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Many projections of these cells formed a network, and most of them held a well-seen nucleus with a nucleolus. Occasional projections of these cells were elongated into peduncles stretching out beyond the level of the surface of the leaf-like formations, and ended iu a structure corresponding to an epithelial cell, being a cell-like nucleus-holding body, generally of a roundish shape. The author bad formerly described, among the ordinary epithelium of the cresccntio folds, cells elongated, thread-like, and projecting more or less far. The abovedescribed called to the author's mind the ciliated conical epithelial cells which he found lining the canal of the spinal cord of the horse, and which were supplied with these pedicles.
The Lachrymal Glands, Hypertrophy of. By Mr. Savorv,* Surgeon to the Royal General Dispensary.—The lachrymal gland was found after death to be developed into a tumour, three inches long, and two inches in breadth and depth, filling the orbit, and imbedding the globe of the eye, which was greatly sunken and flaccid. The mass of the tumour was uniform in structure throughout, soft, somewhat elastic, easily torn with the needle, the separated parts readily breaking up, mingling with water ou section, and yielding a thick white opaque fluid by scraping. The microscope showed scarcely anything else but nuclei and clusters of lachrymal gland-cells, which were very easily broken up by manipulation. They were remarkably uniform in size and shape, and scarcely a trace of areolar tissue could be found amongst them. The tumour was removed after death from the body of a man, aged seventy-eight, who had suffered from it between two and three years, but without any constitutional taint or general ill-health. It was so large that shortly before death the contents of the orbit protruded in a mass like a small egg, the entire globe of the eye being concealed by it, excepting a small part of the cornea.
Liver, Cysl within, containing Ciliated Epithelium. By Dr. N. Friedrich.f— The case was that of a man, aged twenty-eight, who died of pulmonary and laryngeal phthisis. The liver was dwindled, anremic, the centre of the lobule being of a dark brown colour, owing to brownish-yellow pigment-granules in the centre of almost each hepatic cell. The intervening stroma was very thickened, containing most varied cell-forms with large projections and sharp contour. A white-looking projection from the surface near the suspensory ligament was seen, which, when cut into, was seen to consist of a cyst larger than a hazel nut, whose walls were formed of thick greyish-whito membrane, connected with the hepatio substance by a spongy mass of areolar tissue. The contents of the oyst were a very tenacious yellowish-grey, almost gelatinous mass, which could be removed entire from the cyst wall.
The microscope showed the walls of the cyst to contain a network of elastic tissue and areolar tissue-corpuscles j also many bloodvessels, and a delicate, rather varicose system of oanals, to be looked on as lymphatic vessels. The inner surface of the sac showed large numbers of roundish cells rather smaller than pus corpuscles, with nuclei; and towards the interior of the cyst these elements presented transitions into perfect ciliated cells, just like those found on the bronehial mucous membrane. These oiliated cells also contained yellow and yellQw-brown pigments, but no fatty degeneration of them was seen.
The contents of the cyst, when acted on by acetic aoid, coagulated in a striped direction, and contained bodies which, by the presence of cilia, single, aad still in situ, as well as by their conical form, were recognised
• Medical Times and Gaaette, Feh. 21, 1S1T.
as allied ciliated epithelium; they also contained oral and irregular, slightly angular bodies, which appeared to be the nuclei of epithelium, gradually removed from the inner surface of the sac, and mixed with the fluid, around which the cell-membrane, after diffusion of the contents, had collapsed so closely, that only a simple band with cilia remained, until at last the cilia also became destroyed, through each membrane being uplifted from the nucleus, on addition of water. The author here alludes to similar changes which he had seen in the bronchial epithelium of an old woman affected by chronic bronchitis. But besides the above elements in the cyst contents, a number, not large, of large round bodies existed, varying as high as 0*1 millimetre in diameter, with granular contents, clearing on the addition of acetic acid, and also a granular detritus, owing probably to the destruction of these latter cells.
