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the distance which divides Liverpool from Kilimani; the quality is better, the country is more settled, and the people are far less unmanageable; yet it is my sincere belief—founded on facts which Wlli appear in the course of this narrative—that years must elapse before even Western Africa can supply with cotton the mills of England for one week of work in the twelve months. These may be new views—I am convinced that they are true views.
So far as we are concerned these are not new views.
Abeokuta has been described from fancy, and painted in rose tint, by two ladies, who had never been in Western Africa. It has been described, from personal knowledge, by the Rev. Mr Bowen, in a book published at Charleston under the name of ‘ Central Africa,’ though its writer only penetrated about 170 miles through a well opened country; and also by Mr Robert Campbell, a coloured man. Captain Burton finds these very faulty, and especially directs attention to one error that might lead, it acted upon by missionary zeal, to serious consequences. In Mr Campbell's book, he says :
We are explicitly told, and more than once, that ground amongst the Egbas is “ deemed common property, any individual enjoying the right of takingI unoccupied land, as much as he can use, whcrcvcr and whenever e pleases." This may be ignorance, and to a certain extent it is warranted by the incuriousness of Mr Bowen, who asserted long before Mr Campbell that “there is no property in land, or rather that land in Yoruba is'common property." The corollary is that any number of Christian converts or colonies of AfricoCanadians can be permanently settled in the Egha country. I distinctly assert that the reverse is the fact, and that all such theories foisted on the public with a view to emigration are likely to do mere injury. The country is by no means a “no-man's land,” and ignorance of this vital point would certainly lead to those agrarian wars with which New Zealand has scandulich the civilized world. There are two ideas incomprehensible to Europeans, but part and parcel of the African mind. The first, which here requires only enunciation, is that a slaveborn man is a slave for ever. The second is the nonalienation of land. Whatever be the tenure of property in ground, it cannot permanently be given or sold. A chief will, for a quitrent, permit any stranger to cultivate unreclaimed commons, but the bargain is purely personal. If the original tenant die, the heir or successor is expected by another “dash” to obtain renewal of the lease. and his refusal would justify, in the African mind, his ejection. On the other hand, if the chief attempt to raise his terms, the heir might insist upon not paying a sum higher than the original quitrent, and amongst the more civilind tribes the voice of the people would be on his side. No resident in West Africa will ignore that what I have stated is the fact, and those who are unacquainted with the coast should beware of the fallacies of Messrs Bowen and Campbell.
Of the colony of Abcokuta gathered about the rock Olumo, Captain Burton gives this sketch:
Beyond the barren mass of stern grey stone—filthily dirty—which afforded me a standing-place, there was a perpendicular drop of some fifty feet, disclosing part of the city below and in front. It was a grisly 1118s! of rusty thatching and dull red-clay wall, with narrow winding lanes and irregular open spaces, a rugged tree rising here and there. The only comparison which the scene suggested was that of a huge ant-hill scattered over with dead leaves and dwarf shrubs. On the left was a high tongue of land, with top sinking towasz the foreground ; it supports Bagura, one of the most populous townships; and here the houses that crowd one another prevent the ground from being seen. It is separated by a stony stream-bed, the usual fence in this art of Africa, from the neighbouring settlements, Ikercku and Ikijfi, ilawo and Ikporo. In the distance isa narrow line representing the Ogun River above the rapids, and the horizon is shut in by rising ground which appears barren and sterile. In the magnificence of its distances Abeoltuta greatly resembles Washington, but there the similarity ends. The main peculiarity of the scene is the shape of the houses—large irregular squares, with huge thatches raised high at the angles to throw off the rain. There are but two which attract the eye by superiority of size, viz, those of the late Ogobcnna, and of tho waggish savage Ogodippe.
Olumo, however, is classic ground in these regions, the Arg, the Cspitolium of the Egba race, the Rock against which the gates of Ibsdan have not yet prevailed. It was thepoi'nt dc résmian of the people of Egba, who, about 1820-1822, had been scattered to the winds by intestine tumults and the fury of their enemies. Some thirty-five or forty years ago, say in 1825, a few of the better sort, flying from their new masters, took refuge under “the Builder," where, it is said, they found robbers—probably their own countrymen— who had preceded them. As in classic Rome, the sanctuary was joined by other fugitives and villains. When the new~comsrs found themselves strong enough, they drove out the-original bandits, and then laid the foundations of a city which, after Olumo, they called Abeokuta. It grew space. In memory of their former settlements, they gave to the new seats the names of their ancient townships— Akc, for instance, was the old capital of Egba-land in the days when it was a province of Yoruba—and they conferred upon their military and civil chiefs titles familiar to their ears in olden times. They hung up their harps by the side of Olumo, and holding the soil to be hard and sterile, they sighed for a return to the lands flowing with milk and honey.
Presently Abeokuta became a fenced city, and was girt with a moat and a clay wall, after the approved fashion of African fortification. Its population waxed numerous. Mr T. B. Freeman, in 1842, estimated it to contain forty-five thousand souls. In 1858, Mr Bowen gave it eighty thousand : more modern travellers have raised the number to one hundred thousand; and, looking at the extent and the thickness of the population, I should not wonder if, when the soldiers return from the Ibadan war, it was found to contain one hundred and fifty thousand souls, nearly equal to the entire population of redoubtcd Dahome. It contains the remnants of some one hundred and fifty townships—some say one hundred, but they diminish for fear of exaggeration, and others, too sanguine, raise it to two hundred and sighty-five—which all retain their own peculiar institutions. The constitution, in fact, is that of a federal republic under a perpetual president.
I a touching upon the religion of the Abeokutans, Captain Burton reverts to his old freedom of argument upon the theory of polygamy, for which he says what he can; and of which he adds his belief that, if the missionaries had made less objection to polygamy, the heathen would have found fewer obstacles to conversion.
To the continued use at Lagos of cowry currency, which has no other advantage than the making of young arithmeticians, Captain Burton points attention, as a practice obviously in need of prompt reform:
The “plump-breasted dove," as the Yorubas call it, is a vile currency, an intolerable burden. Lycurgus did not fetter the commercc of Sparta more effectually with his iron bars. Every shell must be pierced and strung upon grass or palm fibrc, which takes no short time. At Dahomc a hundred slaves will be engaged in this
occupation, and a merchant at Lagos must employ eight or ten “ cowris-girls." The weight of each bag of 2,000 blue Africans will be from 80 to 90 lbs., and of white Indians from 35 to 45 lbs., and yet it is barely worth one pound sterling. Mango Park, when he opened a shop during his second journey at Ssnsanding, was obliged to employ three tellers to count his cash—25,756 cowries, worth at Lagos 11. 5s. Lieut. Forbes complains that to carry 50 dollars, he had to hire five women. A horse will cost 60,000to 120,000, asheep 4,000 to 6,000, and a fowl 200 to 250 of this barbarous small change. It is fully time to change the system. At Zanzibar and Maskat, the late Snyyid Said found no difficulty in so doing. He applied to l the East Indian Government for some tons of pics or copper coins, and the improvement was readily adopted by his sub'ects. The experiment should be tried without delay at Lagos, and,i successful, i, it would probably soon extend into the interior. i At present the country has the nuisance of twelve different dollarlcoinages in circulation, and when these different dollars have been lgot rid of there still remains the inconvenience of two currencies, ‘English money and cowrics, which, as has been seen, bear no fixed relative proportion. And the Abeokutans are little aware of their losses by the system of barter to which the retail purchaser is sometimes driven: it obliges them to pay one hundred per cent. above the invoice price for English goods, which, if the currency were settled, ’could be profitably sold by the merchant at a maximum of fifty per cent.
