tumour was of a brownish-white colour, and enelosed by a firm thiu covering of elastic and areolar tissue, being a projection of the neurilemma from the nerves as they entered. On section, the growth was seen to be in some places resisting, granular, and of an ochreous colour; in other places it was soft and medulla-like, and filled with cysts varying in size up to that of a bean. The softest parts were seen by the microscope to contain pus-cells, united by a hyaline amorphous substance, in which acetic acid revealed from one to two small nuclei. The harder portions possessed a stroma coursing in various directions, partly of clastic and partlv of nerve-like fibres, with numerous large, round, hard granular cells. Some elliptical caudate forms existed, as also corpora amylacea and granular fat. The cysts were of various sizes, chiefly small and thin, very fine arachnoid-like membrane, and contained clear, yellow amorphous gelatinous fluid. Some of the cysts communicated with their neighbours, and so formed a system of cavities. Many large vessels existed in the tumour, and the darker-coloured parts showed granules and rounded conglomerates of crystallized pigment, evidently arising from extravasation. On tracing the roots of the nerves before their entranee into the growth, where they appeared to be quite healthy, they were found to contain coloured pigment, with cells like tne above-described, and fat; and on reaching the tumour the cells were seen in numbers to exist between their fibres, whose final course was not clear; the fine fibrils, however, of the stroma appeared to be united with them. The peculiar interest lay in the fact that the tumour was a true neuroma, in the alteration of the nerve substanee itself, and in the presenee of the cysts.

Growth of Connective Tissue from the Semilunar Valve of the Pulmonary Artery and Peduneulated Epithelial Cells. By 11. Luschka.f.—The author remarks upon the comparative prevalenee of connective-tissue outgrowths at the origin of the crcsceutic aortic valve-flaps on the inner side, which are villous to the naked eye. He observes, however, that these formations are but very rarely met with on the pulmonary artery valve-flaps. In the case mentioned, no trace of any heart disease existed. The specimen was removed from the body of a woman, aged forty. Near the corpus Arantii of each flap on the free borders, a short peduuculated body, of the size of a small pea, existed, whose upper surface was very cleft and occupied by fine branehing whitish threads. Microscopical examination showed that these terminated in a number of rounded laminae, each of which possessed a darker portion, an axis, and a clearer peripheric border-like segment. Each axis appeared to be composed of fine elastic so-called nucleus-fibres, whose origin from cells was obvious in places; aud on the addition of acetic acid, a small quantity of structureless connective tissue was seen between these fibres. This formed the chief part of the broad border-like material, and exhibited a very delicate whitish granular appearanee. Embedded in this stroma were numerous connective-tissue corpuscles variously branehed, some of which were very like bone corpuscles.

• Virchow's Arctiiv, Band xi. I left 1, p. 87. t Ibid., Band 11. Heft 6, p. 5C7.

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