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Under this system the representation of the best towns The improbability here cuts two ways, and truth, as we all I wish by no means to undervalue drill, but there is drill and counties has become stuffed with a set of political know, is not always like the truth. It was not likely that and drill,--that of the level parade-ground and that of the nonentities, utterly helpless on occasions of emergency a dignitary of the Church in the dress of his rank would field,--and it is in the first that our regiments chiefly excel to to take an efficient part in directing or modifying go into an ale-house with a common soldier, some years like to see their battalions looking well, are flattered by

the disadvantage of the latter. Colonels and Lieut.-Colonels opinion, utterly powerless to originate or carry any ago. It was not likely that any man in his senses would the praises which Inspecting Generals bestow on steadiness specific improvement which their constituents may need, have acted as a certain member of Parliament did more and precision, and therefore neglect that promptitude of and utterly useless at all times to stimulate the Minister recently on Constitution hill, under the eyes of the sword and action upon which (though at the sacrifice of some of the day to good deeds, or to check him when passengers and police in Piccadilly.

symmetry of motion) the success of battles must depend. drifting into bad ones. The raw materials of this impostor

In the Yelverton case, it may be remembered, there was The shortcomings of our soldiers are, then, not to be attriband are sometimes well-born, often wealthy, and generally a scene on the deck of a packet which would have been buted to the science of drill, but to the pedantry with which what is called highly respectable. We have no objection pronounced most improbable if it had not been confessed it is encumbered. Unity of action, for instance, is most to to any or all of these attributes; but we must insist by the parties, as what passed might have been seen by be desired; but if for the sake of perfect unity the action is upon it, that any or all of them taken together do not con- the seamen and others moving about, but yet escaped delayed until too late, where is the gain? The pains taken to

obtain smart volley firing offers another example of this stitute a presumption that a man is qualified to sit for a observation. great and intelligent community in the Commons' House of But here was the conflict between positive direct evi- hundred rifles go off as one, but if in the face of an enemy

error; it is very fine, no doubt, on a field-day, to hear a Parliament; and we shall never cease repeating what we dence and the negative circumstantial. Of the many who accuracy of aim were sacrificed to unity of sound, where have more than once of late felt it to be our duty to urge, could have seen what Heane swore to have passed, none would be the gain? True science, like everything else, that until constituencies shall cease to look for leather and had seen.

degenerates under exclusiveness, science to pedantry and prunella they are not likely to find men fit to do any work The question before the Court-Martial was whether blind following of precedent; and so it is that military for them that is worth doing.

Heane's story was to be believed, improbable as were the science has fallen so far below common sense. In the late contest for Brighton the Tories had the circumstances; and the very same question was before the

In conclusion, it is worthy of remark that the real efficiency advantage of a triple schism in the popular ranks. What Court of Queen's Bench, upon precisely the same evidence of our Volunteer corps is in inverse ratio to their disregard

of pipe-clay. Your constant readers will not bare forgotten the precise objects or motives of Mr Dumas may have been, or absence of evidence. The issue was a terrible one for some strong remarks you made some time since when a regiin having himself put forward by the well-known election the young men. If Armitage was innocent Heane was a ment which had served abroad with honour was censured agent Mr Ackland, it would be tiresome and to little perjured villain, who had ruined his brother officer by the by a stay-at-home Inspecting General because the men did purpose to inquire. He did his utmost, no doubt, to very wickedest of false accusations. If Armitage was not hold the butts of their muskets far enough back. weaken the Liberals and to let in the Tory; but, after all, guilty his guilt was double, for, added to his disgusting

FABER. none can say he did it. It required more money and offence was the crime of the false accusation of perjury

AUSTRIA. effrontery than he is supposed to have at command to make to ruin his accuser. safe the return of Mr Moor. The man to do the business We do not wonder that the jury could not agree upon

Proceedings of the Reichsrath.

In the Upper House of the Reichsrath on Saturday a debate took Mr Disraeli wanted done was found in Mr Julian Goldsmid, a verdict of such fearful import one way or the other.

place on the credit demanded by Government to cover the expenses of the still recent obligations of whose race and creed to There were two other characters concerned, and Armi- Federal execution. Cardinal Rauscher and Count Hartig advocated the the party he has betrayed, if no other considerations, tage's counsel alleged conspiracy; but if there had been maintenance of the London protocol. They declared that it must be ought to have restrained him. It is really rather conspiracy, would not one false witness have deposed that respected similarly as other treaties. Both speakers considered that soon for the synagogue to forget the history of Jewish he saw what another had resented; would the conduct Germany should be thankful to the great German Powers for underemancipation. No objection has been hitherto raised to charged have wanted corroborative evidence? It is a sad Count Rechberg asserted that the credit already granted would suffice, members of their community when seeking to become case, from which judgment shrinks, and it may best rest as nothing more was to be apprehended in Slesvig from the enemy. candidates. But it would not take much to rekindle pre- where the jury's doubts left it.

The Lower House at its last sitting consented that forty million forins judices that must inevitably work their exclusion from

should be provided by loan towards the expenses of 1864. Parliament more effectually than any form of oath was in

Speech of the Emperor. past times able to do. Let them be warned by the

Torrespondence.

The Session of the Reichsrath was closed on Monday by the Emperor

in a Speech from the Throne, of which the following is a summary : example of a more numerous and in many respects a far less unacceptable body. This is the five-and-thirtieth year

THE “ESSAYS AND REVIEWS’ JUDGMENT. He said that in these eventful times he felt the want of seeing the

representatives of the country before the close of the Session, and exsince Catholic emancipation. Among the noblest and Sir,--Many, perhaps, may be at a loss to know why the pressed particular satisfaction at the presence of the Transylvanian wealthiest families in Great Britain Catholics are to be Judicial Committee of Privy Council should have been so deputies, and continued, “I have observed with great satisfaction the found, as well as throughout every grade of the middle and careful to assent, both at the beginning, and end of their material and intellectual progress made by Austria during the past working classes. In many places they form no incon- judgment in the cases of Dr Williams and Mr Wilson, that Session. The distress in some parts of Hungary has filled my heart

their judgment was confined to the extracts left in the with grief.”. He expressed his thanks for the support and sympathy siderable portion of the population. Yet, for no county, articles of charge as reformed by Dr Lushington. It is so he had received from the whole monarchy, and said: Although the city, or borough, in England, Scotland, or Wales, can a thoroughly and generally taken for granted that our judicial Session has not been remarkable for the work accomplished, it has not Roman Catholic gentleman find a seat with the single courts do not travel beyond the terms of the prosecution, Eastern Galicia and the Bukowina will have the advantage of railways, exception of the nominee hamlet of Arundel, for which the that we are tempted to think that these saving clauses must and a line will also be constructed in Transylvania. The financial law Duke of Norfolk might if he pleased return his groom. We have been inserted for the special gratification of the Arch; has been passed, and the increase of taxes and dues for the extraordishall not deny that we regret such should be the case; but we bishops. But although it is perfectly true that the Judicial nary wants of the State has been agreed to by you. Financial reforms must add that we much more regret the cause. In an evil Committee had

to consider only · the meagre and disjointed are reserved for the next Session. Most serious events have directed hour for their political fortune the Roman Catholic body extracts” left. by Dr Lushington, it would be a mistake to our attention to the state of affairs abroad. I have neglected nothing were tempted to set up a separate and selfish interest of The prosecutor, in the first instance, ransacked the

whole of Austria is to be strong against any attack, but to raise the voice of whom they owed their equality in the eye of the law. A were anything but meagre or disjointed. their own, regardless of the fate of the Liberal party to the two Essays, and brought up a sheaf of extracts which peace in the council of nations. Our friendly relations with the great steady and settled conviction was thus engendered, neither Lushington rejected the greater number,-in other words

, he crisis which for years threatened to occur between Germany and logical nor reasonable, but inevitable and irresistible, that decided that no charge of heresy could be founded upon Government to exercise a conciliatory influence. In conformity with as between competing candidates Protestants should in all them. A few more were rejected at the hearing of the the vote of the Federal Diet, I have, as a German Prince, taken part in cases be preferred. If our Jewish friends-whose just Judicial Committee, and the remainder were thrown out by the Federal execution, and, in concert with the King of Prussia, the what they are about, they may continue to rejoice in the Dr Lushington's decision, not formally excluded by the last duct and bravery of the allied armies have

achieved brilliant results. removal from the Statute Book of all traces of disability; these two Essays at least

furnish no ground for any charge of conquest, but from the attainment of the just objects which are known

decision, are confirmed by it, it follows that the whole of My joy on this account does not spring from ambition and love of but at elections where there is a free choice, they

are not heresy. But no one, probably, ever supposed for a moment to Europe. I confidently hope that the results achieved will secure likely to be recognised as of the chosen race. By their that the Judicial Committee were called upon to pronounce on a happy future to countries the rights of which have long been violated, unscrupulous conduct at Brighton they have succeeded

in the mere tendency of any book. The day is rather too late and will not endanger the peace of Europe in a more extended sphere." adding another supporter to Toryism in Parliament. Mr for constructive heresy or constructive treason. Goldsmid never had a chance of being himself returned; The importance of the decision is known to all; but the heritance of her strength and glory abides with her on the new path of

rejuvenated form she preserves her good old spirit, and that the inbut if, through any pardonable delusion, he and his ad- Saturday Review, in its anxiety to show that really there is liberty which she has entered.” herents had imagined that he had one for the first two hours very little in all that has been going on of late, has fallen of the day of polling, they must after that time have been into the strange blunder of asserting that all the members of