Having returned to Lagos, Captain Burton left that port again on the 21st of November, 1861, and after visiting ' the Brass and Bonny rivers, set forth on his more interestling adventure of a march to the unexplored recesses and l the topmost height of the Cameroons Mountains. At the I Camaroons mission station of Victoria he found Hcrr y'Munn, who had made a first short trip to the mountains in l 1860, preparing for a second attempt to advance and scale ltheir highest summit:
He is a young man of twenty-five, a native of Brunswick, is . gardener from the Royal Gardens. ch, to which he was recommended by the Court of Hanover. Originally attached. in 1859, to Dr Baikei‘s Niger expedition in place of the lamented Dr Barter, he has been continued as Government botanist in West Alrica by the Admiralty, with the ostensible motive of inspecting the timber. The “ Amabilis scientia"—whose:votariev, however, can at times be as cross as poets—appears still at a discountin public opinion. Whilst in these days the geologist holds his head high, one rarely reads of a detached “ botsnikcr; " as a rule the “ poor herbalist" is attached as a decent appendage to some Government expedition. Economy is often made to entrench upon utility. And why should the collector, aft/er bearing the heat and burden of the day, lose his reward? Why should not “ Hookcr's Niger Flora" be known as “ Vogel's Herbarium described by Hooker"? And yet another point. Why should not the collector be allowed to rcserve a certain percentage of new plants to study and to name2after', his friends? . . . . Meanwhile M. Mann, after visiting the Bagroo river, near Sierra Leone and Barracoon Point, on the Niger, made, after twice failing, two ascents (in April and December, 1860) of Fernando Po Peak, where he was guided by a Spanish official, M. Pellon, the Special Delegate of Public Works. Their visit was the second ever made to the summit, the late Mr Beecroft's being the first. He subsequently ascended to the summits of Prince's Island and San Thomc', and visited the Gaboon and other African rivers. He has been indefatigable in collasting and in preserving his collections, and has supplied one of the greatest desidcrata in botanical geography. The results have been to establish: “1. An intimate relationship with Abyssinia, of whose flora that of the Fernandian Pctllf is a member, and from which it is separated by 1,800 miles of absolutely explored country; 2. A curious relationship with the East African Islands, which are atillfurther off; 3. An almost total dissimilarity from the Caps flora.” With the West African Islands again, contrary to expectation, there is no marked relationship whatever.
The local nomenclature of this part of Africa Captain Burton says is thus briefly accounted for:
According to Mr J. Grazilhier, who, as related by Barbot, made a voyage to Old Calabar in A.D. 1699, the land was called by the Portu— guese Alta 'I'ierra de Ambozes—thc highlands of Ambozcs. The latter word, not. being Lusitanian, may probably be the name of some extinct tribe ; here and elsewhere the maritime African races rapidly disappear. It has been corrupted to Amboizes, Amboizc, and Ambss, which latter appears in the Hydrogrsphic Chart. The trivial English names of the mountains and the riVer to their east—Camaroons, further debased to Cameroons, and by the Jonesian writers to the yet more meaningless Kamcruns—comes from the Portuguese Camardo, or the Spanish Camaron, a shrimp or prawn, of which there is a great variety from Lagos southwards. I have retained the name, although to call this stupendous pile and the broad estuary beyond it “ Shrimp Mountains," or " Prawn River," sounds somewhat absurd. Captain Allen, instructed by some Bimbia man, in his map gave to the highest peak the name of Mongo m6 Lobii, which means in Isubu “ Mountain of Heaven," is. the starry expanse. The natives acknowledge this word : they usually, however, call the whole upper region Mongo mo Ndemi, literally the Mountain of Greatness, which is also Dr Krapf's translation of the words Kilima-njfiro, applied to the Ethiopic Olympus in Eastern Africa. But to the lower eminence—the smallr r hump of the camel’s back, which was formerly called “Camarones Pequenos," or “ Little Camaroons," and “ Gibraltar Rock,” and which the Baptist missionaries have lately baptized “ Mount Trestrail,"—Captain Allen has assigned the name of Mongo ma Etindeh, the “ Mountain of Separation," that is to say, “ the separate mountain," which the natives do not recognise. I should prefer to call the highland region snd bay Amboses, the two peaks Larger and Lesser Mongo, and the settlement Victoria : it would only, however, confuse those who have learned Camaroons and Ambas to unlearn the terms.
The adjoining country was formally discovered towards the close of the fifteenth century, by the noble Portu uese Fernso dc Poo, who voyaged during the reign of D. Afl'onsc V84 his name still survives in the Island of Fernando Po.
At half-past one on the 27th of December Captain Burton secured to British climbing the credit of being first up to the chief point of the Cameroons, and deposited under the small cairn he built there a piece of the British mind in the shape of a leaf out of ‘ Punch.’ By his right as an explorer he named the mountain of the Great Peak Victoria, and
Victoria Mountain now proved to be the shell of a huge “double crater," opening to the south-eastward, where a tremendous torrent of fire had broken down the weaker wall. The whole interior and its accessible breach now lay before me, plunging sheer in vertical clifl'. The depth of the bowl may be 250 feet; the total diameter of the two which are separated by a rough partition of lava, 1,000 feet. The interior slope isa highly irregular cliff, which drops horizontally, streaked and ribboned with igneous matter, red and yellow, whose bands of colour indicate horizontal stratification, and communicated scorirc standing at an angle of 45’. Not a blade of grass, not a thread of moss breaks the gloom of the Platonic pit, which is as black as Erebus, except where the fire has painted it red and yellow. To the north-west appeared a ridge overtopping the rest of
the two-headed cone which we had called Albert Mountain, and a bluff wall or dyke, which I had not time to visit.
There were subsequent ascents, and at the lastlof them the Union Jack was hoisted on the lip of the volcano, and there were left on the peak a slip of sheet lead inscribed with the names of the successful climbers, and two sixpences in an empty bottle. The highest point of the range is on the crest of a slope half a mile due north of the Victoria Mountain and 435 feet higher, or 13,129 feet high. This point is 'eighteen statute miles of indirect and thirteen geographical miles of direct distance from the settlement of Victoria, formed in 1858 by the Baptist missionary, Mr Saker, with his. family and negro communicants, who crossed over to the mainland when expelled by the Spaniards from Fernando Po. Having obtained 1,5001. damages from the Spanish Government they bought land, with a coast length of twelve miles, on a spot decried by the jealousy of traders ; while On the other hand, MrSaker, and those who were with him, contended that the native tribes were few, scattered, and not dangerous :that the country can be made highly productive, and support fins cattle, which the island cannot; that building material everywhere abounds; that the north-east tornadoes, which do so much damage at Fernando Po, are here warded off by the mountain background; that mosquitoes and mangrove swamps are unknown; that the sea-breeze is pure and healthy in the lower levels, and that by ascending the high lands any temperature can be obtained ; that the islands are fit for lighthouses and coal dept-ts, and the level strand for sheds and slips; that the eastern sea-arm is open even to the largest ships at all seasons, and that, however rough may be the sea outside, it is ever smooth under the lee of Mondori; that the position lics in the very track of the mail steamers, which mut now diverge to Fernando Po; that the tenure of land would not be arbitrary, as must ever be the case in a military station; that Victoria offers complete religious toleration, and, finally, that the Csmaroons generally would be the key of the valuable Oil Rivers, whose expert trade to England is calculated at not less than a million and a half of pounds sterling per annum.
Certain it is that the region is wealthy, and Captain Burton lays much stress on the value of the Cameroons Mountains as an African sanatorium.
Mr Winwood Reade's book upon Savage Africa pairs only by contrast with that of Captain Burton. Captain Burton does, perhaps, a little too much affect a dashing, entertaining style; but Mr Winwood Reade a great deal too much affects it, and has not the privilege of an old African traveller to speak as one at home on his own
_ ground. It is true that he claims only the merit “ of
“ having been the first young man about town to make a “ bumifids tour in Western Africa; to travel in that agree“ able and salubrious country with no special object, and " at his own expense; to flaucr in the virgin forest; to “ flirt with pretty savages; and to smoke his cigar among “ cannibals.” The book, though it is often flippant and conceited, makes the most—in a partly substantial, partly superficial, and always showy way—of its materials, and is on the whole certainly better than the tone of its preface would lead anybody to expect.
