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MOSES and SON respectfull call
. attention to their large and well-assorted ‘tock of Juvenile Clothing. The newest fabrics are combined with the latest and most fashionable designs, and the best workmanship. E. Most-:5 and Son give particular attention to this important branch of their business, and they can with confidence affirm that the riccs are such as must satisfy the most economical. This epartment is in a distinct part of the premises, which will be found a great convenience for Ladies and Children.
'3 Homoeopathic Practitioners, and the Medical Profession generally, recommend Cocoa as being the most healthful of all beverages. When the doctrine of Homoeopathy was first introduced into this country, there werepo be obtained no preparations of Cocoa either attractive to the taste or acceptable to the stomach : the not was either supplied in its crude state or so unskilfully manufactured as to obtain little no'ice.
J. EPPS, of London, Homoeopathic Chemist, was induced in the year 1839 to turn his attention to this subject, and at length succeeded, with the assistance of cisborate machinery, in being the first to produce an article runs in Its composition, and so refined by the perfect trituration it receives in the process it passes through, as to be most acceptable to the delicate stomach. For general use,
EPPS'B 0000A isdistiuguished asan INVIGORATING, GBATEFUL
BREAKFAST B EVERAGE, pOssessing a most
Dr Hassall, in his work on “ Adultcrations of Food," ssys : “Cocos contains a great v iriety of important nutritive principlea ; every ingredient. necessary ti the growth and sustenance of the body.” Again,“ as a nutritive, cocoa stands very much hi her than either cofl'ee or tea."
irections: Two tesspoonluls of the powder In a breakfast ensé filled up with boiling water or milk.
cured in tin-lined Ilb., bib" and flu. packets, labelled, and sold at. 1|. 6d. per lb. by Grocers. Confectioners,aud Chemists.
E. LAZENBY AND 8011,! FAMILY GBOCERS and FOREIGN WAREHOUSEMEN.
YORK RAMS, 1s. Id. per pound ; Westphalias, 9d. per pound.
General Priced Catalogue post free. 6 Edwards street, Portman square, London, W.
N.B.-Sole Proprietors of the Receipt for Harvey's Sauce.
TURTLE—MeCALL’S WEST INDIA.
Superior quality, prepared by new process. Flavour unsurpassed. Beal Turtle Soup, quarts, 105. 6d. ; pints, 5s. 6d. ; half-pints, 3s. Callipash and Callipee, 10s. 0d. per pound. Sold by leading Oil and Italian Warehousemen, Wholesale Chemists, and others.
J. McCALI. and 00.. PROVISION STORES, 137 HOUNDSDITCH, N.E. '1,‘ Prize Medal for Patent Process of Preserving Provisions without overcooking, whereby freshness and flavour are retained.
OLLOWAY’S PILLS—REMARK, ABLE RECOVERY.-Mr Gamis, Chemist, Yeovll. writes that a Lady re ldingln thstTown had for many year.been suffering severely from indigestion and liver co ' plaint. for the “110' of which her medical man told her he could (it. nothing in ther. Unnerved by thi» announcement, sin sought sympathy from friends, one of whom recommends Holloway's Pills, which were at once procured. The invalid. carefully attending to the accompanying directions, took the Pills and soon perceived a change which rqually astonished and delighted her. She gradually gut quite well-Pains i the side, heaviness In the head, conl'usIOu or thought, gidd. ness, low spirits, and many other sufferings indicative o
The Alexandra Park is situated fifteen minutes from London, contains 480 acres of well timbered and beautifully undulating land, 200 of which willbe laid out as a Park, and the remainder sold for building purposes.
Share Capital, £600,000, in 50,000 “ A " Shares and 60,000 " B " Shares of £15 each. Debenture Capital, £300.000.
The Debenture Capital has been created principally for the purpose of payin for the Estates, and for the purchase of the Interactions Exhibition Building of 1862, now erecting in the Park, by Messrs Kelk and Lucas, Contractors; and it is anticipated that the whole of this Capital will be redeemed by the sale of the Surplus Lands.
The holders of " A " Shares are entitled to Dividend out of the net divisible profits of the Company, at the rate of 1 per cent per annum, and of I-5th of the remaining profits in priority to and before payment of any dividend to the holders of “B ” Shares. The holders of "B " Shares then receive all the remaining divisible profits of the Company. The original Allottce of five “A ’ Shares, so long as he shall retain them, will be entitled to a Season Ticket, admitting the holder to the Park and Building when the same are open to the Public, but subject to the Rules and Regulations of the Company, which Ticket will be forwarded on the payment for allotment. £1 per share to be paid on application and £1 on allotment.
will be awarded on this Foundation after the next Examination. provided that t-~o Candidates are declared by the Examiners to be duly qualified. The next examination will beheld at University Hall, Gordon Square. London, on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd days of November, 1864. Candidates must furnish satisfactory evidence of age, graduation, and other points, the particulars of which may Secretary of the Trust; and the names and addresses of all Candidates must be sent to the Secretary at University Hall, on or before October Ist.
CHARLES J. MURClI, Secretary.
University Hall, Gordon Square, Feoruary Inn, 1864.
Ladies' Gold Foreign Watches - - - - 8 Guineas Gentleinen’s do. do. - - - - 10 ,, Ladies' or Gentleman's Gold English Lever do. 18 ,, Strong Silver Lever Watches - - - - 5 ,, Gentlemcn’s Gold Compensation Balance
Watches - - - - - - - 40 ,, Silver do. do. - - 25 ,, Marine Chrouometers - - - - - 86 ,,
Gold and Silver Pocket Clironomctcrs, Astronomical,
Turret, and Bracket Clocks of every description. An elegant assortment of London-made Fine Gold Albert and Guard Chains, 82c.
Dear, 61 Strand (adjoining Coutts's Bank); 34- and 36 Royal Exchange; and at the Clock and Marine Compass Factory, Somerset Wharf, Strand, London.
H ANDELIERS III BRONZE and OBMOLU for DINING-BOOM and LIBRARY. Candelabra, Moderator Lam s, in Bronte, Ormoiu, China, and Glass. Statuettes in arian, Vases and other Ornaments, in a Show Room erected expressly for these articles.
OSLEB, 45 Oxford street, W.
SLER'S GLASS CHAN DELIERS. Wall Lights, and Mantel-piece Lustres, for Gas and Candles, Table Glass, Stc. Glass Dinner Services for 12 persons, from £7 15s. Glass Dessert do. do. do. from £2 All Articles marked in plain figures. Ornamental Glass, English and Foreign, suitable for Presents.
Mess, Export, and Furnishing Orders promptly executed. LOADON—Snow Boone, 45 Oxroan starter, W. BIBMIBGHAM-Manursc-roav AND Snow Boone, Bsosn STBEHT.—ESL&DIISIICII 1607.