THE GERMAN STATES. undeceived. There still remained a sufficient number of the Judicial Committee are " distinguished lawyers.” This

The Federal Diet. persons one way or other subject to their influence who, is a complete ignoring of three ecclesiastics, to one of whom

At the sitting of the Federal Diet on the 13th the representative of by voting for Mr Fawcett, would have secured him a with their gratitude to the Bishop of London, they will feel Oldenburg brought in a motion, referring to the march of Prussian majority; but this they were not suffered to do, and the some gratitude, of a somewhat different kind, to the Bishops the authorities. The motion was appointed to be debated at the next result is what we see.

of Oxford and St David's, for it is, I believe, pretty generally sitting of the Diet. Notice was received from General von Hake, comknown that the Bishop of Oxford was the prime mover of manding the Federal troops in Holstein, and from the Federal Com

the celebrated circular of the Bishops, which sold so many missioners in that duchy, of the occupation of Altona by two battalions EVIDENCE AGAINST PROBABILITY.

editions of 'Essays and Reviews,' and that when he requested of Prussian troops. Protests were handed in by various members

the Bishop of London to subscribe to it, the latter said that against this occupation. The Saxon representative complained that A curious question between direct positive evidence and he would follow the judgment of Bishop Thirlwall

. On some the measures adopted were in direct contradiction to the express negative circumstantial evidence appears in the trial of the grounds, the wisdom of which is best known to himself

, the promises of Austria and Prussia, and without the consent of the Diet. Queen v. Heane, in the Court of Queen's Bench. Mr Bishop of St David's put his name to it; the Bishop of He moved that these promises should be fulfilled, the authority of the Armitage, a young naval officer, who had commenced his London added his, and the rest obediently followed the Confederation be secured, and that the reserves (Austria and Prussia) career meritoriously, was charged by three officers with have now been decided which, but for this step, might have that the promises made should in no way be infringed by the Prussian

which had left the army of execution should be replaced by other example thus set to them. The result is that some questions Federal troops. The Austrian and Prussian representatives declared conduct of a nature not to be described, tried by a Court- remained unsettled for years, and possibly have torn the occupation. The Federal Commissioners in Holstein bave since stated, Martial, convicted of two of the three charges, and dis- Church of England in pieces. It is not right that the Bishop in reply to the communication dated the 9th inst. from the committee missed the service. Under the Naval Discipline Act he of Oxford should go without the thanks which he deserves. on the affairs of that duchy, that they would resign should they have proceeds against one of his accusers, Mr Heane, for wilsul

I am, &c., PRESBYTER ANGLICANUS. lost the confidence of the Federal Diet. false evidence, an offence not distinguishable from perjury,

February 16, 1864.

In Thursday's sitting it was resolved that an embargo should be but which, for proof, does not, like perjury, require two

placed on Danish shipping in German ports, in consequence of the

embargo laid by the Danes on German shipping not belonging to witnesses. This proceeding involved a new trial of all the

BLACK SKINS versus RED COATS.

Austria and Prussia. The Diet also decided to appoint a committee to circumstances on which the Court-Martial had decided when they found Armitage guilty of the conduct charged their boasted discipline and valour, our troops, when opposed will be elected at the next sitting of the Diet.

Sir, ---It is worth while to inquire how it is that, with all examine the complaint made by the Grand Duke of Oldenburg against

Prussia for infraction of territory. The members of the committee against him by Heane. That charge, on the face of it, was to savages, so often come off no better than second-best, highly improbable. The place of the alleged offence was The solution of the mystery will, I venture to think, be found

Hesse Darmstadt. the deck of the ship, at night, where all that passed might in Molière's play. The enemy will push in tierce while we In the sitting of the Lower House, on the 16th, the Government have been seen by the sentry on the bridge, or others, if are parrying in quarte. They bave not the politeness to was called upon to press for the settlement in the Federal Diet of the likely that Armitage would have run such a risk of instant secundum artem, to bring them into the proper positions for delayed. It was also demanded that the Government should in any attack or defence, but either assail them when unprepared, or behalf, and, in concert with the

other Governments faithful to the Con

case at once recognize Duke Frederick of Augustenburg on its own detection and exposure ? Unhappily there are too many instances of the fallibility of this question. And on the way; and thus it was that in New Zealand two armies of and their Prince even by the adoption of extreme measures. The when the reverse is the case prudently move out of harm's

federation, maintain the rights of the Diet and those of the Duchies other hand, it may be asked whether, if Heane was trump: Englishmen (80 to speak) were required to catch one of Chamber further desired that the Federal force occupying Holstein ing up a false accusation, he would not have studied natives, the first to make them run away and the other to should be increased, and that the Diet should send troops to occupy probability more in choosing the place of the offenco. stop them as they run.

Slesvig in common with the two great German Powers,

B.C.,

“truth to express which is sufficiently raised above men's the fact by which he supports his assertion that there is no THE LITERARY EXAMINER

“ every-day thoughts to appear worth especial notice when just proportion in my book. It is adequately proved, he

“it is presented also in men's every-day language ?” In says, by“ merely turning over the leaves," and observing A REVIEW IN THE ATHENAEUM. reviewing a book, of which the writer thus explicitly con- that "the century preceding Chaucer is represented by less For some years past English authors have had to regret it fair to say, without proving upon him one word used for hundred, to bring the reader up to that period.” It may

tends again and again for plain, clear, and direct speech, is "than one hundred pages, while it takes more than five the altered character of the chief weekly literary journal. the sake only of ornament, that its distinguishing quality be intended that the reader of the Atheneum, who has Writer after writer is in turn sent away empty when he is “a studied quaintness?"

been told nothing of the plan of the book, and being seldom looks to the old familiar columns of the Athenæum for a

Having represented, then, the style of the book as being a literary man of the more educated class may have heard fair representation of bis work in the just censure and the generous appreciation of an educated fellow-labourer. So studiously made the exact opposite to that which the little of any writers before Chaucer, should marvel at the

author in more places than one, and in plain words, sets sense of proportion which would fill five hundred pages common is the sense of disappointment, that among literary before himself and his readers as the standard of good with an account of what is represented by a simple blank men of good repute in their profession, I have no reason to

writing, and having represented this as a sort of merit in in his own mind, and leave only a hundred for the days of believe it otherwise than universal. Since in the profession of letters each individual thrives spite of which the book is invertebrate; the reviewer pro- Wiclif, about whom he has really heard.

The fact is that the book, of which the proportions are not by the discredit but by the sustained honour of his ceeds to his own little bit of “studied quaintness,” in his comrades, I trust that in the few plain words to which I description of the book as of the “invetebrate order of condemned upon this ground, consists of four-and-twenty

"literary productions.” He justifies this assertion with the chapters. The first starts in or before the year 500, shall here sign my name in personal discussion of a question following sentence, which is absolutely all that he tells of with those speculations on the origin of the English, that does not concern me alone, there will be nothing said the design of the author in a book which it seems to be his whether Celt or Anglo-Saxon, which are now considered that can be mis-interpreted into the expression of a mere own design to have a clear field for misrepresenting at his in University, examinations to be a necessary part of the private resentment which I do not feel. In the Athenæum for the 13th of February, there ap- to make the backbone of his performance, namely, that the brings to this country its first Celtic occupants, tells what

pleasure. He says, “The one idea which Mr Morley attempts study of our language and literature. The second chapter peared an article purporting to be a review of the newly “ English mind, one and the same, underlies every section is known of them, divides them into Gael and Cymry, and published first volume of my work on English Writers.

of our national literature, is as obvious a truism as it is begins the tracing of the Celtic element in our literature Whatever its intellectual worth;—and upon that head, let

to say that it underlies any other portion of our national and language. For it is in more than one place said to be it be understood distinctly, that I here intend to raise no " life.”

in the plan of the work to recognize men of every race in question whatever-the mere mechanism of the book