A special interest attaches to this volume. It is the last utterance of one who has long been preaching doctrines too wise to be generally accepted in his own generation. Most farmers are so wedded to the old-fashioned modes of husbandry that they have little inclination to adopt the sensible teaching of Baron Liebig as to the work of chemistry in preparing soils and otherwise economizing agricultural materials, and their opposition has been not a little increased by the injudicious zeal with which some experimentalists have brought that teaching into ridicule. “ I am doubtful if the time has yet arrived “ for its acceptance,” said the venerable author, sixteen years after the sixth edition of his ‘ Chemistry applied to Agriculture and Physiology ’ had appeared. " I build my “ hopes, however, on the young generation who enter upon “ practice with a different preparation from their fathers. “ As for myself, I have reached the age when the elements “ of the mortal body betray a certain tendency to commence “ a new circle of action, when we begin to think about “ putting our house in order, and must defer to no later “ period what we have still to say. As every investiga~ “ tion in agriculture requires a year before we have all the “ facts before us, I have scarcely any prospect of living to “ see the results of my teaching. The only thing that “ remains for me to do, under these circumstances, is to “ place my views in such a manner before the public, that “ there can be no possibility of misconception on the part “ of those who will give themselves the trouble of be“ coming thoroughly acquainted with them." Therefore this book has been written.
Its grand object is to expound and enforce what is called the Mineral Theory, “ which holds that the food of plants “ is of inorganic nature, and that every one of the elements “ of food must be present in a soil for the proper growth of “ a plant.” The treatise, therefore, begins with a description of the growth and requirements of plants, their powers of selecting food, and the work done by various mineral bodies in supplying it; and this is followed by an examination of the different sorts of soil and subsoil, and of the different mechanical operations, manures, and chemical appliances used in stocking them with nourishment suitable for the plants in cultivation. It is not trucr that man cannot live by bread alone than that the plants that go to the making of man’s bread require, for their healthy growth and productive fruitage, variety and abundance of food. And if the land loses its vigour, the men
whom it has supported must pass from it. “Historians " are wont to attribute the decay of nations to political “ events and social causes. These may, indeed, have “ greatly contributed to the result; but one may well “ ask whether some far deeper cause, not so easily “ recognised by historians, has not produced these events in “ the lives of nations, and whether most of the exterminat“ ing wars between different races may not have sprang “from the irrevocable law of self-preservation P Nations, “like men, pass from youth to age, and then die out—so it “ may appear to the superficial observer; but if we look at “ the matter a little more closely, we shall find that, as the “ conditions for the continuance of the human race which “ nature has placed in the ground are very limited and “ readily exhausted, the nations that have disappeared from “ the earth have dug their own graves by not knowing “ how to preserve these conditions." That principle, worth heeding by all, is illustrated from the history, both of nations that by neglecting the natural laws of agriculture have made their homes too poor to hold them, and of others, like the Japanese, that, though ill-regulated in other respects, have held their ground through a prudent study pf lshe various ways of strengthening and restoring their an s.
The comparative merits of different systems of manuring are fully handled by Herr von Liebig in the latter portion of his book. All through it he labours to show the dignity of agricultural pursuits, the importance of scien. tific husbandry, both to the individual Welfare of the agriculturists themselves and to the advancement of the whole nations to which they belong.
Queens of Song. Being Memoirs of some of the most Celebrated Vocalists who ha no appeared on. the Lyric Stage, from. the earliest days of Opera to the present time. To which is added a. Chronological List of all the Operas that have been performcd's'n Europe. By Ellen Creathorne Clayton. Two Volumes. Smith and
The act of reading this work is very like that of dining in.a pastrycook’s shop, where every dish is a sweetmeat : a jam puff, a gooseberry tart, a cream or a custard, each in its way is admirable, but a banquet composed of nothing but these delicacies is apt to be rather cloying. There are thirty-nine memoirs in this collection, and as all of them are of “ Queens of Song,” supcrexccllence in art is indubitably the right of every onc,—and to every one the right is fully conceded. In saying this We mean nothing in disparagement of the author’s labours, but are merely speaking of the effect which such a book as Miss Clayton's must necessarily produce when read straight on, from beginning to end. Butif we take each mcmoiriu turn, and content ourselves for the time being with one only, the result is sufficiently agreeable, and our satisfaction is such that, to refer once more to the gratification of the palate, We are very much in the condition of Oliver Twist (though he never had the luck of tarts), and disposed, at a proper interval, to ask for “ more." Miss Clayton’s diligence has been great and her reading extensive, and of the materials which she has collected, or which have been placed at her disposal, she has made a very good use. She appears also to he possessed of considerable knowledge of music, her critical opinions are well expressed, and with respect to the composition of her work no possible objection can be made. According to the programme set forth in the titlepage, the list of “ Queens of Song ” begins with Katherine Tofts and Margarita de l’Epine, at the commencement of the last century, and—taking every operatic celebrity that mtervened—closes with the name of Madlle Tietjens, the " bright, particular star” of the year 1863. The volumes, which abound in anecdote, are very entertaining.
The National Rem'ew for January opens with an account of the recently published volume of diffuse and unpruned Correspondence between Goethe and his patron, the Duke of S_axe-Weimar. The reviewer rightly appreciates the distinctive point in Goethe's character, which separates him most widely from Schiller, and pervades all that he wrote. Schiller, in the great stir of the time, gave mind and soul to a large interest in the welfare and development of communities. Goethe, basing his philosophy, it may be, on more egotism, gave his chief thought to the progress of .the individual. It is well said, therefore, by the reviewer of these letters in the Natimial,
That if in some respects there is a want of human sympathy about Goethe’s letters, there is also a total absence of any petty human Jealousy. Throughout this correspondence, extending over half a century, there is not an ill-natured word about anybody. He was too great not to have detractors, too successful not to have enemies; yet agarpst none of them does he display any bitterness. The only persons in the wprld against whom he nourishes any personal illIceling are the disbelievcrs in his colour-theory, and even them he pities rather than blames for their ignorant opposition. As we have laid before, this publication throws comparatively little new light on Goethes character. On the other band, it brings out, perhaps more distinctly than before, the known features of this exceptionsble nature. The “ I_ am Goethe " tone runs through it cll,—-not offenlively, but It!“ with a strange preeminence. The destiny of nations, the fortunes of humanit , the great external vicissitudes of the world's drama, are of sum limportancc in his eyes compared with the progress of his own internal development. It would be wrong to say that his letters are selfish; on the contrary, they are tenderhearted to an extraordinary degree. The point of view from which Goethe regarded humanity, and his relation to it, is one hard to describe in words. To us, bOWth-T, it seems to resemble the creed professed rather than acted upon by the ascetic school of believers, onlythst the object of the faith is different. There is a class of
persons who assert, with more or less conviction, that the
elevation of the soul is the main object of the believer’s life, in regard to which family affections, personal friendships, national interests, and civil duties, are all matters of minor nccount,—to be cherished, indeed, when consistent with this elevation, but to be sacrificed when opposed to it. If in this creed you substitute the elevation of the mind for that of the soul, you will have formed, we think, a tolerable estimate of the principle which ruled Goethe’s life in practice even more than in profession. The “light, more light," which are said to have been the last words on his dying lips, express the aim and struggle of his life. To secure that end, he would sacrifice the affections of others as readily as he would his own; more readily he could not.