UPERIOR DIN INC-BOOM FURNIof eleg
room Chairs, with the prices marked in plain figures, are now on View in the Show-Booms of Messrs DltUCE and Co., 68, 69. and 58 Baker street.
be obtained on application to the I
TUBE—Fifty sets of Dining Tables, and Sixty Sideboards, ant designs; also, an immense variety of Dining
N.B.-500 Easy Chairs and Settees, and 100 Fashionable
Sir Henry E. F.Young, 0.6., late Governorof Tasmsnls and formerly of South Australia.
William Nic -l, Esq., M.P., Director of the London and County Bank
Hugh C. E. Chliders, Esq., 11.1%, Director of the London and C -unty Bank.
George Young, Esq, Director of the City Bank.
Andrew Lawrie, Esq, Director of the Cit. Bunk.
Colonel James Holland, Director of Agra and United Service Bank.
1’. G. Vander Byl, Esq. (Messrs Vander Byl and Co., Cape Town .
i Frederick )llarrison, Ilsq., Director of the London and South
Anler'can B .nlt.
' Richard B. Wade, Esq., Director of the National Provincial Bank of England.
William Tabor, Esq , Director of the Imperial Bank.
William J. M xwed, Esq, Director of the National Provlncial Bank of England.
George Campbell, Esq. (liessrs II. N. Dickson and Co., Loud ii, and Dickson, Dd W01". and C1,. Sun 1573061500).
Georgi E Searnrnaoga, l-Z-q. (Messrs Scaralnanga Brothers, London and New York).
i Bobert Rodgers, bsq. (Mes‘rs Robert Rodg- rs and Co., Liver
pool, and IIOtIi‘CI'S,BIt')'0‘, and Co., San Francisco).
Bssxsas The London and County Bank, Lombard street, and Its Bronco s. The City Bank, 'I‘hreadneedlc street, and 34 Old Bond Street.
The Bank of Liverpool for Liverpool.
Messrs Mullens, Marshall, and Danicll. 3 Lombard street, i Londo 1. l Messrs Bites and Riddclsdcil, 26
Ltlndllll. i Messrs Huggins and Rowsell. I Threadneedle street. Messrs 'l‘aunton and Co., th’C'POOl and Manchester.
Sicam‘snr. Samuel Magnus, Esq. Temporary Oflicrs: London Financl ll Ass ciitlon (Limited), No. l 'I‘hr.alh.eedle street.
, The London Financial Association (Limited) invite Sub ‘ scrlrtcns for the Capital Stock of the British and Calibri plan Banking Company (Lilllllr'li). This Bank is established to supply th s:: facilities which the (RBI and lnci'easlng trade of Cilifornii Imperativer |requlres. It is remarkable that While Blltisli capital has i been seeking investment In Jo:nt Stock Banking operations
Throgrnorton st rcet,
in every part of the world, Cohan-his has noun lumen“ i UYCI'll-Oketi. This omission has exchcl no llttle surprise on the part of the merchants and tra :ers of that State, and the establishment of this Bank will be eagerly hailed by them. A large field oforerations will be open to this Institution. The yield of the Gold Fields is above £3,000,000 per annum, and is steadily increasing. Silverniincs, discovered about four years ago in the new territory of Nevada, are now prodocing £200,000 sterling per month. Great progress has been made in agriculture, and instead of iiiipmting grain, as the Gold Colonies of Australia. do, C~lllftllnla exports largely. The population of the state exceeds 500,000, exBillslvc of the CilllleS'f and Indians, and is on the increa~e. Applications for Shares must be made in the form attschcd to the Full Prospectus, which may be obtained at the Offices if the Londiln Financial Association (Limited), of the Brokers, or of the Bankers.
disordered liver can be dis elled with ease and certslnt b '
.p ected—as the most effectual, safe, speedy, and convenient
Sold in Boxes, 15. lid. ; and Tina, 2s. 9d, 4s. 6d., and 11s.
each, by T. KEA'I‘IBG, Chemist, 79 St Paul’s Churchyard,
Which are DAILY RECOMMENDED by the FACULTY
In consequence of a decision of the Committee of the Stock Exchange, requiring that the payment of“. per share should be made in one sum, the Directors will not demand from allottees the 11. 10s. per share (specified in the prospec=us as being first payable) before the payment of the 21. 10s. per share, but the whole 41. per share in one sum will be rcqalred to be paid on or before the llth of March next.
The List of Applications for shares in this Bank will be positively cluselt in London at Two o‘clock on Saiurd .y next. the 20th instant; and in the province. and abroad on Monday next, the 22nd Islam.
The Directors will meet flr allotment of shares on Thursday, the 25th February.
By order of the Directors.
Feb. 17. 1864.
SAMUEL MAGNUS, Secretary. ' 1HE MARITIME INSURAN CE COMPANY (starran
. Incorporated, with Limited Liability, under the Companies“ Act, 1562.
‘CAPI'I‘tL. £1,000,000, in 100,000 SHARES of £10 each.
. First issue 50,000 Shares, instead of 25,0J0 Shares, as before
Deposit on Application £1 per Share. Further Payment on
With power to add to their number.
Bssixi-zas. ‘ The National Bank 01'Liwrpoo1 (Limited). The National Bank, Old Broad street, London. And is Branches in Ireland. . The Union Bank, Manchester. Bananas. chéy \\ alker Lucas, Bsq., 3 Copthall buildings, London, 1 .C. ' George Edward Schul s. Esq., Manchester buildings, Tithebnrn street, Liverpool. Edward Fox, Esq.. 51 Dame street, Dublin. Frederick Fielder, Esq., Cross street, Manchester. Charles Boult, Esq, 35A St Ann's square, Manchester.
Aunrrons—Messrs Harmood Banner and Son.
Tsuronnx Useless—4 and 5 Brown's buildings,
day upon winch applications tor shares may be made.
Forms of application may be obtaned from the Brokers, and also at the Temporary Olliees of the Company, 4 and 6 Brown's buildings, Liverpool. ’
THE PERFECT SUBSTITUTE FOB SILVER.
The real Nickel Silver, introduced more than thirty years ago by WILLIAM S. BURI‘ON, when plated b the patent process of Messrs Elkingtou and Co., is beyond al comparison the very best article next to sterling silver that an be employed as such, either usefully or ornamentally, as by no possible test can it be distinguished from real silver.
A small useful set, guaranteed of first quality for finish and durability, as follows :—
Any article to be had singly at the same prices. An oak chest to contain the above, and a relative number of knives, 8th 21.155. Tea and coffee sets, dish covers, and corner dishes, cruct and liqueur frames, die, at proportimiate prices. All kinds of re-plsting done by the patent process.