Now the third page of the volume is headed "Purpose the three kingdoms-English, Welsh, Scotch, Irish-a8 showed it to be one upon which its author had spent or

of this Book," and a paragraph, labelled at the side with the English people, and to discriminate among other inmust spend before it could be finished, the best produce of the same words, contains this sentence, “ In these volumes Auences from first to last the influence upon the Anglothe thought and labour of his life. It might seem, therefore, “I desire to convey certain impressions as to the influence Saxon race of contact or admixture with the Celts who not much to expect that in a journal holding, though it were exerted upon writers by the mind and fashion of the share the land with them. The same second chapter only by traditional repute, high literary rank, a critic who times in which they lived." In the next page it is proceeds, therefore, to give for the first time in a general believed the work to be ill done would show something written that

account of the literature of this country a description of of what it had attempted, and explain wherein it failed. Of course. I had not expected from the Athenæum so upon historical accidents affecting to a most remarkable extent the ancient literature of the Gaels. The next chapter much justice as this, and I did not get it, nor a tithe of fashions of speech, and not upon changes of fixed natural character, gives, also for the first time in such connexion, an it. But it so happened that what notice I did get was of its four periods, namely,

we must found the division of a History of English Literature into account of the ancient literature of the Cymry, almost a kind that now enables me, without raising one question

entirely representative of the struggle against the inThat of the Formation of the Language, ending with Chaucer ;

coming of the Anglo-Saxons. In this way, through a of critical opinion, without self-commendation, and even That of Italian Influence, felt even in Chaucer's day, but more without argument, to show distinctly to the public what fairly inaugurated by the company of courtly makers who pre- native literature, the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons is ceded the age of Elizabeth;

depicted, and the next nine chapters contain, in about sort of reviewing it is that has for a time, I hope only for a short time-withdrawn from the Athenæum the re- strongly by a change in the style of Dryden subsequent to the ' Annus whether good or bad, it is evident from its contents that it

That of French Influence, of which the beginning is marked 200 pages, a history of Anglo-Saxon literature, of which, spect of almost, or altogether, every reputable English Mirabilis ;' author. It may be that, where it is so much needed, a And that of English Popular Influence, which was established was meant to be as complete as it could be made by help of

the fresh studies of Anglo-Saxon scholars in England, France, quickened sense of responsibility will be the result of this gradually, but which should be dated from Defoe.

To the last-named there was added slight admixture of a German and Germany. Upon this follows in continuous narrative exposure, and with that hope it is made.

influence. The best period of German literature came in aid of the the early history of Anglo-Norman literature, which sets That I may not misrepresent my critic, or leave it to be tendency to revert to what is usually called Saxon English, which out with a chapter upon movement and change among the supposed that something in his review left unquoted would had begun to live again when writers addressed more babitually the modify the more remarkable statements that it might suffice great body of the English people than the polite circle of fashionable nations, showing the foundation of Normandy and influences patrons.

that went to the forming of the character and language of to quote, I will be careful to reproduce every word of the The student of English literature, then, should look for the the Normans. Then there is the fusion of languages and article to which I ask attention ; indeed, it is almost neces- characteristic mind of the nation underlying through all generations characters after the Conquest; there is the work of the old is not one sentence in it that does not contain a direct of every change of taste and style, marking a period, he should seek chroniclers; there is the rise of knightly romance, and the

the origin in many influences—as of public events or struggles at great activity of mind during our Henry the Second's or an implied misrepresentation. And again let me repeat home or abroad; of the personal character of the sovereign in days reign, an activity felt throughout Europe ;-these things that I raise no question whatever of the

merit of my own of patronage ; of the humour of the sovereign's court, which would and many more were all to be narrated in their right conwork. Let it be assumed, for the sake of argument, that colour the humours of all lesser patrons ; of the genius of great nexion with each other. it is altogether bad; and the impropriety of this review writers, or the fashionable extravagances of small writers who were

The existence of such matter the reviewer leaves unof it remains not less conspicuous. I dispute here no that those superficial differences do not change the mind within. recognized, when he gives as his one fact in evidence that opinion, but deal only with questions of fact, upon which it needs no literary skill to come to a true verdict.

Of this plan, stated at the outset in a few plain words, and the leaves” he finds that less than a hundred pages are

the book wants proportion, that "by merely turning over The reviewer begins thus :

then made the basis of the whole work, every hint is sup-given to the century before Chaucer. Even what stateMr Morley's book, in spite of a good deal of hanest labour and the pressed

by the reviewer in the Athenæum. The work is in its ment he here does make is not true. Except Roger studied quaintness which is its distinguishing quality, may be classed own pages shown to consistof an Introduction and Four

Parts. Bacon to whom alone I give eight pages, the writers he among the invertebrated order of literary productions. It wants a The Introduction is set forth as meant to explain " very names, Langlande and Wiclif, did not live in the century backbone to give it adherence and stability. It likewise wants that " generally " the grounds of the division into periods, and before Chaucer, but were his contemporaries. which is an indispensable quality for a literary bistory, -- just to justify the principle on which its plan is based, and close of the present volume. Chaucer has been only introbackbone of his performance, namely, that the English mind, one and which is even stated on its first leaf, that “no land can be duced, and it remains yet to be seen how much more the same, underlies every section of our national literature, is as

“ to itself a world. Neighbouring nations act and react space my plan will accord to an expression of the spirit of obvious a truism as it is to say that it underlies any other portion of “strongly upon each other, and Englishmen, insular as his time. Yet I have introduced Wiclif, have dwelt on our national life. And of the author's notion of proportion an adequate idea may be gained by merely turning over the leaves, when and tourists, actively observant of their neighbours' known of the life of Langlande, in an analysis that fills

they are called, have from the first been travellers his work, and have actually added to the little that is we find the century preceding Chaucer, the century in which the English language was in its most rapid stage of formation, which saw

“fashions. Whenever the literature of any country in nine pages of small print, the story and the interpreRoger Bacon, Wiclif, and Langlande represented by less than one “Europe has for a time become stronger than that of its tation of his Vision of Piers Plowman, read as a pure hundred pages, while it takes more than five hundred to bring the “ neighbours, its admitted strength has influenced them in a Vision of Christ seen through an age of trouble. reader up to that period.

"very marked degree." This having been explained at the Three statements are here made. 1. That the dis- outset in the Introductory Essay, which has for title its

The reviewer then proceeds as follows: tinguishing quality of the book is a studied quaintness; one subject," the Four Periods of English Literature,” Literature be accepted as a fair exposition of the writer's scheme,

If the introductory Sketch of the Four Periods of English 2. that it wants a backbone, since its one idea is that the then follows the first of the Four Books into which, ac- his object appears to be to explore all centuries of English lore, to English mind underlies every section of our national cording to the Four Periods taken as the basis of its plan, find a genealogical tree for modern novels and journalism. literature, which is a truism. 3. That it wants proportion the main work is divided. And this first book upon “the because less than a hundred pages are given to the century Period of the Formation of the Language ;”. or," the do not myself understand it. Obviously it would have

This sentence is a misrepresentation so complete that I preceding Chaucer.

“Writers before Chaucer;" is all else that is given in the been incompatible with even the slightest account that the Distinguishing between assertions which I leave unques- volume which the critio had before him. I say nothing critic might have given of the real object of the book as tioned and the facts adduced in their support, I have only whatever of the merit or demerit of this plan; every expressed by the writer, or with even the faintest

indication to show by a fact the misrepresentation contained even in reader has a just right to express his own opinion upon it. of its actual contents. the unsupported assertion which in these days of artificial But I believe that in no journal except the Athenæum writing might seem to have been intended by a flippant would a writer throughout his notice of a book thus the author, it is almost

impossible to conceive. The greatest

names

A more unsatisfactory volume, in proportion to the knowledge of writer to be complimentary, that the chief characteristic of planned, be careful to keep its author's purpose out of view, amongst English writers, and the greatest influences in the my book is “a studied quaintness." The book contains in and represent that he has no purpose beyond the expression development of thought, are either not mentioned, or are mentioned more than one place direct censure of affected writing of an “obvious truism.” It may be passing from fact to incidentally. While Lyły and Eupbuism occupy several pages, This pervades, for example, all that is said of the influence argument to add, that the more it is an obvious truism to Bacon, Shakspeare, Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher are merely of Italian and French conceits on English literature ; it say that the English character speaks through the English Raleigh," Drayton, and looker receive no mention” at all.” The appears in the comment upon Johnson's Latinized English mind, the more it is essential that no sketch of English influences of the discovery of printing, -—of the classical renaissance, – where I say, and illustrate the fact that “the number of literature should omit clearly to show how it does so.

of the Reformation, are not even hinted at. "syllables in a word matters infinitely less than its exact

If this sort of misdescription, bad as it is, were all that

I have myself always believed that Chaucer with whom “fitness to the measure of the thought it should express.” I had to show, I should not have come forward as I now do Again there are in the Introduction five or six pages to protest publicly against the manner of reviewing in the my book ends lived before the discovery of printing, or the devoted to an argument on English style and its variations

, Athenæum. But let the reader of this protest observe that Sketch had been the book of which it professes only for a of which one sentence and the pervading sense is that I am not selectivg points of comment. " exact, clear, emphatic, and duruble expression of our example of an offence often committed in the columns of specified purpose " hastily and partially” to mark the plan, " thoughts is the whole object of writing," or again that“ the the Athenæum, I am following this review sentence by As it is, the period which in the preliminary sketch real question for each genuine writer is How shall I give sentence that I may show its character in every part from "to my own mind the fullest utterance." Farther on, the the first sentence to the last. Abundant reason for the occupies six pages, occupies in the work itself more than

six hundred. critic might have found it asked in comment on the strain course I take will have appeared when all is said, for “bad

The reviewer adds : for wit produced in our own day among weak writers who begins but worse remains behind.” have been called into existence by extension of the reading Following the critic, then, through every sentence, and exercised more influence on the national mind and taste than that of

Even the translation of the Bible, the publication of which has circle, “What else is to be done by one who has no natural still leaving unquestioned all matter of opinion, I come to any other work whatsoever, is omitted entirely.