The text of the next article is apamphlet of Miss Cobbe’s upon ‘What Annexation has done for Italy.’ There are Universities in nineteen of the towns of Italy; that of Pavia, the most frequented, received during the past year 1,131 students. Of the 7,730 communes of the Italian Kingdom 7,390 have elementary schools, teaching in all rather more than 800,000 pupils. There are twenty-one normal schools for the training of schoolmasters, and eighteen for schoolmistresses, containing about 2,500 pupils, of whom each receives a pension of 250 francs. There are also free infant schools and adult evening schools, which number two-and~thirty in the Genoesa district alone, with forty-six teachers and about 2,000 adult pupils. Education was set down in last year's Italian budget as a charge upon the country of 2,317,472 francs. In speaking of the use to which Italian reading and thinking power thus developed shall be put, the reviewer gives the following sketch of Italian journalism :
The freedom of the press is of course the first step towards the re
suscitation of literature. As yet, however, want of commercial cntsrprise, want of a reading public, want of circulating libraries, and want of interesting books, form a vicious circle, from which there is no promise of the speedy discOVcry of a way of egress. Pamphlets there are. The Papal press issues ‘Il Principio dell' Autoritb e le Tcndunze dt'l Secolo,’ in which it is demonstrated, first, that authority is the best thing in the world ; and secondly), that the Papal government is the best government in the world, ecsucc it exercises the lerut authority. Padre l’asscglis issues ‘ ll Celibato del Clem,’ and proves that that source of all corruption might advantageously be done away with, because the Jewish high-priest was allowed to marry, and many of the Fathers approved of wedlock. So dangerous and revolutionary are the brochure: of Italyl As to the newspaper press, it is certainly rising, and will, we trust, are long become like that of England, "an estate of the realm:" but it has a good way to travel are it attain that dignity. It must write better leaders, and above all cease to be afraid of offending possible subscribers, and insert letters of correspondents, and take up social and commercial questions, and nltogcthcr cease to he a more advocate either of the coostimtional party or the party of action, or the party of Popolini and Codini. Of the papers now existing in Ilnly, the most respectable is probably the A'uzi'one of Florence. lt contrasts very favourably with the Gionmlc di Roma (the chief periodical of the Nerf), being at least twice the size, thuc as well written, and conveying its intelligence without that preliminary culinary process whereby telegrams in Rome are disguisi-(l. There is a fim'lleton of the usual French kind, which to our English eyes always suggest the idea of the mouthful of jam to tempt the unwilling juvenile appetite to the dose of politics. Th: re is a summary of the day’s news. There is a leading article; sometimes of very fair ability. Then there are foreign telegrams and a few bits of local news. Then (the fourth page) wholly devoted to advertisements, among which quack medicines figure prominently, and books very rarely at all. The most noticcable feature, perhaps, of the whole press of Italy at this moment is the humorous sid--,--tha papers which appear several times a week rivalling our Tune]: in drollcry, and fearlessly attacking bumbug under all its forms, lay and ecclesiastical. Three of these have appeared in Florence—the Lampt'one, tho Chiacclriera, and the Arlecchl'ao. In all cases the letter-press, throughout devoid of wit, is inferior to the illustrations. The Lampions in particular possesses an artist who, under the name of “ Mata,” produces lithographs really excellent in an artistic point of view, as vvell as cleverly satirical. A peculiar joke favoured just now in Italy is the production of a picture which when opened shall convey one subject, and when folded in a particular manner, quite another. The week in which we write offers a large tableau representing Italy looking on, while the lion of St Mark’s overthrows the Emperor of Austria, and the Roman wolf mauls Pio IX. 0n folding the paper there appears only agood lithograph of Garibaldi. Last week there was a sketch of four prize pigs, precisely such as might appear in our Illustrated News. Judiciously closed, this produced a capital likeness of the Pope. Besides these there are pictures of a serious kind, satirising all manner of Roman Catholic miracles and pretensions. In one a priest is showing to the people a Madonna, whose arms olher priests in the background are pulling with cords, while Jesus Christ exposes the deception. In another the Jesuits are collecting money to “save the Church,” and squabbling for it behind the scenes among themselves. Molt audacious of all is a very large picture of a crucifix before which the Pope is kneeling, while the figure on the cross strikes the tiara from his head in indignation. Local jests are illustrated by a ludicrous series representing the life of the late Grand Duke, and by caricatures of the misadventures of his followers. Nor does the Government escape its fair share of sarcasm. In the older series the round face of poor Cavour continually figured, and the delays ofdiplomacy are the favourite theme of many later illustrations. In one, Italy is chained and held back, while gosdcd by stinging wasps. ‘In another, Garibaldi is cutting the knot of all difficulties. In a third, Diplomacy, as a blind old woman in toga, is driving a chariot drawn by snails upon the road to Rome. Copies of old statues——the Perseus, the Rape of the Sabines, ism—applied to modern subjects, are common, and often well executed.
There are now forty-one lines of Italian railway, or in all about 1,800 or 1,900 miles; railway communication having been more than doubled since the outbreak of the war from which Italy secured to herself the freedom she enjoys. The extent of the telegraph wire has also been doubled, and the use of it made cheap and easy to the public. The common roads of the country have also been vastly extended and improved. Letter boxes, like our pillar boxes, are set up in the towns and villages to facilitate postal delivery. Some solid progress has been made also in the suppression of an indolent monasticism.
In all the new provinces except Sicily the law of May 29th, 1856, has been applied. It provides for the gradual extinction, and in some cases the immediate suppression of all monasteries and convents of religious orders which are not occupied either in preaching, education, or the care of the sick. The property of such religious orders, and of the chapters of certain collegiate churches which are sinecures, has passed, according to this law, into the hands of Govern
ment, which engages to pay a life-pension to all persons who had claim to share in such estates when the law was promulgated. This pension is equally paid whether the person continue to reside in the same convent or is drafted into another, or quits the religious life and becomes seculariscd. There is an administration called the “Class Ecclesiastica," whose duty it is to take possession of the property falling under the law, and pay the pensions to the members of the su pressed community.
Ve have been unable to ascertain the number of coavcnts thus treated throughout Italy, but are informed that in Tuscany alone the number of monks and nuns has been reduced by 5,000.
The article ends with some interesting and trustworthy accounts of the manner in which recent political and social changes have differently affected different Italian towns. Dr Smith's ‘ Dictionary of the Bible,’ and the history of medireval and modern Greece, as illustrative of Greek questions of to-day, are the next topics of the National Review. In the ‘Dicticnary of the Bible' the reviewer finds uniform excellence only in the geography and natural history articles, elsewhere he points out want of consistency, occasional want of temper and want of proportion.
There is an article on “ Eton Reform," in anticipation of the long-delayed Report of the Public School Commissioners, of which the gist is expressed in these sentences:
Two or three points appear to us as those without which all other change would be wall-nigh useless. We cannot but believe that the dissatisfaction so loudly and widely expressed with the rule of the present bead-master will cause him to resign. He will deserve the thanks of all for having come forward at a critical period with the best intentions; he will retire with dignity from changes hc_cannot approve. There exists, we believe, no power for his removal; the visitorahip of the College, vested in the Bishop of Lincoln, haslong since become a mere name. But even if such a powar existed, we should be sorry to see it exercised. All must feel I certain tenderness for a man forced against his will intoa position for which he was not strong enough, for an amiable man goaded into the committal of obstinate errors by a sense of his own incompetence. These, then, seem the all-important measures of change: 1. That the school and college should he one; perhaps by the abolition of fellowships, and the giving the assistant-masters a share in the government. 2.]That the provost and head-master should each be the bolt man who can be found to fill the post, Etonian or non-Etonisn, lay or cleric. The provost to be appointed by the Crown, the head-master by the provost and assistant-masters. 3. Once appointed, the held-master in his special work should be unfettered, and the office should, as at Winchester, expire at the end of a definite period. A headmaster would always be reappointed. These changes made, all other net-dl‘ul reforms would follow in due course, and Eton would take the proud position to which she makes so large a claim, in the front of those institutions which train and nurture the intellectual life of our land.
An article on the Administration of Justice in India strongly sets forth the evils of the old system, that has not yet wholly been superseded by the judicial reforms contemplated in the acts passed in India in 1859, and by the Imperial Legislature in 1862. These reforms
May be briefly summed up as follows. We may say that four codes have been enacted; two codes of penal law and criminal procedure have put the whole system of criminal ‘ustice on a definite, regulated, and simple footing; y an agrarian co e, known as Act X. of 1859, it has been sought to regulate the determination of the rights of the various parties claiming an interest in the soil, and to consolidate the laws on that subject; and a code of civil procedure has consolidated and improved that part of the Indian system. A new law of limitstion, prescribing very much shorter terms, has greatly curtailed the future license of litigation, and acme modern enactments have improved tho mode of dealing with the calatefl of intestatas, minors lunalics, dzc. High courts, combining professional knowledge of law with Indian experience, have been established at the three presidencies; a new police system has been almost every where introduced; and there has been, especially in Bengal proper, a very general extension of the personnel of the 'udicial establishments in all branches. The number of courts and acilities to suitors have been increased.