UTLERY, WAR RAN TE D.—The most
varied assortment of TABLE CUTLEBY in the world,
all Warranted, is on sae at WILLIAM S. BURI‘ON'S, at
prices lthat are remunerative only because of the largeness of the as ea.
FURNISHING IRONMONGEB, by appointment to II.R.II. the Parson of WALES, sends a CAIALOGUE gratis, and post paid. It contains upwards of 500 Illustrations of his illiiuited Stock of Sterling Silver and ElectroPlatc, Nickel Silver, and Britannia Metal Goods, Dish Covers, Hot-water Dishes, Stoves, Fenders, Marble Chimneypieces, Kitchen Ranges, Lamps, Gaseliers, 'I‘ea 'I‘rays, Urns, and Kettles, Clocks, Table Cutlery, Baths, Toilet Ware, 'I‘urnery, Iron and Brass Bedsteads, Bedding, Bedroom Cabinet Furniture, litc., with Lists of Prices, and Plans of the Twenty large Show-Booms, at 39 Oxford street, W., 1, IA, 51, 3, and 4 Newman street , 4, 5, and 6 Perry s place; and l Newman yard, London.
MPERIAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, No. 1 Old Broad street, London, 5.0. Instituted 1510.
Dunc-roan. EDWARD HENRY CHAPMAN, 1554]., Chairman. MARTIN TUCKER Shll'l‘ll, iisq.. M.P., Deputy Chairman.
PIOIITL—Four-llfthl, or 80 per cent., 01 the profits are assigned to policies every fifth year. The BMUI‘LLI are eutltlud lo participate sfier payment of one premium.
Boston-Tile auditions made lo policies vary from 78!. to 11. 5s. per cent. on the sums Insul'cd.
Pvacaass or Pontcias.-A liberal allowance is made on the surrender of a Policy. either by a cash payment or the IMHO of a Policy free of premium.
Lona—The Directors will lend sums of 501. and upwards on the security of policies etfectcd with this Company for the whole term of life, win-n they have acquired an adequate value.
IfieL'BAhCEA without participation in profits mny be eflecied in reduced rates.
Prospectuses and further information may be bad at the Chief Ufl'lcm as above. at the Branch Office, 16 Pallmall; Oi of the Agents in town and country.
SAMUEL INGALL, Attusry.
ERCULES FIRE and LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY (Limited). 91 Cannon street, Ionduu, E.C. New Tariff Fire Odice. New and Equitable Plan (1' Assuring Diseased Lives.— Scc Prospectus. Special advantages to Agents.
UN LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY,
The Premiums uircd by this Societ for insuring young lives are lowerthaut tale of many other 0 d-cstublisbcd Offices, and insurers are fully protected from all risk by an ample
uarnntce fund in addition to the accumulated fluids domed rorn the investments of Premiums.
Policies efl'ectcd now will participate in four-fifths, or 60 pct cent., of the profits, arcording to the conditions contained in the Society‘s l'roepectus.
'i'lle Profits of this Society are divided every five years, and Policies efl'ected before Midsummer, 1865, Will participate at the next division.
No charge for service in the Militia or in any Yeomanry or Volunteer Corps in the United Kingdom.
Policy Stamps paid by the Oliicc.
Prospectuses may be obtained at the Office in Threaduecdle street, LOIMIOII, or of any of the "cuts of the Society.
JA ES HARRIS, Actuary.
BRITANNIA LIFE ASSU RANGE COM PAI\ Y,
1 Parsons nasar, BANK, Lennon. Empowered by Special Acts of Parliament, 4 Viet. cap. 9. Every description of Life Assurance business transacted.
ANDREW FRANCIS, Secretary.
£1,000 IN CASE or DEATH
Or an Allowance of £6 per week while laid-up by Injury caused ACCIDENT OF ANY KIND.
Whether Walking, Riding, liriiing, llunting, Shooting. I-‘ialiinz, or at Home, may be secured by an Aiiuuiil Payment of £3 to the
Railway Passengers' Assurance Company,
With an Illustration by Frederick Walker, and a Portrait of the late Mr Thackeray, Engraved on Steel, from a Drawing by Samuel Laurence.
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT in ENGLAND. viewed as operallng iii the Piosent Day.
ByLSllcnnox Altos, IlI.A., of the Inner Temple, Barrister
William Rldrrwsy, 169 Piccadilly, and all Booksellers.
Now ready, price Sixpence.
BOOKS FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE.
LAURIE'S GRADUATE!) ENGLISH READING BOOKS.
T H E GRADUATE D SERIES of
London: Longrnan, Green, and Co., Paternoster row.
64 Consulcn, Lonnos, EC. MORE THAN 8,000 CLAIMS FOR
For particulars apply to the Clerks at any of the Railway
WILLIAM J. VIAN, Secretary.
To appear this day, Saturday. Feb. 20, price 6d, free by
HE AUTOGRAPHIC MIRROR.
A T E R for J ERUSALEM.-Tbe
London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., and may be had of the Author iii his Scholastic Agency, 14 'I'nvlstock street, Covcnt garden.
Just published. Bvo, cloth, price 7s.
MANUAL ofRELIGIOUS lNS'l‘ltUC'l‘ION. By dunner anints. D.D., Pastor at Rotterdam, and Author of “ Crnical Studlu on the Gospcl accordinir to Saint Matthew," a work crowned by “The liagua Succty for the Defence of the Cbi'ialinu Religion."
London: Simpkln, Marshall, and C ~.
CRADOCK'B GENUINE EDITION OF JOSEPH GUY‘S
UY’S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY; to which is now added PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The twunty-scventh thoroughly corrected,
Edition, revised, enlarzcd, and
CRADUCK'S GENUINE EDITION OF IOSEPH GUY'S
UY‘S NEW BRITISH SPELLING-
CRADOCK'S GLNUINE lDiTION' OF JOSEPH GUY'S
“ Always admirably good, Debrett's Pecrsgc is better than
ever in this its latest issue."—Snn.
DEBRETT'S ILLUSTRATED PEER-
the revision and correction of tbe' Nobility.
\ Boswortli and Harrison, Book-sellers to H.R.H. [the
Prince of Wales, Regent street: Dean, Ludgatc bill.
MP. CARLYLE'S FREDERICK THE GREAT. In dcmy 8m, 205., with Portrait, Vol. IV., HISTORY OF FRIEDRICH THE SECOND, CALLED Ir‘lll-ZDERICK THE GREAT. By Tuoxss Cinnruii. [February 25th.