This is not misrepresentation but direct misstatement. (press would be also a requisite part of the sketch. After ment is the assertion in the next clause of the sentenceWitness the following extract from the Introduction to the pointing out certain relations to literature of the movement for one misrepresentation in a sentence does not always book:

represented by the great French revolution, and having suffice for this reviewer—that I give no distinct characLet it here be remembered that the period of English literature spoken of Goldsmith only to observe his influence on terization of the differing qualities of the three races. more directly influenced by the frivolities of Italy dates from the Goethe, in the course of a brief indication of the action The clearly predominant intention to display the character time of our Reformation in the Church, and occupies a period in and reaction of the English and the German mind upon each and temper of each race in the country, and each generation great religious questions became also more and more deeply engaged other, I speak presently of the influence of Scott's whole- of its writers

, cannot, of course, be proved by voluminous in political assertion of the rights of subjects. Throughout the days some character upon the reading mass, and say that in his quotation; but such characterization necessarily runs, again of civil war and of the Commonwealth Italian influence extends. To time “there was a wide general public now able to fasten and again, into distinct pages of summary, and from such that part of the period thus defined, in which we find the greatest

upon entertaining volumes. Scott widened it, and pages one or two citations will be sufficient evidence of the prevalence of literary affectation, belongs also the truest and most

purified its taste.” At the close of that Introductory misstatement of the critic. Here, for example, is part of earnest work on which the pens of English men have ever been engaged-our authorized translation of the Bible.

Essay I speak of the gradual advancement of the people in the characterization of the Gaels : In the actual work I record, as far as I can, in passage

true reading power. Then, having shown why the general Fights, courtship, and abduction ; occupation of the riches of a after passage, every translation of the Bible or single books reader turns inost readily to the literature of his own day, thinly-peopled or unpeopled soil; combat whenever two different of the Bible by Anglo-Saxons and Anglo-Normans, and at in which he understands every allusion, I express in this bodies of colonists chanced to be coveting the same broad lands, are last • Wiclif's Bible' is the headline to four pages near the morass of a glorification of novel reading, in which it is small migrations, fierce and persistent in fight, but not cruel, and sentence, the last sentence of the Introductory Sketch, the chief features of old Gaelic history. "It represente in its details a

somewhat restless pastoral people, apt to diffuse itself by great and · the conclusion of the volume.

said to end,-a design precisely opposite to that which is giving honour to a very chivalrous sense of fair play. There are few The reviewer continues : invented for me by the reviewer.

iales of mean espial and betrayal. More natural to the Gael was bis In fact, all religion and all philosophy and all history, and a very large portion of our best-known poetry, appear, for the purposes of Nevertheless the well-being of our wit depends greatly upon our notion that the invaders who had made good their landing unexpected, this plan, to bave had no existence. close familiarity with all that is best in English thought. And if unopposed, might reasonably, at the request of the invaded people,

re-embark, retire nine waves, and then let it appear whether in fair I care only to direct attention in this passage to the to recall some at least of the living influences which made our we could so read over again the story of the English mind, as

fight thay could make their landing good. The half-barbarous Gael statement that I have omitted "all religion” from the plan foremost writers what they were; if we could so think over it all - Pagan, but a gentleman in the rough— who to the best of his own of the book, because it follows the assertion that I have that we might attach to any name or period at least enough of human way and time held women in honour, and was often gladly subject said nothing about the translation of the Bible, and is interest to save an immortal utterance of living thought from being gloom) and had the taste for ornament that we find clearly displayed afterwards insinuated in another form. Surely it would feel in it a man living and speaking-something would be gain d. covered in its tombs. He liked the joyous festival, the glad run with

in the gold trinkets and the chased work of the Bronze period dissurprise the reader who had been thus instructed as to the There would be something gained even by small success in such an the hounde. He bed also a religious spirit and a lively fancy, that character of a book that he had not yet seen, to find in it effort ; and, knowing that, I pass now with good courage to an effort accorded dignity to the office not of the priest only but of the man of a chapter devoted to the Introduction of Christianity, and to recall in these volumes some traces of the life of English Literature. lettere. The young Gaelic civilization showed even in its vanities, the next chapter beginning with these words:

The monkish chroniclers I have undoubtedly described its follies, its misdeeds, a clever childishness that might advance into minds, the Keeper of the Heavens, Glory-King of Hosts. He is the have not given that character to any one of the many barbarism. But barbarism undoubtedly there was. The Ulstermen

"For us it is very, right that we praise with our words, love in as what they were, the journalists of their own day, but I maturer dignity and worth. There are no signs of the unmanly source of power, the head of all His great creation, Lord Almighty. He never had beginning, nor was made, nor cometh any end to the other classes of writers described in the first book of my were said to mix the brains of their slain enemies with lime, form Eternal Lord; but His power is everlasting over heavenly thrones. narrative.

them into hard balls, and play with them when boastfully comparing With high majesty, faithful and strong, He ruled the depths of the The reviewer, passing from misstatement to mis-state- such a brainstone, and to have lived seven years with two brains in

trophies. Conchobar is said to have had his own skull penetrated by firmament that were set wide and far for the children of glory, the guardians of souls.” Such is the earliest note of English song, if ment, proceeds thus :

his head, always sitting, for he would die were he to shake himself. Beowulf and the other ancient poems of its class were brought hither Nor is the extended treatment of the first of the periods, as Then, after more description of the Gaelic literature, by the Anglo-Saxors from their former home, for this is the opening shadowed forth in the preliminary plan, dissimilar in execution. We the characterization is applied formally to the purpose of of Cædmon's sacred poem; and in the latent spirit of this will be have here the result of a great deal of wide and miscellaneous read, the book, in a section headed, “The Celtic Influence on found the soul of nearly all that is Saxon in our literature. I have in the generalizations of this book distinctly set idea of cause and effect

. The prehistoric period, the origin of lan- English Literature. In the next chapter on the other great forth Christianity " as the great living awakener and guide the iron period do not seem to call for any lengthy notice in a book characterization which may be right or wrong-and I say

guage, the Indo-European theory, the stone period, the bronze period, section of the Celts, the very first paragraph begins with a “of thought,” laying, indeed, so much and constant stress professing to deal only with English literature. Neither should we upon the religious element in the English mind, that I have looked in such a work for an Anglo-Saxon grammar. But nothing of that—but is most certainly distinct. After the sometimes dreaded as I wrote with a full heart what I felt when such topies are introduced and fully treated—when we have first paragraph has said that, “in the most ancient Cymric to be the simple truth, a very different charge to that here disquisitions on the various races of Celts, and a long account of the “ literature we hear again the battle cries of conflict made of having left “all religion” out of my plan. The the religion of either Celt, Teuton, or Northman, and to find no “ and are touched with the profound melancholy of the

Anglo-Saxon period, it seems strange to miss entirely all notice of “between the resisting Celt and the advancing Teuton, very last words in my book are the lines taken from Chaucer. distinct characterization of the differing qualities and aptitudes of « bards who sang the death struggle of heroes in a hopeThat thee is sent receive in buxomness, the three races.

"less patriotic war," the description of the literature is The wrastling of this world asketh a fall;

The character of one part of this passage is sufficiently left to speak for itself, till finally, on page 214, its spirit is Here is no home, here is but wilderness,

shown by the little that, in confronting fable with fact, I summed up. But the Teutonic races are said not to be Fortb, pilgrimë! forth, beast out of thy stall! Look up on high, and thankë God of all.

have been compelled to state of what is really contained in Waivë thy lusts, and let thy ghost thee lead, the book thus misdescribed. All that is said in relation to book has told of the coming of the Anglo-Saxons, and

distinctly characterized. What is the fact? After the And Truth thee sball deliver, it is no drede.