Another paper in the N ational treats of a French Coleridge, Joseph J oubcrt, born in 1754, one of many children of a poor doctor in Perigord, who came, in 1778, as a young man with weak health into the literary circles of Paris, where he “ s’inquiétait de perfection bien plus que dc gloire.” Chateaubriand called him, in the words of Epicurus, a man who had chosen “to hide his life."
Years went on, and his friends became conspicuous authors or statesmen; but Joubert remained in the shade. His constitution was of such fragility that how he lived so long, or accomplished so much as he did, is a wonder ; his soul had, for its basis of operations, hardly any body at all; both from his stomach and from his chest he seems to have had constant sufferings, though he lived by rule, and was as abstemious as a Hindoo. Often, after overwork in thinking, reading, or talking, he remained for days together in a state of utter prostrstion—condemned to absolute silence and inaction; too happy if the agitation of his mind would become quiet also, and let him have the rcposo of which be stand in such need. With this Weakness of health, these repeated suspensions of energy, he was incapable of the prolonged contention of spirit necessary for the creation of great works; but he read and thought immensely; he was an unwearicd note-taker, a charming letter-writer, above all, an excellent and delightful talker. The gaiety and amenity of his natural disposition werc inexhaustible; and his spirit, too, was of astonishing elasticity; he seemed to hold on to life by a single thread only, but that single thread was very tenacious. More and more, as his soul and knowledge ripcncd more and more, his friends pressed to his room in the Rue St.-Honoré; often he received them in bed, for he seldom rose before three o'clock in the afternoon; and at his bedroomdoor, on his bad days, Madame Joubert stood sentry, trying, not always with success, to keep back the thirsty comers from the fountain which was forbidden to flow. Fontanes did nothing in the University without consulting him, and Joubert'a ideas and pen were always at his friend’s service. \Vhen be Was in the country, at Villcneuve, the young priests of his neighbourhood used to resort to him, in order to profit by his library and by his conversation. He. like our Coleridge, was particularly qualified to attract men of this kind, and to benefit them : retaining perfect independence of mind, he was religious; he was a religious philosopher. As age came on, his infirmities became more and more overwhelming; some of his friends, too, dltd ; others became so immersed in politics, that Joubcrt, who hated politics, saw them aeldomer than of old; but the moroseness of ago and infirmity never touched him, and he never quarrelled with a friend or lost one. From these miseries he was preserved by that quality in him of which we have already spoken ;-—a quality which is best expressed by a word, not of common use in
English—alas, we have too little in our national character of the quality which this word expresses—his inborn, his constant amenity. lie lived till the year 1824. On the 4th of May in that year he died, at the age of seventy.
He survives only in a volume of fragments, first published for private circulation by Chateaubriand fourteen years after his death, and since twice reprinted in editions for the public. It is upon this volume that the reviewer dwells.
A review of Baur’s ‘ Church History of the Nineteenth Century’ is followed by an appreciative article on Mr Fronde’s ‘Elizabeth,’ a strong condemnation of the destruction of Kagosima, and an article on the disturbed ‘ State of Europe,’ in which, of course, Louis Napoleon is the central figure.
The Westminster opens a good January number with an article sketching the life and works of Roger Bacon, partly from Professor Brewer’s edition of some of his works in the series of Chronicles and Memorials published under direction of the Master of the Rolls, but more especially from the monograph by M. Emile Charles, ‘ Roger Bacon : sa Vie, sea Ouvrages et ses Doctrines,’ published two or three years ago. The next topic is the tunnel under Mont Cénis, which we shall owe in no small degree to the first wise encouragement of the apparently wild scheme by Count Cavour and his colleagues, Signor Paleocaps and General Menebrea. An experimental commission of five having reported favourably, when the bill was brought in
for the fusion of the lines between Sass and the 'l‘icino,
The Government added clauses authorizing the construction of the tunnel by the Stale, and the necessary expenses, to which the company agreed to contribute a sum of 20,000,000 francs (800,0001.)
esides premiums on the shares, and so great was the faith inspired by Counts dc Cavour and Mcnabrea, that the Picdmonlese Chamber of Deputies actually passed this audacious law by a large majority.
The practical diflicullies of the enterprise now began. But it was much that the project should have been approved, and the confidence of the Government and the Parliament would have been a spur to the energy of-the engineers had not the grandeur and glory of the undertaking itself been suflicicnt to excite their utmost zeal. No sooner had the Bill passed into law than the works were begun, in the autumn of 1857. The trigonometrical survey necessary to obtain an accurate tracing of the axis of the future tunnel was in itself no alight task, if we consider that its extreme points could not be made visible from one another without placing them at a distance which would have rendered any accurate observation impossible, and also that all the operations had to be carried on at heights varying from 3,000 to 10,000 feet above the level of the sea, and amidst the constant atmospherical changes characteristic of such elevated regions. The first difficulty was overcome by establishing an observatory on the very summit of Grand-Vallon, the highest peak in that part of the Alps, and two extreme points of the axis in the same vertical plane with it and one another, having been determined by turning the theodolile 180° it was comparatively easy to fix the intermediate signal points on each side one by one, always keeping the extreme point in view, and then lowering the instrument perpendicularly until a site for an observatory had been found in each of the two opposite valleys of Rochcmolles and Fourneaux, exactly on a level with and opposite to the respective entrances to the tunnel, so that the signals received from the outside could be repeated underground, and the works kept on the correct line necessary to ensure the junction of the two halves under the Very centre of the mountain. To increase the difficulties to be contended with, it was found that the valley of Rochemolles was more than 700 feet higher than that of Fourneaux, on which account it was determined to give a slope of 22 in 1,000 to half the tunnel.
The article in the Westminster explains the system employed for the making of this tunnel through the Alps by help of compressed air, and by a contrivance, worked by the torrent of Charmaix, for drawing out bad air when the slope of ‘22 in 1,000 impedes natural ventilation. The financial history of the undertaking is thus told:
When the bill authorizing the tunnel passed, both slopes of the Alps belonged to the same Slate, the two parts of which it was to connect, while it put the Mediterranean port of Genoa in communication with France, Switzerland, and Germany; but, owing to the restrictive commercial policy of the governments that then ruled all the rest of Italy, its influence did not seem likely to extend further south. Three years, however, sufficed to bring great changes. The southern half of the Italian peninsula had fused itself with the northern, and the frontier of France was on the crest of the Alps. Savoy having thus passed into the power of another State, a special convention was concluded on the 7th of May, 1862, to regulate the interests concerning the tunnel. The Italian Government insisted on retaining the exclusive command and direction of the works, which it had begun at its own risk and cost; but it was agreed that when they were terminated, France should pay for half the length at the rate of three thousand francs per metro; and, moreover, that for every year less than twenty-five—the extreme limit of time fixed by the convention—she should pay an additional sum of 600,000 francs, a premium to be raised to 600,000 per annum if the works he terminated within fifteen year.