In deniy Bvo, 22s., ENGLISH WRITERS. Till; WRITERS BEFORE CIIAL'CER,
With an Introductory Sketch of the Four Periods of English
By Hannr Moaur.
A New Edition, to be completed in Eight Volumes, demy Bro, 10s. cacli,
THE WORKS 0F SHAKESPEARE.
This Edition is not a mere reprint of that which appeared in 1857; on the contrary. it Will present n teat \‘cry materially altered. and amended from bcizinniug to end. with a large body of critical Notes, almost entirrly new, and with s
Glossary, in which the language of the poet, his allusions to customs. in, will be fully t‘XpIIllllCtI.
To be published every alternate month. Vol. Il.now ready.
Third Edition, in One Volume, crown Bro, 7s. 6d,
ROBA DI ROMA
with an Examination of the Authenticity, and a His. tory of the various Representations of the Poet. By J. II. Farawatt, Member of the National Shakspeare Commlttec. Square 8vo, illustraloil with Photographs of anthe-~tic and received Portraits. Handsomety bound, bevelled boards gilt edges. 2ls.
“All who are able will place Mr Frlswell's elegant volume on their drawing-ro- m table; they will then possess a photographic Shakspeore memorial which tihlblis, we believe, all thi- important conte oporury victor-'5 of Shakapcarc. lesidcs containing pictures i f the house in which he was born, the hou~e in which be male love to Ann Hathaway, and the interior of the church where he is interred; slow: with a crest deal of curiou\ erudltion respecting this suljcct. It may be placed along with our favourite edition of Shakspcare, that we may look upon his face as a household frli-nd ; as in reading his poetry, the household words of the English people, we will think of him with grateful afiei-tion."—London Review.
“ One of the prettiest books yet produced in anticipation nfa demand for Shalhpearlan information at the approaching celebration."-—Athenmum
BEECHER, the New England Divine. Edited by his Son, Cnaau-zs Bsscnss. 2vols. Vol. I. with Illustrations, 10s. 6d.
“If the reader can imagine the Vicar of Wakefield in America, this Memoir will give a very geod idea of what he would be among Yankee surroundings. There is the same purity, sincerity. and goodness of heart, the same simplicit-y of manners and directness of purpose, in Dr Primrose and Dr Beet-her, though the go-ahead society in whith the latter divine lived failed not to impress Its character upon him. This is us instructive and charming a book for funily reading as can ,be taken up for that pnrpose."—Daily News
“All that the old man writes is clever and “gracious.”— Athenteum.
“A hundred pleasant things we must pass by: but 'rreaders of this charming volume will not do so."—Wesleyau
"There has been no American divine deceased of late years, the history of whose life and character is lilter to prove more attractive on this side of the Atlantic."—Star.
By CHARLES lizans, Author of ‘Never Too Late to Iiiend.’ 3 vols, post 8vo, 31s. 6d. A Second Edition ready on the 24th inst.
"A really great work, whether it be regarded from its fictional or from its matter-of-fact aspect, for it is twofold in its nature. To the thoughtless it is a beautiful romance, to the thoughtful a stupendous reality; and one scarcely k nows which to admire most—the genius which has inv voted, embodied, and coloured the unrealities, or the in. dustry which has collecti'd. arrunged and elucidated the facts."-Illustrated London New s.
‘ ‘A work ot (extrm-rd-nnry power."-Duiiv News.
" Contanis‘thnt Which is absolutely grand."—Athenmum.
"The cl itic driws out pearl afterpcarl: gains of description, &c."-Spt-ct.itor.
HURST 8t BLA'CKETT’S NEW WORKS.
COURT and SOCIETY from ELIZABETH
to ANNE. Edited from the Papers at Kimbolton. By the Duke of Mancnssrtta. 2 vols. 30s. Portraits.
OPINIONS OI" THE PRESS.
From the Times.—" These Volumes are sure to excite curiosity. A great deal of interesting mutter is hen: collected from sources which are not within cvcryhody's reach."
From the Post. -“ The public are indebted to the noble author for manv important documents otherwise inaccessible, as well as for the lively, picturesque, and piqusut sketches of Court and society. which renders his work powerfully attractive to the general reader."
From the lierald.—" In commending these volumes to our readers we can assure them that they will find a great deal of verily delightful and very instructive reading."
mm the Daily News.-“ The merits of the Duke of Manchester s work are numerous. The substance of the book is new ; it ranges over by far the most interesting and important period of our history; it combines in its notice of men and things infinite variety ; and the author has the command of a good style. raceful. free and graphic."
From the ‘tar.-"'I‘wo very interestin and hi hi valuable volumes. It would not be easy to fin a war 0 our day which contains so much to be read and so little to be passed over," .
From the Athenmum.—“ The Duke of Manchester has done a welcome service to the lover of gossip and secret history by publishing these family papers."
AYOUNG ARTIST’S LIFE
1 vol., 10s. 6d.
“ This very charming story isa perfect poem in prose. Many will recognise in the biographer a writer who has on more than one occasion found favour with the public; but never has be written more prettily, more charmingly, than in the pages of this pathetic romance of real iifc.“-Sun.
We praise this story of a young artist’s life for its simple, truthful beauty. We are sure that it will not plead in vain among all lovers of true taste and focliug."—llcrald. ,
TRAVELS and ADVENTURES of an
OFl-‘lCER’S WIFE in INDIA. CHINA, and NEW
ZEALAND. By Mrs Morita, wife of i.icut.-Col D. l).
Mutcr, 13th (Prince Albert's) Light Infantry. it vols., ‘21s.
" Mrs Muter's Travels deserve to be recommended as com
bining instruction and amusement in a more than ordinary
degree. The work has the interest of a romance added to that of history."—Athcna:um.
MEMOIRS of JANE CAMERON,
The DESTINY of NATIONS as INDICATED in PROPHECY. By,the Rev. Joniv Commie, DD. 1 vol., 7s. 6d.
“One of the most able of Dr Cumming's works."—
LODGE’S PEERAGE and BARONETAGE
WILDFIRE. By 'Walter Thornbnry.
and I." 3 vols. [Next week.
Just published, price One Shilling, B, R KINGSLEY and Dr NEWMAN; u Correspondence on the Question whether llr Nawnart 'l‘rnchcs that Truth is no Virtue? Edited by J. II. Nitmun, DJ). London; Longmnu, Green, and Co., Paternoster row.
JOHNSON‘S DICTIONARY BY DR R. G. LA'I‘HAII.
On Monday, the 29th instant, will be published Paar I. to he continued Monthly and completed in 36 Parts, price 39.. 6d. each. forming Two Volumes Quarto,
Q DICTIONARY of the ENGLISH L \NGUAGE. By It. G. La'rnasr, MA, M.I)., l".lt.S.. 8tc., late Fellow of King's College. Cambridge; Author of "The: English Language,’ 80c. Founded on that of Dr Saucer. Jonssox, as tdited by the Rev. H. J. TODD, ILA. With numerous Emendations and Additions. London ; Lougioan and Co., and the other Proprietors.