the Celts and Anglo-Saxons of their cromlechs and barrows, described their old Pagan epic of Beowulf, not only does Only recalling the fact that the reviewer in the Athenæum and whatever else belongs to the stone, the bronze, and the the characterization run through the whole narrative, but has excluded from the knowledge of his readers every iron periods, is told in less than six pages of the 660. What at the outset of this part of the narrative a formal introaccount but his own imaginary one of the contents of the the believing country reader of the Athenæum is meant to

ductory characterization occupies nearly four pages. I work, I leave the misrepresentation implied in the next suppose when, having been sufficiently misled as to its real quote from it only a few sentences : sentences to speak for itself:

object and general contents, he is further told that my book quote from it only a few sentences : It is, indeed, a singular sketch, however slight, of English litera- contains “ an Anglo-Saxon Grammar,”. I do not know. But Saxont mind, yet ignorant of the best truth and honour. If their ture which excludes ihe names of Latimer, and Jewel, and Andrews, what is the fact ? After the coming of the Anglo-Saxons has Pagan theology had not taught our forefathers to labour in this and Barrow, and every later divine,-ignores Hobbes, Harrington. been represented through such record of the ancient litera. world by self-denial for a happiness beyond the grave, so neither had Locke, Berkely, and Hume as philosopher, .-takes no notice of ture of the country as the war-strain of the Gododin and it taught them to affect a spiritual aim in living selfishly. If the Clarendon, Boiling broke, Gibbon, and Hume as historian, and rejects the laments of Llywarch Hen, there is a chapter that hero fought and

the bard sang for food and fee, plainly, and honestly of the eighteenth century, with the exception of Pope and Goldsmitb. endeavours to tell, as far as ethnologists know, who the said, “ for to-morrow we die." The best that their gods promised One can barely imagine to oneself the train of thought of a man Anglo-Saxons were ; and this chapter is closed with a for them after death was that they should go on eating and drinking. who should, while professing, in however brief a compass, to show sketch, in thirteen pages, of the structure of Anglo-Saxon. The warrior was undisguisedly a tradesman in his sword—the poet the sequence and the generation of English anthorship, leave out of This is for the general reader an appendix that he may in bis song. What each desired be took if he could get it; but his as strong an attraction over their contemporaries and successors, as student, for whose use also the book is designed, a means substantial ends, and wbat end could it seek in those days but the Keats and Shelley, four men whose minds and tastes have exercised glance over or skip, but one that should give to the working motives were as open as his deeds. The practical mind of the Anglothose of any other four in English literature.

of exact understanding, and a standard of compari- conquest of material advantage? Theirs was a mind that marched The reriewer then reverts to his notion that as I am son to which he can bring at a glance those details of the straight towards its purpose, and spoke plainly. It may be said that irreligious so am I also a journalist, and thus he continues : formation of the language which afterwards occur in the there is in the unmixed Anglo-Saxon an imagination with deep roots

It

and little flower, solid stem, and no luxuriance of foliage. The gay Defoe, and Steele, and Addison are the authors on whom Mr course of this first part of the story of its literature.

wit of the Celt would pour into the song of a few minutes more Morley dwells with peculiar emphasis, and naturally enough, if we is meant to secure to the student the exactness he desires, phrases of ornament than are to be found in the whole poem of are to accept journalism as the crowning, latest and greatest birth of and it considers the comfort of the general reader who Beowulf. For example, in the death-song of Queen Mear over her English genius, if some five centuries of literary glory are, as Mr having turned over the dozen pages not intended for his husband Cuchorb, there are six similes

in eight successive lines, while great rivers in Australia end in moraso. The writer never seems to use, is thereafter spared the longer and, to the student, less in the six thousand there hundred and fifty lines of Beowulf only

five similes have been discovered, and these are rather natural be able to free himself from the continual pressure of journalism satisfactory pieces of written information about Anglo- expressions than added ornamente.

The people of upon his attention. He sees journalism in the Chronicles of the Saxon that would otherwise be necessary.

Holland have retained to our own day, little changed, this type of mediæval monke, in Giraldus Cambrensis and Robert of Gloucester. We suppose he would see it in Fra Angelico and in Filippo Lippi.

Having made what he could of the vague terror of " an Christianity struck root among them, mastered the first conditions of

character. Both Dutch and Anglo-Saxons, when the seed of Even Scott's novels, strange to say, were “ for seventeen years, in

Anglo-Saxon Grammar,” the reviewer insinuates for the a full development of its grand truths with the same solid earnestness, effect

, so many parts of a great influential family periodical, justly third time that there is in the book a strange want of religion. and carried their convictions out to the same practical result. Holpunctual to its half-yearly appearance." Sir Walter Scott is the “ It seems "strange,” he says, "to miss entirely all notice land indeed has been, not less than England, with England and for developed into adequate expression of the English wind." In fact, « find no distinct characterization of the differing qualities it

, lies in this energetic sense of truth and this firm habit of looking Last author dwelt upon; after bim “a true journalism was then being of the religion of either Celt, Teuton, or Northman, and to England, a battle-ground of civil and religious liberty. The power Mr Morley is determined to find journalism not only in the cloister, but everywbere ; and, no doubt, sees the journalistio element as and aptitude of the three races." I cannot suppose to the end. Christianity having once been accepted, aided as it was strong in Moses, Isaiah, Aristophanes, Tacitus, and Shakspeare, as that after complaining, or appearing to complain, that greatly in its first establishment among us by the zeal of the Gael

I tell anything at all about the Celts, his complaint now and Cymry, who were in this country the first Christians, the AngloAlthough the little that it has been necessary to say of is, that I do not give a complete history of their Pagan history of our literature, varied and enlivened by the diverse blending what the book does really contain will have sufficed to mythology. But even the character of Celtic Paganism of the Anglo-Saxon with the Northman and the Celt, religious show the character of this misrepresentation of its purpose, is, in fact, again and again illustrated in the sketch of energy has been the centre of its life. let me state, as far as I can guess them, upon what facts the ancient literature of the Gaels and Cymry. In the it is founded. According to the division I have chosen, the case of the Pagan Anglo-Saxons, the form and spirit of evidence of the degeee of misrepresentation that declares

Incidentally this passage may serve also as further fourth period of our literature is that of Pupular Influence their life is represented in a full sketch of the poem the book to be one in which Religion has been omitted In the Introductory Essay, which is designed broadly to of Beowulf, and the part of the narrative which imme- from its view of English literature. characterize each of the four periods, I have taken those diately precedes the account of the introduction of facts which best illustrate in this latest period the gradual Christianity is described in margin and headline as a

The reviewer proceeds : passage of literature from the days of patronage to the summing up of “the spirit of Anglo-Saxon Paganism.” Jof clear and direct thought and discovery, many methods of treat

There are many degrees of knowledge, many and diverse powers days when the public at large, become chief patron, influ- But if the reviewer meant only to assert that the book does ment; and to trace the successive changes of the spirit of Chivalry ences much for good and (till as a mass it is better taught) not recognise the religion of the Christian Celts and Teutons, from the time of its first manifestation up to its florid maturity in the a little also for evil, the manner and the matter of the larger I can only add the fact that many pages of it are given to the days of Froiss art and Chaucer, and the corresponding changes which part of what is written. Obviously it was through Defoe record of the pious labours of the Celtic Culdees, and that its different phases wrought upon literature, was not a task beneath and Steele and Addison and Johnson that this increase of there is hardly a page treating of Anglo-Saxon work that Mr Morley's faculties of sagacity and erudition. There would have direct relations between writer and people would be repre- does not, in some form, recognise with satisfaction the reli- doing such a thing well, than in talking about the monks as “our Bented, and some notice of the conquest of liberty for the gious element in the Teutonic mind. As absolute a misstate- quiet English medieval journaliste," and in uttering platitudes about

he finds it in Walter Scott.

the “ English mind." Mr Morley, however, speaks with contempt of Pages 454-5 contain a section entitled “Early Pro- went to New York after a short trial of mercantile life in

"of love created and worshipped by knights and troubadours meets with rençal Literature,” the authority cited in a footnote being Santa Cruz. By the help of friends, who saw the talent

that was in him, he became a student at King's College, his especial scorn. But if we deprive the Middle Ages of love, war Fauriel's 'Histoire de la Poésie Provençal.' and chivalry, and all who sang about them, we fear their story must

The reviewer proceeds:

New York, in 1774, just at the time when the Americans be a deadly-lively one.

Then was it only by condict that the Spaniard and Provençal were were beginning to talk eagerly about separation from EngHere there is a return to the misrepresentation that the taught by the Arabs? Were there no intervals of peace in which land, and entering with boyish zeal into their views he had purpose of the book is a glorification of journalism; and as was not one of the most learned of medieval Popes educated among eighteen years old. There were wisdom, justice, and

Christians went to Cordova and Seville to learn Arab arts and science ? won fame as an orator and pamphleteer before he was it has been already accused of containing no religion, so it is the Arabs ? and did the Provençal meet with the Arab alone in moderation in the American movements of those early now accused of containing no love, war, or chivalry. The Palestine ?

times. fact is that the book contains, in Chapters XVI. and XXI.,

“When your lordships," said Lord Chatham in Certainly there was a peaceful influence of the Arabs, the House of Peers, “ look at the papers transmitted to us I do not say a better or more correct, but most surely a as is told rather fully in three pages (447-9) of the book, from America, when you consider their decency, firmmore copious account of the origin, character, and sub, which is represented as having said nothing about it. The “ness, and wisdom, you cannot but respect their cause and stance of Arthurian and other romance than is to be found reviewer goes on : in any other general history of English literature. It is

“wish to make it your own. For myself, I must declare charged with omission of such matter, when it not only Saracen? Has Mr Morley never heard of the Mahommedan con: “not the people or senate who, in such a complication of