Our readers thus see how great an interest the Italian Government has even financially in the speedy termination of the tunnel; an argument made use of by General de Menabrea, in his interesting speech of the 4th of March last, to induce the Parliament to grant additional sums for the works, showing that to spend now is true economy, since every year gained will increase the proportion of the general expense to be borne by France. According to the calculations of the Minister, twelve and a half years may be looked to with confldence as the ultimate term of the undertaking; in January last, the Works were already 1,274 mhtres, or rather more than a tenth of the whole distance, from the entrance on the side of Bardonnéchc, and of this 550 mbtres (170 in 1861, 380 in 1862) were, owing to the mechanical system, which, there is every reason to hope, will every year afford increasingly satisfactory results, not less at any rate than a yearly progress of 400 metres. At Fourneaux, where it was only inaugurated in January, 1863, at a distance of 925 metres from the entrance, the progress made in the first two months was such as to afford ground for the confident expectation that the works on that side will soon be in as forward a state as those at Bardonncchc ; and if these calculations be not falsified by encountering some fl'esll obstacle in the centre of the mountain, and the expected total advance of 800 metres (400 at each end) be attained each year, it will follow that France will be liable by the treaty for a sum which will go far to acquit the obligations of the Italian Government with respect to the tunnel; since, including the interest on the sum spent on the French half, it will exceed 31,700,000 francs (l,208,000[.). Besides this an additional sum of 13,000,000 francs (520,000!.) will have to be reimbursed by the Victor Emmanuel Railway Company, leaving little more than 20,000,000 francs out of the 66,000,000 francs the tunnel is computed to cost, to be finally paid by the Italian Government, in which sum is included the cost of the railway between Bardonndche and Bass.
Astrology and Magic, Depreciation of Gold, and Gilchrist's Life of Blake are the next topics of the Westminster. The reviewer, who discusses “parties and prospects in Parliament," connects men oddly together, when, after dwelling in eulogy upon Lord I’almerston’s superior effectiveness as a speaker, derived from his tact in representing “under all circumstances the “feelings, the judgments, the inclinations, the prejudices, “ and the passions of the average British character,” he looks in vain for a rising statesman who seems to have moulded himself upon the model of Lord Palmerston, and adds, that “ one member of the Government “alone is supposed to cultivate what he conceives to “ be an imitation of Lord Palmerston’s style and bearing. “ Even that imitation is not successful, for the supposed “ imitator is Sir Robert Peel.” Since Lord Palmerston is famous for the tact which avoids turmoil, and Sir Robert is of all men most distinguished for the blundering recklessness with which he rushes into it, they resemble eachz
other about as much as pepper and sweet oil, and it may, certainly be said that pepper's attempt to resemble oil is; not successful. As to the question of who is the coming man, and what will be the upshot of the division of \ parties following Lord l’almerston’s death, that is a matter upon which we do not agree with the reviewer that it is worth while to hold public argument, and least of all an argument that ends in mere negation and uncertainty. From the coming session the reviewer expects nothing; neither do we; and we heartily agree with him when of the present Derby Parliament he says, “ whatever becomes, “ of it—whether it is cut off by a sudden dissolution, or “ drags out to its last legal gasp—its memory will bel “ equally inglorious. So barren and wearying a Parlial “ ment has not been seen for many generations.”
In 1859, when the nobles of the principal provinces of the Empire etitioned for a reform of abuses, and even hinted at a Constitution. he causes of this phenomenon—the disasters of the Crimean war,
the accession of a liberal Emperor, who inaugurated his reign by an
amnesty and a relaxation of the passport and censorship systems, and finally. the disorganization of societ caused by llie abolition of serfage, are \chI known. The agitation o the whole country was tremendous; the cumbrnus machine of Government seemed to be yielding to the irresistible force of a determined national will; and blinded by the rapidity with which events succeeded each other, deafened by the noise, even the experienced and thoughtful believed fora moment that the regeneration of Russia was at hand. But the blow soon came that was to test the solidin of the liberal professions of the Russians. The Polish insurrection broke out, and dashed all the glittering but unsubstantial liberalism of the Russian nobles and the Russian press to fragments. The Goddess of Liberty was replaced in the worship of liberal Russia by Mouravicfi'; the circulation in Russia of the Kola/col, which before the insurrection was counted by thousands, has dwindled down to eight hundred, simply because it has remained true to its principles; and the enslavcment of s neighbouring country is openly advocated by the very men who, two years ago, were the most clamorous in vindicating the freedom of their own. The sad truth has been forced upon the world, that Russia's liberalism is not seriously meant, and that she is therefore as yet powerless to disentangle herself from the corrupt mass of ofiicialism which sucks the life-blood from her body. The prospect is not cheering; for the longer the country is denied the blessings of liberty, the more deeply must the corruption of oflicialism eat into the national character, and the less fitted will the nation be to achieve its freedom. Whether Russia will pass through her present state of transition without a revolution, must depend on circumstanccs which it is at present impossible to foresee. One thing, however, is clear— that a revolution, if it really and seriously breaks out, can only degenerate intoa jacquerie; for there are no popular grievances in Russia but such as are founded on purely material wanls. The dissatisfaction of the higher classes of society, purged of those speculative elements, which are merely the product of the example and the teachings of a civilization they are yet unable to understand, reduces itself to an unwillingness to be deprived of a portion of their properly in order to compensate the peasants for the losses they would suffer by the scheme of emancipation; while the peasants openly proclaim that nothing will satisfy them but the unconditional grant of the land which they and their ancestors have always occupied.
On the other hand, there is the constitutional indolencc and want of
initiative of the Russian character, combined with the unqualified
adoration of the Czar, which has always hithcrto prevented popular insurrections from becoming general.
The closing paper on the physiology of sleep includes suggestions of a new way of attacking sleeplessness, by a hot bag at the nape of the neck:
In the Medical Times and Gazstts of 18th July, 1863, Dr Chapman published a paper, since reprinted, on “A New Method of treating Disease by controlling the Circulation of the Blood in did'erent parts of the Body." In this paper he says:
“ I have discovered that a controlling power over the circulation of the blood in the brain, in the spinal cord, in the ganglia of the nervous system, and, through the agency of these nervous centres,l also in every other or an of the body, can be exercised by means of cold and heat appli to difl'eront parts of the back. . . . If it be desirable to increase the circulation in any given part of the body, this I have found myself file to effect by exerting a soothing, sedative, depressing, or paralysing influence (according to the amount of power required) over those ganglia of the sympathetic which send vase-motor nerves to the part intended to be acted on. This influence may be exerted by applying ice to the central part of the back, over a width of from four to four inches and a-half, and extending longitudinally over the particular segments of the sympathetic and of the spinal cord on which it is desired to not. For example, intending to direct a fuller and more equable flow of blood to the brain, I up ly ice to the back of the neck and between the scapnllc. . . . The
thoracic and abdominal viscera can be influenced in like manner;
while the legs and feet can have their circulation an increased that they become thoroughly warm by ice applied to the lower part of the back."
On the other hand, the application of heat to the same parts (by means of hot-water bags) produces opposite effects, lessening the circulation in the parts under the control of those portions of the nervous centres along the back ever which it is applied.
Now the bearing of Dr Chapman's discovery upon the subject we are discussing is at once obvious. He has already published evidence that cold applied to the back of the neck increases the cerebral circulation, and with it the functional activity of the brain. He has, moreover, most kindly furnished us privately with the details of numerous cases under his observation but not yet published, which show, in the most striking manner, that heat applied to the back of the neck palpany diminishes the circulation in the head, and at the same time favours, or rather, actually induces, sleep. We cannot forbcar adding that we consider Dr Chapman‘s observations deserving of the most attentive consideration, bot of the scientific physiologist and the practical physician.
The last ninety pages of the Westminster contain the usual classified critical and descriptive sketch of contemporary literature at home and abroad, which is remarkably Well kept up, and for carcfulness of proportion, completm ness, brevity without shallowness, and general efficiency, is the best thing of its kind in English journalism.
Travels in Mexico, South America, d-c. By G. T. Vigne, Esq., Author of ‘ A Personal Visit to Ghuzni, Cabnl, and Afghanistan,’ and 'Travels in Kashmir, Ladah, &c.’ With Illustrations. Two Volumes. W. H. Allen and Co.