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HISTORY of LATIN CHTISTIANITY.
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CHARACTER and CONDUCT of the
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A SMALLER LATIN GRAMMAR for
If I might give a short hint to an in: srtial writer it would be to tell him his fate If be resolved to venture upon t a den erous precipice of telling nnbiused truth let him proclaim war with mankin —neither to give nor to take quarter. If he tells the crimes of great men they fall upon him with the iron hands of the law; if he tells them of virtues, when they have my, then the mob attacks him with slander. But if he regards truth, let him expect martyrdom on both hides), and then he may go on fearless; and this is the course 1 take myself.—
The Tories are said to be dreaming of office; they certainly talk like men in their sleep. They are impatient, angry, and loud, but there is no coherence in what they say; and when asked the simplest question they cannot give an intelligible answer. To make out against Ministers a case of oppression and cruelty they dwell on the arrest of the Confederate rams on the eve of their going forth from the Mersey to prey on the mercantile marine of a people with whom we are at peace; and to prove this despotic intention and temper they dwell upon the offer to buy the vessels for the use of the Admiralty at their full value, and taunt the law officers of the Crown with not having indicted Messrs Laird for building the Alabama, and getting her by stealth out of port. A great principle, we are gravely told, is at stake. Constitutional freedom is in jeopardy. With solemn face, Mr Walpole warns the House of Commons against applying to international questions the principles of justice with which we are familiar in municipal law ; with an amusing aifeetation of liberalism Sir Hugh Cairns likens the stoppage of notoriously unlawful ships to the power formerly assumed of issuing general warrants for the seizure of persons and papers; and, outrunning as usual his leaders in rashness, Lord Rupert Cecil informs us that it is an evil day for England when Parliament refues to censure a Government which, at the dictation of a foreign Power, had “set “ at defiance every safeguard that the law had placed “ around private rights.” If he had said pirate rights therc would have been more candonr, though not more sense or justice in the farrago. Can any one in his sober senses believe that if the Administration had really been guilty of anything of the sort imputed to them, the House of Commons would hesitate in saying so, and in driving them from their places? This is Lord Derby's Parliament, and it is five years old. Though not containing at first as many members of the Carlton Club as those who called it into existence hoped for, the ranks of the minority, we are daily reminded, have been gradually reinforced, by returns like those for Southampton and Brighton, by the defection of the Catholic party, and by the change of sides of men like Messrs Lindsay and Roebuck. Parties are thus nearly balanced in Parliamentary numbers, and a day of reckoning at the hustings is at hand. If, then, any real case could be made out of such an assumption of oppressive power by the Executive as the reckless and eloquent expectants of office pretend, why do they not give the House of Commons an opportunity of saying so in plain terms? That was not the way that opposition behaved on Lord Clarendcn’s conspiracy bill. Parliament was then young, and had no immediate fear of dissolution to quicken its sense of national honour: and it was a Parliament called into being by the Cabinet of which the noble Earl was a member. But the moment it was shown that at the dictation of a foreign Government the Cabinet of 1858 was tampering with our municipal law, the doom of that Cabinet was sealed. A majority of that Parliament sits in the Parliament of to-day. The precedent is too recent to be forgotten; why is it not followed? We will tell Sir Hugh Cairns and Mr Walpole: because they cannot convince anybody, not even themselves, that Earl Russell has made the blunder with respect to America which Lord Clarendon made with respect to France.
_ But there is absurdity and incoherency in the charge, in whatever aspect we view it. Parliament is justly jealous of whatever looks like truckling to the menace of a foreign State; and the nation, though ready to waive many a_punctil_io for the sake of preserving peace, is always tenacious of its dignity, and prompt to resist dictation from an overbearing neighbour. But then the neighbour must be in a‘ condition to overhear. The English people and English Parliament cannot be worked up into a rage at paulo-post-future expressions of resentment on the part of a_country whose military resources it believes to be wellnigh exhausted, and which is still writhing in the agonies of a. fearful civil war. Nothing can be more unlike the attitude of France in 1858, flushed with recent triumph and full of men, money, and arms, than the position of Federal America in 1863. If it be not a Tory secret, which we have no right to ask, will Mr Seymour Fitzgerald or any
of his supporters in Tuesday night’s debate tell us what there was to be afraid of in Mr Seward’s rhetoric or Mr], Adams's more temperate expostulation ? If public opinion be with the building of buccaneering vessels in our ports, contrary to the obvious meaning and intent of the Statute law, would not a trimming and time-serving Minister be far more likely to yield, to court its smile preparatory to a general election, than to yield to the feeble frown of a distant disorganized and disaster-stricken Government? In other words, what conceivable motive could. the Foreign Secretary have had for acting against his‘ conviction of what was right regarding the detention, of the rams? Knowing the feverish susceptibility of the Americans on the subject, he naturally listened increduloust to their earlier statements respecting these vessels. In a. spirit of courtesy he invited the member for Birkenhead to say, on the honour of an English merchant and an English gentleman, for what foreign Power these unmistakable ships of war were intended. He received for answer that they had been ordered by a Paris agent, M. Bavrny, for the Pasha of Egypt. Mr Adams at once branded the story as a fable, and warned the Government not to believe it. By‘ telegraph the question was asked at Alexandria, andi M. Buvray and his order were unconditionally repudiated. ‘ Lord Russell ordered inquiries to be set on foot; but for a time they were baffled, and he did not feel himself at liberty to act upon surmise or suspi-I cion. When pressed at the beginning of September.\ by Mr Adams for an answer to his previous communications, he had no choice but to say that up to that time no adequate information had been furnished to him on which he could act, but that every diligence vvould still be used in the matter. What sort of man would the American Minister have been if under the circumstances he had received such a reply with equanimity? He knew the fearful havoc already wrought upon the unarmed shipping of his country by the Alabama; he knew that the El Monass'ia and El Tomscn were rapidly approaching completion, and that, once escaped from the harbour of Liverpool, there was no limit to the devastation and ruin they were likely to spread. Would he have been worthy of the name he bears, or of any one of the terms of respect in which even his Parliamentary critics speak of him, if he had not promptly made one more earnest appeal to our Foreign Office against suffering the acknowledged law of the land to be evaded, to the ruin of all international friendship and amity? It is admitted on all hands that even then his language was measured, polite, and calm, and that there can be garbled from it no phrase or word offensive to national dignity. What more than this could the haughtiest stickler for the honour of England ask ?— what less than this could the Envoy of the pettiest Conservative Court have been expected to say? Meanwhile, more decisive proofs of the destination and ownership of the rams reached the Foreign Oflice. In proportion as Lord Russell had previously been cautious not to promise interference without sufiicient p'rinui facie ground to justify it, so now he was prompt in volunteering the intimation that he at last had obtained evidence of a more tangible nature, and that the whole case was consequently under reconsideration. A week later this reconsideration led to an embargo being placed on the vessels until the mystery about them should be satisfactorily cleared up. A month was given to M. Bavray and to Mr Laird to disclose, or to devise a story that would hang together better than the Egyptian tale; and on their failing to do so, they were allowed the opportunity to get out of the scrape they were in by realizing the outlay theretofore incurred. They refused to give any lawful account of their proceedings; they refused to sell what the law has branded as the means of piratical adventure; and then, but not till then, the ships were seized in the name of the Queen. Andthis is what is called a case of partiality and oppression, and of usurpation by the Executive of unconstitutional powers!