Is it true that Italy was not brought into equal contact with the “and avow that, in the master States of the world, I know describes but actually tells, in pages of small type, such quest of Sicily? Were not all the chief towns of Italy represented difficult circumstances, can stand in preference to the old tales of chivalry as the romance of Havelok * King Alexander. It speaks also more fully than any Pisans were the first to stand upon the wall of the Holy City ? Did delegates of America assembled in general Congress at other general account of English literature, of the language, whole crusade ? Did not Tancred and Bohemond lead a large bost fied champions of liberty, Hamilton, boy as he was, was

not the Pisan and Genoese fleet do signal service throughout the “ Philadelphia.” But among the most upright and dignicharacter and influence of the troubadours ; and even its last from Italy? Did not the town of Amalfi, establish hospitals in already conspicuous. As soon as fighting began, he made chapter but one ends with a full strain of war in Laurence Palestine and did not a Venetian doge make the first Latin conquest himself ready for war

, and for his conduct at the battle of Minot's Song on the Battle of Cressy.' Having pretended of Constantinople ? that the book he is misrepresenting does not contain these All of this that is pertinent to its history is actually he obtained the epithet of the Little Lion. “Well do Í

Preston, in 1776, his first experience of actual warfare, things, the reviewer adds, “If we deprive the Middle contained in the book. From page 577 to page 582 is a

recollect the day,” said one, " when Hamilton's company “ Ages of love, war, and chivalry, and all who sang about section entitled Seed-time of Italian Literature,' in which "them we fear their story must be a deadly-lively one." the Saracens in Sicily, the relation of Italy to the Crusaders," at its head was a boy, and I wondered at his youth; but

“marched into Princeton. It was a model of discipline; Here the reader, who has had no glimpse of the real Tancred, and so forth, are discussed in counexion with the substance of the volume thus reviewed, is distinctly left to course of literature. But there is nothing here to show

“what was my surprise when, struck with his slight infer that in a sketch of the literature of the Middle Ages, that the Italian commercial cities did deliver themselves whom we had already heard so much.”

figure, he was pointed out to me as that Hamilton of

That Hamilton the author, having a monomania for journalism, has up to enthusiasm for the Crusades. Even the part, for omitted not only love, war, and chivalry, but also “all example, taken by Dandolo in the conquest of Constan: in the term by which Washington loved to call him

was not yet twenty years old, and there was literal truth “who sang about them.” And yet the fact is, that the tinople was purely a trade speculation. He would sell

“My boy."

He was old enough and wise enough, howbook not only describes our own heroic poetry, but con- wood and workmanship at the best prices, but he would nects with much detail early English and French romance

, not give flesh and blood. How, while private adventurers ever, to be made Washington's aide-de-camp and secretary, and even, in wide discussion of the topic, goes to Germany to might waste their blood, the main policy of the Italian liest relics of American statesmanship in its best and

and the State papers of his writing are the best and manspeak of the Nibelungenlied,' and to Spain to speak of the cities was to live and not to die by the Crusaders, may be romance of the Cid Campeador. It is true that in doing read in the pages of Sismondi, who, as to this matter Hamilton had to complain of the “ favouritism and injus

manliest day. Day, and no more. As early as 1778 this the book distinguishes in early literature between the of the Venetian doge, adds that "the wisdom and poetry, of courts and that of nations. The only conceivable moderation of the Senate prevented the wealth and a tice, caprice and indecision, improvidence on the one the heart of a literature not chivalry, or love, or war, but " distant provinces where so many battalions of Crusaders were laying the seeds of the harvest of trouble now being ground, indeed, for the misrepresentation is, that it puts at population of the State from going to burial in those)" hand and false economy on the

other,” that were already the soul of a whole nation passing forward out of barbarism “and so many noble French families had been extin

reaped. to the conquest of right knowledge and a purer sense of “guished.” God.

But this is perhaps matter of opinion; if so, let it be heartily respect and rely upon. But even with Washington

Washington was the one man whom the secretary could The reviewer next proceeds to quote from the brief in- assumed that I am in the wrong. My purpose is not to he did not always agree. The subject of their first dispute, troduction to the book one passage, which he thinks he join issue upon interpretations of history, but simply to small in comparison with the great matters of the time, is can by comment twist out of its sense.

travel patiently and dispassionately from the first sentence very significant. When in 1780 Major André, the British Mr Morley says

an What morning dew of poetry, what obscure

tricklings of verse, for which the Athenæum has of late years been too fre- Adjutant General, taken prisoner while obeying orders in caused, in days barren of wit, the genius of Dante to leap forth from quently disfigured. In so doing I have at length reached proceeding

to make use of the proffered treacheries of the dry rock After the confusion and darkness of the last days of the last paragraph, and for that reason the last misstate- for his conduct, Hamilton tried his utmost in the first place

General Arnold, the American, was sentenced to be hanged the Ancient Literature, in the south of Europe there was rhyming of ment, in a review to which too many comments on books to avert altogether the punishment of death, and, failing quicker life by conflict with a warm-witted Oriental people. Against that have of late years appeared in the Athenæum bear a in that, to have it executed in some less disgraceful way. this people the Spaniards bad to maintain in their own land a daily family resemblance.

In this also he failed. strife, awakening devotional and patriotic chivalry, and giving soul Thus my reviewer ends : to song and ballad—and against them the men of southern France

For the first time, apparently, the general and his aide-de-camp

Notwithstanding, however, the strictures which we have felt it were directly opposed to each other on a matter of importance, and went out to fight upon he sacred soil of Palestine. Italy, or the contending cities by which Italy was represented, stayed at home; necessary to pass upon the volume, and our opinion that it will hold the whole affair seems to bave left a sore and dissatisfied feeling on the every man eager to fight with his neighbour, and trade profitably useful book for consultation, which, though ill digested and ill with the world."

“Poor André suffers to-day," he writes, on the morning of the arranged, contains a good deal of information, with references to a execution. “Everything that is amiable in virtue, in fortitude, in On which he observes, first :

great number of authorities who have treated on the various branches delicate sentiment, and accomplished manners, pleads for him; but How can the days of Dante be called barren of art the days of of literary inquiry with which it deals :- although Warton, one of hard-hearted policy calls for a sacrifice. He must die. I send you Guido Cavalcanti, of Cino da Pistoia and a crowd of other poets with the most obvious, is not mentioned once in the whole 784 pages, and my account of Arnold's affair, and, to justify sayself to your senti. whom Mr Rossetti has filled a volume.

very many other of our earliest and strongest labourers in the mine ments, I must inform you, that I urged a compliance with André's

of antiquarian lore, among whom we notice Ritson, remain likewise request to be shot, and I do not thiok it would have had an ill effect; But the second sentence after the last which he has without acknowledgment.

but some people are only sensible to motives of policy, and sometimes, quoted happens to contain my own citation of Mr Ros

Not knowing who can be the "v setti's admirable volume, and the narrative proceeds I have only to add that besides other direct citation of

very many others," from a narrow disposition, mistake it.

“When Andie's tale comes to be told, and present resentment is to speak - lightly according to the purpose and

over, the refusing bim the privilege of choosing the manner of his Warton, as on page 600, page 722 contains a footnote death will be branded with too much obstinacy. manner of the Introductory Essay to which it belongs -- saying distinctly, "I take these illustrations, and much “It was proposed to me to suggest to him the idea of an exchange of the literature before Dante; while Guido Cavalcanti " that is here said on the subject, from Warton's · History for Arnold ; but I know I should have forfeited bis esteem by doing and Cino da Pistoia are so far from having been over

" of English poetry;' looked, that in the course of my own argument a sonnet in the text both on that page and on the next; also that reject it; and I would not for the world bave proposed to him a by each of them is actually quoted from among the trans- on page 643, to the ancient Cuckoo Song is attached the posing him capable of a meadness, or of not feeling myself the improlations in Mr Rossetti's book.

note, “Given by Ritson in his Ancient English Songs ;" priety of the measure. I confess to you, I had the weakness to value The reviewer then continues :

also that to the Account of Robin Hood there is appended the esttem of a dying man, because I reverenced bis merit." Preceded also by Sordello and the great outburst of Provençal the note (on p. 645), "I take facts of the life of Robin grapb. It is true that Arnold was safe under the shelter of that song,-days which had their prose writers as well, Matteo Spinello,“ Hood from Ritson's “Iutroduction to the Robin Hood British flag, which never yet betrayed the fugitive who trusted to its Ricordano Malespina before Dante, and Dino Campagni and Giovanni Villani contemporary with him, although Mr Morley subsequently

“ Ballads,' 2 vols., London, 1832;" and that on page 736 protection, and that no English general would have consented to pure says there was no Italian prose till the middle of the fourteenth I cite, in a note, the full title of Ritson's edition of Ninot's chase the life of friend or brother, by delivering up the renegade century.

poems, and give it as the authority for notice in the text whose proffered services he had once accepted. But Hamilton felt I do not know what this means, if it be not desired to of Warton's blunder in mistaking Edward Baliol for forfeit the esteem of André by even mentioning it to bim. He mealead the reader to suppose that I'have recognized the ex- Edward III.; so that here, very near the end of the book, sured the nobleness of the victim by his own løfty standard. istence of no poets before Dante in a work on English the names of both Warton and Ritson appear on the same On that fatal morning there was a gloomy silence in the camp,