Twelve years having elapsed since the author of these volumes set out on his transatlantic travels, the political matter which is scattered through them need not detain us. We care little new for the doings of the Filibusters of 1851, nor for the revelations of the South American republics of that bygone time, but Mr Vigne (who did not live to see his work through the press) has many other things to say, and as he writes with a full knowledge of the countries he visited, his remarks are well worth reading. His manner of writing, while actually travelling, is somewhat peculiar, being little more than journalising, but when he rests on his journey to continue his narrative we find him very entertaining. An example of his “cursive” style may be taken from any part of his travels. Here, for instance, is an illustrative pagc,—-mcre jottings, but still suggestive:
Scenery very bold and picturesque; saw a wild orange-treolcaded with fruit at the halting place, and a tree resembling a plantain, with a red flower, and a brouiclia with red blossom. Saw fish—told they were savali; sand-flies and gallipatos or licks; at night heard the heavy floundering tread of some large animal amongst the boulders on the opposite side of the river, about a hundred yards all, probably a tapir. N ext day we had to ford a notoriously bad place, called the Angosturas or “ narrows ;" the slrcsm about fifty yards across between almost perpendicular rocks of sandstone, which bore evident marks of violent disturbance since it was deposited, rising more than a thousand feet above the river. The unloading and reloading occupied three hours; the trouble depends on the state of the rapid. A great quantity of water in the pool ; the mules just kept their heads above the surface for a short distance. Parrots were flying about, and toucans, and I saw a bird resembling the English willow wrcn. Noticed a fly with a rich green body and asoarlct tall. In one of the pools was a brood of young wild ducks, and a number of fish about three pounds each ; but the appearance of the dorado was singularly beautiful as they lay in the clear deep Wilt! r under the rock and the green overhanging forest ; one in particular, more than a yard in length, was floating, or lazily moving on the surface, with the blazing sun upon his brilliant red and golden back and sides.
On the other hand, when not in motion, we have detailed descriptions like the following. He is speaking of the Indian tribes, in the district of Oran, on the northern frontier of La Plate. :
These Indians of the adjoining parts of the Gran Chaco are Matacos or Malaguyos ; their women, as is usually the case, are made to slave and work for them, but at Oran I also saw some Chiriyuanes from the north of the Pilcomayo, distihguishable not only by a blue coloured wafer-like ornament which is fixed (if I remember rightly) through the upper lip, but by their general appearance, being very superior to that of the Matacos. Their women (and the exception is a curious one) are exempt from servile employment, which is attested by a livelier countenance, more rounded limbs, and the absence ofthe sad wearicd look and emaciation which is so generally remarkable in the natives. I do not know if this more polished tribe is exempt from another curious custom, of which I heard the same account everywhere. When an addition to an Indian's family has been made, it is the father and not the mother who is considered to be interesting. He, literally speaking, goes to bed, shams illness, and is waited on by his wife, who is supposed to recover her strength in a very short time, as if expressly for the occasion. The best fowl is killed, the best chicha lapped, and for three or four days, or even more, he remains in the hut receiving the congratulations of his friends, to whom the woman exerts herself to make the reception as agreeable as she can. An Indian never chastises his child, and lhs child is never regularly weaned, sometimes using his strength as a boy, or even when older, to get by force at his mother's breasl. Girls marry at twelve, young men at eighteen. A suitor gives a few yards of cloth or a poncho to a man for his daughter, but nothing to the mother. He carries a bundle of wood, and throws it down before the house ; ifthe girl likes him she sets fire to the Wood; if not, she (-lily asks if he can labour. The Indians here never eatmutton, they say it makes their noses llat ! and object to use a knife that has lately killed a sheep. They break the backbone ofa corpse, and then bury it as at Atacama, in a sitting posture, with a vessel of water and maize and wood between the feel. The Widow takes maize and shakes it over him with her head covered.
The most interesting part of Mr Vigne’s extensive travels is that which relates to his prolonged route from Buenos Ayres to Lima, stretching in a north-westerly direction from the South Atlantic to the Pacific shore. As a matter of necessity it was performed on horseback, but could he have realised his own wish, the journey would have been accomplished in a far different manner. On his way to Tucuman he first saw the condor, and once seen, the image of the huge bird became fixed in his memory: to such an extent, in fact, that he seems to have been quite vexed at not being able to turn its vast loos. motive power-etc account like the magicians of Arabian story, he would fain have driven through the air:
I know no flight which, in my opinion, is so beautiful as that of the condor. It is more so than that of the Himalayan vulture, or the eagle, sweeping round and round in large circles without a motion of the wings for two or three minutes, and then only once or twice, and realizing the poetry of the “ Malta Dircaaum levat aura cygnum" better than the swan itself or any other bird, excepting, perhaps, the crane or stork. They often skim with swiftness near the mountain path, and are said to exhibit great sagacity in swooping in rapid succession at a string of mules where the pathway is most narrow, so as to cause one to fall over. I have long entertained an idea that a framework of bamboo or wickerwork, uniting strength with lightness, might be drawn through the air by means of nine or twelve of these birds, each one separately harnessed to a sufliciently strong bamboo slip some four feet in length, and firmly fixed to the under surface of the carriage or frameWork, and dropped perpendicularl from it and resting on a small saddle braced round the neck and behind the wing, so that each bird would be independent of the others, and with sufficient room; the aerial John, to be secured above, to drive, raise, depress, and turn the animals by means of reins and pal. leys, with sharp points and blinkers, &c., applied to the head and beak, if found necessary. There can be no doubt of the lifting power, and those who have at all studied the habits of the condor say that they evince a knowledge of and attachment to those who feed them, snd'ars not the savage animals one might supppose them to be, if regularly supplied with food. Why should not some of them be harnessed so as to drag a light carriage along an iron tramway and be fed at the end of the journey P Or perhaps they might be used as auxiliaries to a properly shaped balloon. The first experiments might be made by means ofropes and rings running on an elevated tight-rope. It would be necessary that some one resident in the country should make the first essay, and I think his perseverance would most probably be rewarded with success.
With all deference to Mr Vigne we cannot help thinking that the “ perseverance” of the person who should make “the first essay” would meet with the reward of Phaethon.
The vast extent of country traversed by Mr Vigne prevents us from following his track with anything like closeness. We, therefore, dip at random into his book for the entertainment of the reader. When we remember the value of the cinchonn we need hardly be incredulous respecting the virtues of other plants. There is, for instance, in Tucuman a parasite, which Mr Vigne was shown, which is used as a medicine to cure deafness and smallpox, and the natives have peculiar remedies. Pleurisy is a common disease in that part of South America, and to cure it they mix two spoonfuls of salt in three of oil, and drink the mixture warm, as an emetic, before going to bed. This last remedy is of easy application, but we should like to have known the name of the parasiticol plant which produces such various results. Not content- with this, however, the Indians on the river Vermejo have recourse to other means for curing smallpox, which we hardly imagine would succeed in the double event. Hearing a loud noise of voices in the Indian but at night, Mr Vigne found an old woman who, having first tied a wreath of cook’s feathers round the sick man’s head, was screaming and holloaing words into his ear, holding her hands over her own ears at the same time. She was looked upon as a medico or bmro, and this was her mode of driving away the disease. Mr Vigne, however, does not say that this remedy was effectual; indeed, he is one of the most concientious travellers we ever met with. He never vouches for the absolute truth of anything of which he had not personal knowledge, and when he does not witness a fact mentions it only as hearsay. Thus, he was told by his guide of a wondrous owl in one of the forests, “ with eyes “ of fire," he only says he heard that this was so, but when he afterwards met with singing swans, he lends his authority to the old classical legend. These birds were met with on a lake near Oran, “ uttering peculiar and not “unmusical notes from their pipe-like necks, which I put “ down in my note book as ‘ singing ;’ it somewhat resem“ bled the prolonged note of the Eolian harp, with only a “ small portion of its sweetness.” The primeval forests of this region are of extraordinary beauty. Near the Gran Chaco, Mr Vigne describes one of singular magnificence:
The foliage of the lapacho-trees had undergone a peculiar change, -—-perhaps the forerunner of decay, but not decay itself ; every particle of what had been verdant as a leaf was now of a fine delicate rosecclour,—no dullish bright red like that of the maple in autumn, but a tint that required lake or carmine to represent it with truth; and when (as I remember to have seen one near the trabanjal between Oran and the Vermejo) a large open space afforded an opportunity of contemplating the forest surrounding it like a wall, and three or four of these large trees happened to be near each other, the efiect of ex— tensive rose-coloured spaces contrasting with the usual verdure, or salient from the shade of some deep gloomy recess, was such as I suppose no painter would ever have dared to represent even in painting a scene of enchantment. Moreover, in ascending thc Vermejo, I was one day surprised at seeing a tree (I only remember one or two) whose foliage in the distance had become entirely, not exactly blue nor leaden, but of a decidedly bright lavender or alnalt colour, after a similar organic change in the leaf. It appeared to me on examination to be a species of mimosa, and was called here the target.