N at any one member of Opposition ventured in the late debate to hint his disbelief that the rams—of which the1 order has been openly confessed in a Confederate oilicisli navy report—were Confederate property; and not even} Mr Horsl'all or Lord 1t. Cecil had the tcmerity to deny, that, if built for the Confederate Government for pur-‘ poses of war, the scope and intent of the Foreign Enlistment Act has been violated. Well then, if so, what was it the duty of Govarnment to do? If a breach of the peace is about to be committed in a particular street, , if credible information is given upon oath that a conspiracy exists to set fire to a particular house, if deadly. weapons are sworn to have been provided at a par— ticular spot for the purpose of being thence suddenly snatched up in order to maim nnofl‘ending citizens, what would be thought of the directors of police who stood by ‘ passively and used no interposition to prevent the perpetration of a heinous crime? What is meant by the protection of life and property, if the furtive designs of selfish and unscrupulous meu are not to be watched and baffled whenever]
it is possible? The doctrines proponnded by Mr Walpole and Sir Hugh Cairns savour more of the lawlessness of feudal barbarism than of the polity of a civilized nation. The Executive, it is said, may make a mistake, may act lightly, partially, or upon insufficient grounds of probability ; and when they do so, they ought to be censured in the strongest language and driven from power. But manifestly it is impossible to form any judgment regarding them in this respect until the case has been heard in a court of justice and there disposed of. To ask them to show their accusers beforehand the preofs on which they rely as prosecutors of the alleged violators of the law, would be absolute nonsense. If, pending the suit by the Crown, Ministers should be deemed to have lost the confidence of Parliament or of the country, that may be an excellent reason for setting up other men in their stead; but it is no reason whatever for letting the rams put to sea or exonerating their builders from the penalties of a wilful and deliberate infraction of the law.
Mr Thomas Baring did himself very great honour by his manly protest against the motion of Mr Fitzgerald and the arguments of his supporters. His instinctive good sense and good feeling overbore all mere considerations of party; and the majority of the House of Commons justly cheered the first of English merchants when he, though a Tory and sitting on a Tory bench, denounced the factions impolicy of driving the country into connivance at wrong on the empty pretence that our honour was touched by some idle sally in an uncommunicated despatch from Mr Seward. No country in the world, as Mr Baring truly said, has so deep a stake in the recognition and observance of the correlative duties and rights of neutrals. He might have added, that no country would be held by the civilized world so inexcusable as England, if in a paroxysm of party madness she suffered those rights and duties to be set at nought.
“ The publicity of executions is intended,” says Sir George Grey, “ to remove any possible doubt or supposition “ as to the sentence not being actually and duly carried “ into effect; but it has also the object of deterring persons “ by the awful spectacle which is presented from subjecting “ themselves to a similar fate. Who can say how far that “ operates? " Ah, who indeed?
And this is the pith of all the Home Secretary has to say for disgusting, brutalizing exhibitions like that of Monday, and against the substitution of execution in comparative privacy.
First let us ask why it is apprehended that the rule de mm apparentibus el de non allelentibus would be applied to executions unseen by a mob. No punishments are public except capital punishments, but no doubt has ever existed whether'sentences of penal servitude and imprisonment, with or without hard labour, are carried into efi'act. The public does not see the prisoner on the treadmill, or the convict in his solitary cell, but the public is sufficiently sure that they are undergoing their punishments, such as they are.
The fact is, that only three punishments have ever been public spectacles, death, the pillory, and whipping. And there was a time when all the arguments for the publicity of hanging were used for the exposure of the pillory, and the flogging at the cart’s tail from Newgate to Tyburn. Humanity and decency have prevailed, however, against these twa latter exhibitions for public edification.
The great fallacy lies in confounding the spectacle with example. The spectacle is confined to the mob collected about the gallows; the example goes forth to the whole world in the fact that the murderers have suffered for their guilt. The example does not require the spectacle, and
i would be more solemn and effective without it.
No one will contend that there is no example of secondary punishments because there is no exhibition of them. When transportation existed, was there no example of the punishment because it was unseen by the public in any of its stages? No mob saw the convict put into the ship, or if they did, could have any certain knowledge that the ship would convey him to the penal settlement. Yet about this, and all other punishments not submitted to the public eye, there never has been any doubt, reasonable or unreasonable. We may, and do indeed, doubt whether the punishment is what it ought to be, but not whether the convict is in gaol undergoing some sort of punishment.
N ext to the argument that a punishment unseen by the public would not be believed, is Sir George Grey’s reliance on the deterring effect of “ the awful spectacle" of an execution.
There is nothing awful in the spectacle. The mob wait for it, making ribald jests, and laughing at every nonsense or brutality, and they go away in the same mood. The common reflection, after witnessing the last short struggle, is “ Well, it is not much, after all." And the dread of a similar fate, upon which the Home Secretary reckons so much, is more diminished than increased in ill-disposed minds by the grotesque view of death that has been presented. “It is soon over,” says a brutal fellow, and goes away rather comforted if it should come to the worst with him.
For decency a cap is drawn over the face of the sufferer, we trust the time will come when a prison wall will screen all from public view, and lend death the most vulgar some 'of the awe of mystery.
GERMANY AND THE CONFERENCE.
The lesser German Princes have passed from an access of choler into one of fear, and not without cause. Last summer they were lords of the ascendant. Austria. was at their feet, defending their rights, asking for their support, and offering to sacrifice its supremacy to the omnipotence of the Bmul. On the strength, perhaps, of this, the majority of the German Diet, consisting of those same minor princes, raised the Duke of Augustenburg upon their shields, and not only proclaimed, but prepared to make him Duke of Holstein. Prussia and Austria step in, setting aside with ignominy those whom they so lately flattered. And Germany, which some months ago presumed to be one, shows itself split into three.