The above-described cyst is considered by the observer to be most probably a dilated gall-duct, its walls agreeing thereto, as also from the fact that a branch of the vena ports lay directly in contact. It might be a question whether it was congenital, or whether after birth it had originated owing to some local cause, and if so, the change in the character of the epithelium would be remarkable. As regards the congenital supposition, it is worthy of notice, that according to Leydig,* in some animals partly only during fatal life, in part during the entire life, the gall-ducts possess ciliated epithelium, so it might be that in the fatal life of higher animals similar epithelium might be found in the gallducts. Friedrich found, in the gall-bladder, and the large gall-ducts, of the three-and-a-half months' embryo of the ox, cylindrical epithelial cells, which, had on their upper portion partly conical appendices and partly broad ridges, which latter had the appearance of being united cilia, or being about to divide itself into such. In other foetuses he failed to find them, Dut he did so in a human foetus of three or four months.
Virchow appends an observation to this paper, in which he says that Lusclika had communicated to him a case lately, in which he had found capillary growths covered with ciliated epithelium in an ovarian cyst. A case ad also been communicated by Virchow to the Obstetric Society, in which ciliated epithelium and nerve-tissue &c, were found in the ovary. Virchow says he has moreover observed similar striped ridges on the epithelium of the gall-duct and bladder in the adult man.
Nerves i« Degenerated Tissues. By F. Marfels.f—The author, for the purpose of observing the condition of nerves in degenerated parts, examined four cases, to ascertain the condition of the vagus nerve in pulmonary consumption and marasmus. He found that the fatty degeneration did not affect the nerves immediately, but that the development of cells preceded it. These cells are nucleus-holding, of the size of small colourless blood-corpuscles, which lie in the midst of the fibres, chiefly unaccompanied by any granular deposit. Potash, Kther, and iodine effect no change in them. On one occasion, in examining portions of the ischiatic nerve, he found these cells situated inside the axis cylinders, thus establishing a correspondence with the discovery in some of the lower animals of the partly-granulated and non-nucleated, and partlytransparent, clear, and nucleated cells in nerves. The author failed to observe nuclei in the sheath of the primitive nerve-fibres in man; on the contrary, however, he found them in annuals where he thinks he saw the sheaths occupied by fibres. On two occasions he observed the escape of nerve contents from the sheath, when at the same time the above-mentioned cells existed.J
• Lchrbuch der Histologic 1867. t Virchow's Archiv, Band xi. Heft 2, p. 200,
J We are compelled for want of space to post pone the remainder of the Hcport.
HALF-YEARLY REPORT ON FORENSIC MEDICINE,
TOXICOLOGY, AND HYGIENE.
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.D., L.R.C.P.
Physician to the lioyal Infirmary for Diseases of the Chest, and Lecturer on Physiology and Hygiene at the Groavenor-place Medical School.
The celebrated toxicological cause of the past six months has been the Glasgow poisoning case. This instance of arsenical poisoning lias been so fully discussed elsewhere, we may say everywhere, that we do not feel bound to more than mention it. We pass, therefore, to the reports of cases and papers given in foreign literature, the number of which is so great that we have difficulty in the space allowed to select those of most scientific interest.
Poisoning by Arseniuretted Hydrogen.—Poisoning by the inhalation of arseniuretted hydrogen gas, although of comparatively rare occurrence, has occasionally resulted from accidents in chemical manipulation. In the case of Gehlcn, • German chemist, the inhalation of a small quantity of this gas proved fatal on the ninth day. Another instance has been published by Dr. O'Reilly, of Dublin. A gentleman, for the sake of experiment, wished to respire one hundred and fifty cubic inches of hydrogen gas. Unfortunately the sulphuric acid he used in its preparation was largely contaminated with arsenic. His death took place on the sixth day. It was supposed that a quantity of arsenic equal to about twelve grains of arsenious acid was inhaled. Dr. Mouat has lately published a most interesting case of the same kind of poisoning, which, liowever, arrived at a favourable termination.