HENRY MORLEY. and, excepting the brigade on duty, officers and soldiers retired to literature, that besides recognition in the Introductory page

their tenis. It was the natural and spontaneous delicacy of true sketch, has given nearly half a chapter to the early litera

valour. Having breakfasted, and dressed bimself with care in ibe ture of Provence and Southern Europe. Again, when the

Alexander Hamilton and his Contemporaries ; or, The full uniform of a British officer, André walked calmly to the place of book is represented as saying, without modification, that Rise of the American Constitution. By Christopher in sight of the gibbet, he asked with some emotion : "Must I then there was no Italian prose before the middle of the four James Riethmüller, Author of " Teuton, a Poem,' and die in this manner ?" Being told it was inevitable, he said: “It teenth century, it is not stated that this followed reference Frederick Lucas, a Biography.' Bell and Daldy. will be but a momentary pang;” aod, springing upon the cart, he to the previously conflicting local forms and to each town's

made the necessary preparations with admirable com posure. He was 8corn of its neighbour's dialect. It is no real contradiction,

If it is pleasant to turn from the turgid stream of modern informed that the last moment was at hand, if he bad anything more therefore, to point to Neapolitan Ephemerides, or a Floren- American politics to the tolerably clear

, albeit disturbed, to say. “ Nothing,” he answered, “but to request you will bear tine town chronicle. The Florentines were doubtless much fountain to which it is to be traced, it is yet more pleasant witness, that I meet my fate like a brave man.” It was the dying aggrieved when Dante, in his treatise on the Vulgar to put aside the ill constructed and angrily written party thought of a soldier, who felt that he had to maintain the martial

honour of his country. Tongue, refused to accept their dialect as the literary manifestoes which for two years past have been crowding

still standard, but with that book for one landmark, a brief our shelves, and read a volume as excellent in style and almost

as it affected our grandfathers. In America, as in England, generalization upon literature might reasonably place the purport as the one before us. In his former prose work the name of André still awakens a sensation of sorrowing pity. "I beginning of Italian prose after its publication, in the days Mr Riethmüller showed how he could be at once kind and was among the extraordinary circumstances that attended bim,” says when Boccaccio wrote his Decameron and Florentine His honest in sketching the life of his true-hearted but mis Hamilton, " that, in the midst of his enemies, he died universally retory was written by the three Villani. But I will concede guided friend. He here has a more important subject for himself

, nothing is more fitted to endear his memory to gentle hearts

on both sides of the Atlantic, than the generous humanity be dishere every point upon which argument can be raised. Let his pen, and he treats it in a more masterly way. it be assumed that in this I am wrong. The reviewer

Alexander Hamilton quite deserves to have a careful played in the case of the unfoitunate André. continues :

biography written of him by an Englishman for English A few months after this the aide-de-camp resigned his

readers. In him we see reflected all the best features of post. The cause was certainly curious. Washington had Then was there nothing but “rhyming of love verses and des; the American struggle for independence. He was born in met Hamilton on the stairs of his house, and told him that full, account may be found in so well known a book as Fauries the West Indian Island of Nevis in 1757, whence, left at he wished to speak with him. Hamilton answered that • History of Provençal Literature ?'

a very early age to fight his own way in the world, he he would wait on him immediately, but was unexpectedly

;

detained by business. On going back, he says, “Instead would at least have given time to adopt a national policy, and to form / volume. Making Hamilton the central figure, and sketching “ of finding the general, as is usual , in his room, I met a generation of statesmen; and if

, after a full and fair trial, it had his portrait in a truly artistic way, he has grouped together him at the head of the stairs, where, accosting me in an substitute the hereditary for the elective principle, the transition all the famous men of his time, and in describing their " angry tone, Colonel Hamilton,' said he, you have need not have been violent, or have involved any sacrifice of the movements shown clearly the origin of all the strength and "kept me waiting at the head of the stairs these ten established liberties of the people.

weakness of American politics. «6 minutes; I must tell you, sir, you treat me with A year was spent in obtaining the agreement of the "disrespect. I replied, without petulancy, but with States to the constitution drawn up by the convention, and “ decision, 'I am not conscious of it, sir; but since you in establishing the division of the people into the federalist

Arichandra, the Martyr of Truth; a Tamil Drama. « have thought it necessary to tell me so, we part.' and republican parties, never since broken down. In

Translated into English by Mutu Coomara Swamy, " . Very well, sir,' said he, 'if it be your choice,' or some- February, 1789, Washington was elected first President,

Barrister-at-Law, of Lincoln's Inn, &c. &c. Smith, thing to this effect; and we separated." In less than and in March the administration was in working order.

Elder, and Co. an hour Washington sent to withdraw his censure, and Hamilton accepted the onerous and thankless post of This is a very curious and a very interesting little book, invite Hamilton to rejoin his staff; but the young man Secretary to the Treasury, his hands beiug fettered at and our readers will, we think, thank us if we give them was determined. By this separation, however, the friend- starting by a heavy debt which a large part of the people some account of itself and its author. Mutu Coomara is of the ship of the two great men was not permanently broken. wished to repudiate, and which no one wished to assist in Hindu nation called Tamil, which is that which occupies the “A day was to come when Washington again found in paying. "When warned of the calumny and persecutions southern extremity of the Indian Peninsula. The Tamils are “Hamilton his most tried and faithful counsellor, and to which inevitably attend his efforts to do his duty in such reckoned to be as many as twelve millions in number, about “ the hour of his death he never spoke or wrote of him “a position, Hamilton only answered, “Of that I am a million of whom have colonized and settled in the neigh66 but in terms of affectionate esteem.

" perfectly aware; but I am convinced it is the situation bouring island of Ceylon, forming about one half its popuDuring the seven years preceding that day Hamilton ". in which I can do most good.'”

lation, and incomparably the most civilized and industrious ; was doing his utmost to build up the liberty of his country His anticipations were fully realised. Jefferson, coming for the native inhabitants, the Singalese, compared with on a firm basis. Having retired from the staff in April, from France to take office as Secretary of State, and coming them, are barbarous and slothful. The Tamil language is 1781, he spent a few months in writing a series of essays, hot with the fury of the French Jacobin clubs, soon be- one of the three cultivated languages of Southern India, called the Continentalist,' showing the people what re- came leader of an organised opposition to the more aristo-called the Dravidian. These differ from each other, but forms seemed to him most necessary; and in Mly he cratic tendencies represented by Washington and Hamilton. between them and the languages of Northern India there obtained the command of a battalion. During the last six To the President he was obliged, for some time at any is nothing in common, except an infusion of Sanskrit, months of the war he took an active part; and as soon as rate, to make a show of friendship and submission; but which is an ingredient in them much as Norman-French is there was no more work to do," the soldier of five-and- that only made him more violent against the Secretary of an ingredient in English. As to the author himself, he is “twenty withdrew from the field, with no emolument but Finance. The opposition was carried into all the in- an accomplished gentleman-very much of an Englishman “his fame, and set himself to study the law, in prepara-tricacies of American politics during more than five years. by speech and pen-a barrister of the English and Ceylonese " tion for an entirely new career. In four months' time Throughout all that time Hamilton worked with notable Bar, and a member of the Council of Ceylon. he had mastered the subject sufficiently to write for his zeal and honesty, both in his own province of the admi Now for the work. It purports to be a drama translated own guidance a Manual on the Practice of the Law,' nistration, and in general assistance of Washington, now from the Tamil, but the Tamil original is a novel conducted which was found good enough to be published and en- and till death his firm friend. But as soon as he felt that by interlocutors, and only thrown into the European form of larged for the guidance of others. Late in 1782 he was duty to his country would allow it, he gladly resigned his drama by the translator. The Tamil itself is not, indeed, an elected a delegate to Congress, and after a year spent in post, and retired to private life. He resumed his posi- original work, but taken from an episode of the Mahabarat, zealous labour at its reform he gave it up in disgust. tion as a barrister in 1795. “I have beheld one of the one of the two far-famed poems of the Sanskrit, the other “He entered into a complete examination of the prin- "wonders of the world," wrote Talleyrand of him at this being the Ramayana. It is remarkable, indeed, that none of

ciples of the existing Confederation, and condemned time; "I have seen a man who has made the fortune of a the vernacular languages of India contain any original works “ them as utterly impracticable, and incapable of adapta. " nation, labouring all night to support his family." that are held in estimation, all that is valuable in Hindu

tion or amendment.” He drew up a scheme of entire But, though out of office, he laboured none the less literature being confined to the Sanskrit. The interlocutors reform; but he had to throw it into a drawer, with the heartily, with pen and tongue, in the cause of American in- in the Arichandra are very numerous, for we find among endorsement, “Intended to be submitted to Congress in dependence. For a brief space, also, he had to serve his them at least a dozen gods and goddesses, some twenty men, 1783, but abandoned for want of support.” He there- country in another way. When in 1798 Washington exclusive of Brahmins, sages, and Ascetics, and seven women, fore resigned his seat, and for three years he practised as consented to resume command of the army and put it in exclusive of attendants. The scene is various, being first a private man at the bar, doing at the same time all he working order, it was on condition that Hamilton should laid in Ayòdiah, the modern Oude, then in the heaven of could to help his newly-formed country in its time of also be employed, as General second in command. This India, and finally in the holy city of Kàsi, the modern threatened ruin. The people of America, united for a appointment, however, was also resigned very soon after Benares. The time extends to several months. The nature

season by the struggle for independence, seemed about Washington's death in December, 1799. The fact of its of the work will be best described by giving a few “ to split into a number of obscure and hostile factions, having been conferred upon him at all made liim mans samples of it, and we begin by an account of the hero, the “who only agreed in devotion to republican forms, and in fresh enemies. “Mine is an odd destiny," he wrote to King of Oude, and of the heroine his Queen, daughter of “their antipathy to anything that resembled a strong an old fellow-worker, in 1801. "Perhaps no one in the a neighbouring King: “government. It was observed that the relaxation of " United States has sacrificed or done more for the present