There is one Power, and that is Great Britain, which, if it has held its hand amidst all the agitation, has at least not held its tongue. It has been most lavish of advice, and even not sparing of threats. It has warned and warned the German Powers, Saxony especially, that their sole existence depends upon treaties and treaty guarantees, and that if these be done away with, they are at the mercy 0 the first big bully who may choose to invade them. Up to the present time they have maintained their inviolability,
chiefly upon the noted rivalry existing between Austrial
and Prussia. But should these Powers show themselves united, as they have done for the spoliation of Slesvig, what chance is there of resisting them ? Saxony has subsisted by Austrian favour against the ill-disguised enmity of Prussia. But if Austria gave up Saxony to Prussia, in return for Prussia’s abandonment of the smaller States to Austria, where is there any safety? guaranteed Saxony to its present dynasty, as it guaranteed Magdeburg and Cologne to Prussia. But what is the worth of a guarantee ?
The minor German Sovereigns have met at \Vurzburg to consider their position. And the mere fact of this meeting apart from, and in antagonism to, Austria and Prussia, is important. They talked of raising more troops, and of sending them to Holstein. But Bismark has, it seems, threatened Saxony with a Prussian army should it do any such thing. Here is a disruption. In what it may end, or how seriously and how for an independent Germany may rise against an Austro-Prussian one, depends upon the conduct of the Princes. Had these the heart to fling themselves on the popular party, to encourage it, protect it, and lead it, the armies of Austria and Prussia would scarcely suffice to extinguish the conflagration. There is no doubt that France would take advantage of it. And thus a civil war would arise and be carried on throughout Germany between the population and the military parties. Even if France did not take advantage of such a circumstance, Italy certainly would. Hungary and Poland would scarcely be quiescent when the armies and populations were engaged in strife upon a neighbouring soil. To see one’s way through all this, or to descry the end of it, would surpass every power of prophecy which a political writer might pretend to or indulge in.
A Conference is to be held in London for the settlement,
of the affairs of Denmark. What it may do with respect to Denmark we shall not here discuss. But the effect of that Conference upon Germany is surely to'be looked to. The German Diet is to be asked to send a plenipotentiary. Will it do so ? And if it does, is diplomacy to behold for the first time a representative of independent Germany, sitting, speaking, and voting in strong opposition to the German Powers ‘3 This representative of the Diet, should he come, stands a great chance of being isolated. He will be like Prince Talleyrand at the Congress at Vienna, without a friend at Court. But France may come to the German representative’s aid. London Conference may be what was that of the Vienna Congress,—those who came together as friends and allies, separated as enemies and antagonists.
This, it may be said, will be all the better for Denmark.’ When rogues fall out, honest men come by their own. But? the power, the independence, and the balance in Germanyl is of even wider political importance than the state of Denmark, although morally there can be no question more important than that raised by the German soldier-burglars of free license for rapine and impunity of wrong. The Conference in London to settle Danish affairs may possibly be followed by the much dreaded Congress in Paris to regulate the affairs of Central Europe.
It may happen, however, that the minor German Princes will be cowed, and many of their powerful neighbours may desert what is considered to be the popular cause. In that case the Diet, instead of continuing in opposition to Austria and Prussia, would succumb and bow down, as their accomplice and their slave. In that case the insurrection against the two great military dynasties would be deferred. Some even might deem it adjourned altogether. But the national party in Germany cannot thus be extinguished by the leaders proving recreant. On the contrary, the confirmation of
'and the advisability is another.
England, it is true, ,
‘no remission, and undergone the whole term of his sentence. ‘He goes forth free, and with no broken fetter to be laid
the liberal mind becomes the stronger, and their adhesion
to it more universal and more formidable. And the elements of discontent and opposition to the existing system of Government, gathering strength in Prussia and throughout all Germany, must infallibly produce sooner or later an outburst and a struggle, which would be one of life and death to the princes on the one hand and to the people and to their cause on the other. This is a struggle we should be glad to see avoided. And it could be avoided if the Prussian Government were to strike once more into the Constitutional path. Of this, however, there seems so little chance or possibility that we cannot look forward with hope to a pacific solution of the manifold embarrassments now tormenting Germany. The unfortunate Danish question has brought matters there to on extremity, and the combat between military and popular ascendancy may oven before long have to be fought out.
l Penal servitude has been well discussed in the House of i
§Lords. Lord Carnarvon, who has taken the lead in the consideration of this subject, holds the supervision of the ‘poliee over the licensed convicts to be essential, the sine .qmi non.
l Do not attempt to have two things which are perfectly incompatible. If you have tickets of leave, police supervision is abso‘ luter necessary, and if you cannot have the latter you ought to give lup the former and fall back upon some other system. . . . . Either j adopt one system or the other. Either adopt the system of tickets 1 of leave, coupled with its only safeguard, namely, strict police super
vision, or, on the other band, throw that system overboard and adopt'
I His lordship then proceeds to show that the supervision
\of the police is not, as Sir George Grey asserts, impracticable, and that certain officers are willing and ready to .undertake it. The practicability, however, is one thing Supervision, doubtless, may be established, but it would cut off the convicts from employment, and doom them either to starvation or to a |return to crime for subsistence. \Vho would keep a servant or a workman who was under the eye of the lpoliee? How would the master of a family or the proprietor of a workshop like to learn that his house was lwatched by the police? Would he not speedily rid himself of the person who had attracted such discreditable notice? The example of Ireland is always cited to show that supervision does not work prejudicially to its objects, but the feeling in that country is wholly different from the feeling in this regarding offences. There is in Ireland on :indulgence or actual favour for lawless acts, unknown here. lThe general character of crime is different, and it does not excite the alarm and antipathy which are on the side of ijustice in England. I The old doctrine was that a criminal who had suffered punishment was purged of his offence, restored to all his rights, and in every sense of a free man, with the locus pcnitmzlia? open to him, and such, indeed, is the condition of the ill-conducted convict who has earned
has squared accounts with justice, and quits. If there be the disposition to return to or to begin an honest life, the discharged convict has a fairer field for a begin
ning than the licensed man, still tethered, as it wore, to the jail. And for this system, so imperfect in mercy as well as in justice, the example of punishment is affected with the very highest degree of uncertainty. Upon this and all
‘other points we heartily agree with Lord Wodehouse.