During the summer of 1851, whilst Professor Robertson, of Calcutta, was exhibiting to his class the application of Marsh's test, a pupil incautiously opened a window in front of the Professor, who at the time was standing with his back to an open door; the current of air produced had the effect of directing the gas, which was at that time being abundantly and rapidly generated, directly towards the lecturer. He soon Decame aware of a sense of burning and constriction in his throat, and was compelled abruptly to leave his classroom. Dr. Mouat visited him next morning, about sixteen hours after the accident, and found him labouring under the following symptoms:—Intense acrid burning sensation from the pharynx to the lower extremity of the alimentary canal, excessive irritability of the stomach, vomiting, first of the previously-taken food, then of bile, ultimately of dark coffee-ground-looking matter, consisting of broken-down blood corpuscles and desquamated epithelium of the stomach and lower portion of the oesophagus, obstinate constipation of the bowels. There was severe deep-seated pain in the lumbar region; he had voided between three and four pints of bloody urine, which on being analysed exhibited minute traces of arsenic. Symptoms of great constitutional disturbance were present; considerable fever; full, hard, frequent, incompressible pulse; dry, hot, unperspiring skin, intense restlessness, anxiety, and general uneasiness; a pale, anxious countenance, and considerable prostration of the vital powers. On the third day the bowels not having been opened, and a good deal of tenderness in the left iliac region, with a sense of weight and dragging in the fundament being present, the administration of a dose of castor oil and laudanum produced a copious clay-coloured evacuation, with a tubular membranous-looking slough, somewhat ragged in appearance, and about four inches in length. This consisted of a portion of the lining membrane of the rectum, with a large amount of fibrinous exudation. For four days, under the exhibition of castor oil, small patches of fibrinous exudation continued to be discharged, the stools being scanty and deficient in bile. On the seventh day svmptoms of acute hepatitis presented themselves. In addition to topical bleeding, small doses of calomel and soda were frequently administered, his system showing no symptoms of mercurial influenee, to which when in health he was morbidly susceptible. In eighteen hours he was jaundiced. The mercury was discontinued, and diuretics and diluents substituted. On the twentysecond day, although he was considerably reduced, all distressing symptoms had disappeared. Dr. Mouat seems inelined to connect the attack of hepatic inflammation with the cessation of the haemorrhoidal discharge which had taken place from the date of the accident, and of which the patient never experienced a return. The treatment adopted consisted in the first instanee of leeches to the epigastrium, the administration of Murray's fluid magnesia, with ice and iced drinks. Subsequently, the abstraction of blood by cupping from the loins, the free exhibition of diluents, castor oil, opium, &c.
Dr. Mouat believes that the inhalation of minute quantities of arseniuretted hvdrogen in a well ventilated room is not injurious to health. He is of opinion that this gas is disengaged from the surfaces of bodies injected with arsenious acid. Flies and insects are rapidly destroyed on alighting on them, yet persons employed in the dissection of subjects so injected, never exhibit any signs of arsenical poisoning.—Indian Annals of Medical Scienee, April, 1857, pp. 657-660.
Inflammation and Ulceration of the Sound Skin, produced by the application of a strong Arsenical Solution.—Dr. W. N. Brown, of Melro.se, has recorded the case of a farm servant who was affected with inflammation of the skin of the lower part of the abdomen, the penis, scrotum, and upper part of the thighs, running on in some places to uleeration, consequent on exposure for two hours to the action of a solution of white arsenic. He had been engaged in washing sheep in a bath composed of white arsenic dissolved in boiling water, and his trousers had become saturated with the drippings from the sheep. The skin was nowhere broken. He was engaged in the work for nearly two hours, and on going home had immediately changed his clothes. In the evening he complained of pain and smarting, and the following morning the skin was red and inflamed. He had severe burning pain, and considerable constitutional derangement. It was a fortnight before he could return to work. The solution consisted of two pounds ot arsenic, and a considerable quantity of soft soap, to about fifty gallons of boiling water.—Edinburgh Medical Journal, August, 1857, pp. 'Hi, 149.