This youthful warrior is the King of Agòdiah, the land where the "authority had been followed by a corresponding change “ Constitution than myself; and, contrary to all the anti-all-wise Rama was born. He is of the Solar race : his ancestors "in manners, that the old respect of servants for masters, “cipations of its fate, as you know from the very begin- were distinguished alike for deeds of valour as of virtue. He sur" of children for their parents, of the young for the aged, “ ning, I am still labouring to prop the frail and worthless passes in beauty even Madana, the God of Love ; for bis radiant face " was on the wane; that politeness and reverence were “ fabric. Yet I have the murmurs of its friends, no less resembles the bright red-lotus in full blossom before the God of

Morning. His shoulders are broad, bis limbs exquisitely moulded, "giving place to a rude and boisterous self-assertion; and “than the curses of its foes, for my reward. What can I bis chest deep, bis whole form the perfection of symmetry and grace. “ wbile good men apprehended a moral and social deterio- “ do better than withdraw from the scene! Every day He has a melodious voice and gracious manners. He smiles, and his “ration, merely prudent men looked forward with dismay “ proves to me more and more that this American worlă pearly teeth flash forth a brilliancy like that of lightning. Io learn. to the prospect of political anarchy." " was not made for me.”

ing, great-in morals, pure-in heroism, unrivalled--Arichandra is Those issues could not altogether be restrained, but as The last and most decisive proof of this soon came. good. Manu is his guide-love, liberality, and justice bis never:

the friend of the gods, the terror of the vicious, and the refuge of the much as one man fighting against a nation could do to During the later years of his life his most vindictive enemy failing attributes. A paragon of mortals, and the possessor of all prevent them was done by Hamilton. After nearly four was Aaron Burr, his former rival at the bar, and his bold earthly and heavenly blessings, who buf Arichandra can be your years of waiting, he saw an opportunity for bringing up traducer in Congress. When Burr sought the office of husband ? his old scheme of reform. He submitted to Congress in President, in 1804, Hamilton felt it right to denounce him The description of the heroine is this : February, 1787, a proposal for assembling a general as an unsafe adventurer. For this Burr challenged him to We were at Käsi, visiting the temple of Vis Wandth: thence we convention, to take into consideration the position and fight a duel, on the 11th of July, and Hamilton accepted went to Cannamàpoori, where reigns a king of the name of Mathèprospects of the United States. The proposal was acceded the challenge, resolving not to use his pistol. Burr's theyan.. We learnt that, as the reward of great self-denial and to; and in May a new body of men was brought together pistol, however, was used with fatal effect; and, after austerities performed by him, he has been blessed by the Gods with at Philadelphia; among the number Washington, Maddison, thirty hours of horrible agony, the patriot died, only forty; to describe to you her personal charms or mental attractions. Suffice Franklin, and Pinckney. Hamilton, at this time just seven years old. His murderer lived to be eighty, hunted it to say, that beauty like hers has never been beheld ; nor does the thirty, came as the delegate of New York. In a long and as it were by one of the old Greek furies, through two- fish-bannered and cane-bowed God of Love wield a mightier instrumemorable speech he told them that the time was come for and-thirty years of weary life. Wherever he wandered, ment of torture than that which is found in the gazelle-like eyes, a change of government, and urged the establishment of a through nearly every part of Europe and America, men

the flowing tresses, the heaving bosom, and the slender waist of this

queen of women, Sandramati. Her fair face and brilliant glances new administration, as nearly as possible resembling that shrank from his society, and still he lived on in poverty cast into the shade even Santra, the God of Night. Oft he peeps out of the parent country. Four busy months were spent in and misery.

in the heavens, and as oft be bides his orb, shamed by this rising the discussion of his scheme and various amendments to Perhaps it was well for Hamilton's own happiness that moon of India. Her virtues have secured to ber the especial favour it; and the result was the formation of that new constitu- he died young. Into his short life he crowded more work of her patron god, Siva. She stands peerless on the earth. And if tion of which Franklin said, “I consent to it, because I than most great men have been able to do, even in twice our understandings direct us aright, you alone, O Monarch ! are her

fit compeer. expect no better, and because I am not sure that this is as many years; and already the evils of American govern“ the best." Hamilton was sure that it was not the best; ment, which he had vainly tried to check when they votaries of Siva, the third person of the Hindu Triad, or

The parties represented in the novel or drama are but he signed it with the others, seeing that none better first appeared, were growing too strong to be rooted out the Destroyer, the most frequent of all the forms of was to be hoped for. “ It is a remarkable fact,” says Mr by any process less violent than that by which we now

Hinduism. Riethmüller," that Hamilton's scheme differs from the see the country torn in pieces. In many ways America

Siva, or as his worshippers often call him, constitution finally adopted, exactly in those points in has prospered marvellously'; but in the

vital principles of Mahadeva, that is, the Great God, is, as his title would lead “which the latter has proved most defective.” national welfare she has steadily deteriorated. “Nothing

us to infer, a very ferocious sort of god, not exceeded in this By giving an absolute, instead of a limited sovereignty to the can be more dreary,” says Mr Riethmüller, with truth, quality by any personage of the Hindu Pantheon, except his central power, be sought to avoid those collisions between the con " than the records of that half century of ever-deepening consort

, Durga, always represented with a bloody head in federacy, and ibe States

, which have been the fertile source of half “ gloom, relieved here and there by a flash of light from one hand and a drawn sword in the other, and wearing a the troubles of America ; while, by retaining the State Governments " the intellectual activity of a Clay, a Calhoun, or a

necklace of skulls round her truculent throat. Notwithin a subordinate position, he hoped that they would apply themselves - Webster, but, in the main, rolling darkly along on its standing, she is thus invoked by the pious Hindus : training of public men, and take the place of those great European

“obscure and blundering course, till all difference of I adore the incomparable feet of the Goddess, wbo, mounted on a liberty, and law. By vesting ihe executive power in a Chief Magis- “power. corporation, which have always been the best safeguards of order

, “principle is absorbed in a selfish contest for pelf and lion, and bearing aloft in her arms the trident, the skull, and tho

Then, while the mantle of Washington passes of Vishnu and the consort of Siva. Tbou, O Goddess, art beyond trate, chosen indeed by the people, but whose dignity and honour “ from one lay figure to another, all great principles are the ken of all words and thoughts. Is it for me, a puny mortal, to should not be the sport of every breath of popular bange pande whatsuppressed, all inquiries stifled, all difficulties evaded or recount thy innumerable deeds of valour and might ? 'Deign, Durga ! high post an object worthy of tbe ambition of the best and noblest, "shuffled out of the way; and the American people, to favour me with thy divine presence. and not to be lightly bestowed by any less solemn sanction than the soothed by the voice of Alattery, and plunged in an The Hindus of the Drama, like most Orientals, are deliberate exercise of a nation's will. By granting the same tenure" atmosphere of self-delusion, are content to admire their rigid predestinarians. Certain hermits, speaking among of office to one branch of the legislature, he intended to strengthen own perfections, and look down with contemptuous pity themselves, thus express their deliberate opiuion on the the bands of the executive for good, while keeping it witbin the bounds of its legitimate authority, and to control the impatience,

on the rest of the world: till the inevitable end comes, subject : while maintaining the rights of the democracy. Both President and “ and history affords one more example that no nation can In this universe not even a straw shakes with the wind unless it law, interpreted by an impartial and independent tribunal. The confide its government with impunity to the manage-destined to be 80 ? Mortal men and immortal gods fancy that much Sepators would bave been responsible--but responsible only to the safely dispense with the services of its ablest citizens, or were so willed before. Fate rules supreme-what avails man's will? whole life of politicians would not bave been wasted in election tactica, and wretched intrigues for power. What other evils might "ment of inferior men.”

is in ther-nothing is beyond them. Verily, verily, they are have arisen under this constitution it is now in vain to inquire. It! We are loth to part with Mr Riethmüller's delightful puppets, under the control of strings in the hands of One above 'Yes

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