t No doubt it is advisable to offer to the convicts inducements to good lbchaviour by indulgences and by relaxations of discipline, on the ,same principle as was recommended in the report of the committee jon county gaols; butI do not believe that it is advisable to offer such inducements by shortening sentences. By doing so you introduce
And the result of the great uncertainty into punishments, because, however we may under- l
stand the theory of the existing system—and a very complicated ,system it is—depcnd upon it that, in practice, the criminal population believe that the sentence inflicted is not meant to be, and never will be, entirely carried out. Of course there are criminals of different classes, and upon persons who have been led into crime by unbridled passions or by some passing temptation the reformatory process may be effectual. But in the ease of professed criminals, who it is hoped may be induced while under sentence to adopt habits of honest industry, their reformation is far more difficult, and I doubt extremely whether the remission of sentence conduces to any such
'result. What does society gain by these remissions? His term of
punishment being very much shortened, you send forth an offender who probably within a short period returns to his old haunts of vice, and as there is no police supervision, society has no safeguard against his return to crime, and there is no check by which you can see whether the punishment inflicted has had a salutary effect. I think it would bcfar boiler not to reduce the period of sentence, and, having inflicted the whole of the punishment ordered by the judge, to send the offender out n free man at the expiration of his full sentence. The certainty of punishment which would thus be gained would be an important advantage, and you would not then he deluded by the theories of persons, no doubt of great humanity, who hope, under the present system, to reform a class, very few of whom, I fear, can ever be reformed.
Lord Grey, whose opinions must always be heard with respect, thinks with Lord Carnarvon that the ticket-ofleavc system cannot work safely without the superintendence of the police. As for the remission of punishment, he admits that up to a certain time “ the best hypocrites"
chiefly got the benefit of them, and there is every reason to believe that but little improvement has been effected in that respect. But Lord Grey protests against a return to the old system of certain punishments because it has been condemned by all officers charged with the custody of convicts. N o doubt; for the great concern of these gentlemen is to save themselves trouble by sparing the prisoners pains, and making things as smooth and easy as possible. The public interest is in the reality of punishments, the custodian interest is in making them light, so that the prisoners may be coaxed into good humour and docility.
Lord Carnarvon consistently says, adopt supervision or abandon the ticket of leave; Lord Grey accepts supervision, but at the same time he shows that it is fatal to the licensed convict in this striking picture of that unhappy being’s condition :
It was clearly proved to us that the great instructors in crime, seducing youth and teaching them the arts of felony, are the discharged convicts; and whatever pains you take to reform and improve these men in prison—whatevar care you take in watching over them when they are discharged, I believe that, practically, a very large portion of them indeed will again become criminals. And.
They are placed under temptation which it is hardly in human nature to resist. They
lfind every profitable employment closed against them. It is quite
true that some masters, out of charitable motives, will employ them; but even in Ireland, where the difficulty is less than in this country, Mr Organ, a gentleman who has been of extreme use in this matter, told us that if the fellow-labourers of s convict came to find out the fact there was an end of his employment. He must leave; the master has no choice, or the men wou d strike in a body. After all I cannot say that this is a feeling to the discredit of the labourer. I am not quite sure that it is desirable to get rid of it, because the existence of a general persuasion among the labouring classes of the country that a man who forfeits his character and gets into prison will for the rest of his life have a mark fixed on him is a great security for integrity. But still I say the evil exists. The man finds he cannot get employment by which he can honestly maintain himself, and therefore stealing is again his only resource. This often happens: A man goes into a part of the country where he is not known under another name. He gets into honest employment, and fora while behaves well ; but, unfortunately, some one who was formerly associated with him in crime or in prison casually recognizes him. He says, “I know who you are, I will tell your employer; you must pay me something." So the thing goes on. The secret is used as a means of extorting money from these unfortunate people, and even compelling them to join in schemes for robbing their employers. If we knew the secret history of the manner in which convicts discharged are again brought into crime, I am quite certain that in many cases we should feel much more pity than indignation against the unfortunate men who are thus dragged back into that fatal career.
We contend that these indisputable truths tell against supervision, because under supervision the licensed convict would have in power over him to denounce him, not only those who might have happened to have known him in his gaol, but also the police of the district in which he might be endeavouring to get employment to earn his bread honestly. He would be as the toad under the barrow with these many masters. And the porver of denouncing and ruining the licensed convicts would be too likely to tend to the corruption of the police, as it would be worth while to bribe them to secrecy as regards the public, and favourable report as regards tbe magistracy.
A very important fact is brought to light by Lord Carnarvon, that what are called the lighter punishments allotted to the smaller offences are really the heavier, the punishments longer and graver in name being really the less severe !—
It seems to me a most monstrous anomaly in the administration of justice in England that positively a heavier offence is visited with a lighter punishment, and a lighter offence with a heavier punishment. Every gentleman who has had experience at petty sessions knows that eighteen monlhs of ordinary imprisonment in one qflhe country goals is a more severe punishment than three years of pond servitude ; and that five years of penal servitude is no! as severe a punishment as twoyears’ imprisonment awarded to an ordinary prisoner. From the very important evidence given on this point by the Governors of Wakefield and Leicester Gaols I shall read two extracts. Both these gentlemen have had much experience in the management of criminals, and the gaols of which they are the governors may be said to stand at the extreme point of our system. The Governor of \Vakefield Gaol says :
“The prisoners on the West Riding side prefer the Government side to the \Vakefield side. I have heard it frequently said by prisoners, ‘Do let us be transferred over to the other side and then we shall get more to cat.’ "--2,934. The Governor of Leicester Gaol gives this evidence on the some point : _
“The inspector reports that you have had a great deal of drarrhma in your prison. Do you attribute this to any particular cause ?—Yes, it was confined chiefly to Government convicts, and I attributed it and suggested it to the medical inspector that it arose from the richness of their food. This was also the opinion of the surgeon, and in consequence of this the ox-head cheeks were withheld from the soup and the men’s heallh improved. We had no diarrhoea to speak of amongst the prisoners Working at the crank.
“Do you believe that the prisoners entertain a preference for Government convict establishments over your goal i—Yes.
" Then they would prefer a senlence of three years of penal servitude to efyhleen months with. hard labour ?—I should say decidedly that a. sentence of three years’ penal servitude is less in amount than a sentence of eighteen months with hard 1abour."—1859-61.
No wonder that prisoners thank judges for their sentences of penal servitude, and that risks are fired to obtain the benefit of the comforts and good living in convrct prisons. To what a pitch has the uncertainty of punishment been brought! the evil considered the very greatest that can befal justice, by all the writers of authority on jurisprudence.
INDIAN WASTE-LANDS AND REDEMPTION OF INDIAN LAND-TAX.
The two questions of Indian Waste-lands and redemption of Land-tax, which are really the most important of the many connected with the future welfare of our Indian Empire, are to be found fairly, fully, and ably treated in the speech in Parliament of Mr Henry Seymour, with
Preface and Appendix, published by desire of the Land