Toxicological Effects of Carbonic Acid.—M. Wanner has communicated to the Academy of Scienees a notice of some observations made with the hope of arriving at a just conelusion as to the effects of inhalation of carbonic acid gas. After killing three guinea-pigs by inhalations of carbonic acid, the author examined under the microscope a small portion of the pulmonary tissue, the mucous membrane, and the subcutaneous cellular tissne. In these different specimens the capillaries were distended, of a blackish slate-colour; the blood was of the same hue. M. Wanner asks if in these three cases death were not due to the same cause—that is to say, to the action of carbonic acid, which, brought into relation with the blood, as has been remarked by M. Lehmann, crvstallizes the hsematosine. He concludes from his experiment:—1st. That the heart's actiou ceases as soon as the movement of the blood is arrested, cither in the pulmonic or systemic capillaries. 2nd. That what is called asphyxia is perhaps nothing more than a more or less complete arrest of the progress of the blood by an agent which, combining with one of its constituents, renders it no longer in a condition to undergo movement. It is not, therefore, the want of air which causes death in asphyxia, but rather the nonexpulsion of carbonic acid from the lungs.—Archives Generates, April, 1S57, p. 242.
On ike Physiological and Toxicological Properties of Woorara.—M. Pelikan has communicated to the Academy of Sciences the results of his experiments on woorara poison. With regard to its physiological effects, the author arrives at the same results as M. CI. Bernard. As to its toxicological action, M. Pelikan finds that an aqueous solution introduced into the stomach by an elastic tube produces poisonous effects, but more slowly and less energetically. This cannot be explained on the supposition that woorara contains a certain quantity of serpent-poison, for it is characteristic of nearly all the narcotic poisons which arc easily absorbable. Curarine possesses all the active properties of woorara. Five centigrammes of the alkaloid introduced under the skin of a rabbit caused death, with all the symptoms of poisoning by woorara. When woorara is absorbed in a sufficient dose to produce death, there can be no question as to the antidote. Strychnia can provoke its peculiar symptoms only in the case where the dose of woorara has been insufficient, "and vice versa. Solution of woorara precipitated by tannin loses its effect in an ordinary dose, but in powder mixed with powdered tannin, and introduced into a wound, it preserves its poisonous action. The action of the poison is not destroyed by iodine dissolved in iodide of potassium, neither in the case of the two solutions mixed, evaporated, and the residue introduced into the subcutaneous tissue.—Archives Generales, April, 1857, p. 50t.
Poisoning by "Meela Bish."—A case of attempted suicide by a vegetable poison termed "Meeta Bish," is recorded by Mr. Baillie, of the Bengal Medical Sen-ice. The symptoms resembled those arising from hellebore, and some vegetable substance found in the chudder of the patient was stated by Dr. Falconer to belong to the species Vcratrum. The man affirmed that he had mixed this with some other poison procured from a native vendor, and had taken them together.
The detailed symptoms were as follows:—When Mr. Baillie first saw the patient—a young man, aged about twenty—he supposed him to be in the collapse stage of cholera. He was constantly purged and incessantly vomiting; the skin was cold and clammy; that of the fingers shrivelled, and the nails of a bluish hue. The vomiting, however, differed from that of cholera in not being free, and the ejected matter consisted of a thick, tenacious mucus, with which the lips and mouth were covered, and which the patient seemed, as it were, to champ. The pulse was hardly perceptible, the centre of the tongue was covered with a white, dry fur, its tip ana edges were red. There was a sense of constriction of the fauces, with some tenderness over the epigastrium, and intense thirst, the gratification of which was followed by immediate retching. The countenance presented an odd expression, the eyelids were nearly closed, and he appeared to peep through the lashes. He stated that during the first two hours after taking the poison he perceived no uneasiness. The principal treatment consisted in the repeated application of sinapisms to the epigastrium and calves, together with hot bottles to the hands and feet, and in the administration of ammonia, in the form of liq. ammonia;, gtt. xv., in water, every half hour, and subsequently in effervescing draughts of the sesquicarbonate with lemon-juice. lie gradually recovered, and was discharged at the end of a week.—Indian Annals, Oct. 1856, pp. 298-9.
Symptoms of Poisoning produced by Ergot.—The following case occurred to M. Trastour. A woman of lymphatic temperament, and very fat, had profuse uterine haemorrhage after delivery of a still-born foetus at eight months. Three grammes (forty-five grains) of ergot were given in six doses in the course of