And the wonders of these forests are not confined to their singularly tinted foliage,- the forms of the parasitical plants being so extraordinary. -Of the number and size of them, Mr Vigne says :
The forest seemed to have been invaded by an army of huge pythons, many of them more than a foot in diameter, looking as if they had been stiffened whilst in the act of twining themselves in numerous folds round the tree which they had seized and embraced with a living, fierce, and prehensile grasp, and had then reared and lost their heads in the uppermost branches of another still more lofty than their victime, which again were sometimes smaller than themselves, and hearing on their indented stems the impress of the enormous and strangling force that had writhed itself round them.
But. the python is not merely simulated by the shape of a storm—and that species, known as the “ lampalagua,” has, besides its enormous strength, the often denied power of fascination, wherewith to bring its prey within reach. The Indians assert that this boa can draw towards himself
any small animal from a distance of ten yards and more. It does not move, habitually, with the serpentine motion of other snakes, but makes,—as the Americans say,—“straight “tracts,” contracts itself like an earthworm, and then shoots forward in the same direction. One of the settlers also told Mr Vigne that he himself had once heard a peculiar whimpering howl, aud, upon approaching the spot, saw a fox, to all appearance so paralyzed with fear that he could not escape from the lampalagua, which soon seized him. Another fearful creature in the Gran Chaco is a snake that will throw itself off the ground on a man on horseback; and among other dangerous animals is one called “ hucrc,” said to be like a unicorn, that prowls about only at night, and is too swift for well-mounted horsemen even to overtake. This beast is strongly suspected of putting out the eyes of calves and sheep, but Mr Vigne only assigns to it the character of a jackal. To descend in the scale, we find an account of a very formidable hornet, called the “ alcaldo,”—either from its avenging habits, or the red, flannel-like colour of its wings, finely contrasted with the intensely steel-like, bluish black of the body, about an inch and a half in length. Of this hornet Mr Vigne says :
In Europe the wasp stands a bad chance in an ordinary spider’s web, but in South America, km, the wasps and hornets generally have the best of it, and it is not uncommon on the way to see a wasp dragging along a dead spider larger than himself, displplying extraordinary strength, and aiding his exertions by the occasion use of his Wings. My attention has been called to such a feat as we rode along, even by an apathetic native servant, and it is well worth watching. The wasp may he often seen hunting the spider among the grass-roots, like a bound, apparently by scent, and will follow him with unflinching detcrmination for scores of yards, finally stinging him to death, and then dragging him backwards to the nest over ridges, hollows, and up precipitous banks, with all the pertinacity of the ant. The formidable alcalde is said never to sting a human being unless seriously provoked ; when they enter a mom, their presence is unheeded. His attention seems to be entirely directed to the chase of larger insects, more particularly the arsnm, the largest of whom do their host to avoid him ; and woe be to any other crawling or creeping thin that be discovers whom lic may doom is foeman worthy of his stee ; and I was told he will fly at a snake, stinging him again and again, and avoiding the bite by the velocity of his movements. I have heard him designated as amigo def hombre.
But we must. leave the natural history of the country to speak again of the people. Some traits of the Bolivian Indians are curious:
Those who still persist in the search for “ the lost tribcs" will be interested in hearing that when an Indian builds a but he kills a llama, and strikes, so I was informed, the door- cats and the four corners of the room with the bleeding head. An ndian lives with his consort for twelve months previously to their marriage, by which conventual and convenient arrangement they have the advantage of judging whether they like each other or not; and a widow is usually preferred, thinking that from experience she will make him a better wife. An Indian woman is, on this account, often several times married, particularly the widows of those who are employed in the mines. The poor Indian miners and blasters wear themselves out in a few years with hard labour and spirit drinking, and I was assured of one than living married woman who had been a widow fourteen times. The Indians here never begin to work a new vein without killing a sheep in the mine, eating the flesh, and burying the bones; never begin smelting in a new furnace without sprinkling the four corners of the building with blood. They think that particular places are haunted by spirits, and seek omens in fried cocoa leaves. If, in frying, the whiter underside is uppermost, the omen is good. Thcy kill a deformed lamb, saying that a devil has been born. If the shadow of the condor passes over the loaded mules, it is considered to be a good omen; if vecuuns cross their path it is a bad one. An Indian who has once worn trousers has lost caste as a true Indian. Some of the Indians are very rich, possessing, for instance, 10,000, 15,000, or 20,000 dollars, and have silver plates, dishes, and drinking-cups. Indian women (and men sometimes) usually have a silver or horn spoon suspended round their nccks ready for use. An Indian left not less than 3,000 dollars to have himself buried with masses, &c., in first-rate style; but the heir only gave the cure half the sum, because he had not fulfilled the stipulated conditions, having met the procession half way instead of coming to the house. Sometimes a rich Indian, porsuaded by the priests, undertakes to defray the expenses of a charity sermon, or some religious ceremony, for the hensfitof the church, and he is then usually to be seen standing at the door with a white wand and new wide-awake hat, as being decidedly the first man of the day, and receiving from the officiating priest a public and favourable notice of himself and his munificenoe.
After entering the confines of Peru, much interesting speculation is given by Mr Vigne as to the origin of the ruins of Tiguernaco, at Titicaca, and the subject of a remote immigration from Carthage is very largely discussed. But we leave the remote ancestors of the Peruvians to speak of their modern descendants. The native doctors are members of a somewhat remarkable faculty :
They call themselves calaqualla, or sack-bearers; they wander, it is said, even to Mexico, to Lima, Rio Janeiro, and Buenos Ayres, with a bag or wallet at their backs by which they are easily recognixed, full of plants and native remedies, &c. An invalid describes his ailment, and the doctor sells him medicine, and then proceeds on his way. They are reported, and no doubt with truth, to be aware of the medicinal virtues of a great number of plants unknown to the Spaniards, and are said to have pretensions to medical knowledge in family matters such as would throw those of civilized empirics into the shade. I was assured that they had medicines which applied to the nostrils, would instantly make the nose bleed, and another which, similarly applied, would immediately act as a styptic. I often tried to learn something certain of their medicines, but without success. Paragua is famous for her balsams, and with them they
cities, no money, it is said, will induce them to part with their secrets.
The city of Cusco affords Mr Vigne an opportunity for much graphic description. Here is a lively account of the procession of the Corpus Christi:
On the 6th of J one I witnessed tbe'entrada of images destined to form part of the procession of the Corpus Christi on the next day. Patron saints are rought in from villages in the surrounding country by Indians, who seemed to enjoy the work amazingly, each party vteing with the others in exertion, and even quarrelling as they pushed forward with their glittering burdens—large silver tra s, or rather little platforms, on which stood aloft the figure of the irgin or the saints in their richest apparel. One of them was a huge figure of St Christopher, carryin a cherub in his arms. Twelve of
sometimes perform extraordinary cures. Although they sell medi- '
ing a miniature church, was placed on a table ; St James was seated ona rocking-horse, in a red jacket, salmon-coloured trousers strapped down, with a neat fall, over patent-leather boots; but altogether the coup d'rzil was brilliant and interesting, and I did not in reason feel disposed to uarrel with a superstition that has at least the merit of keeping the ndians in sub‘ection, and for which, if got rid of, there is no present substitute. £11 1808 there was an outbreak amongst the Indians, but it was soon quelled. The procession itself of priests, &c., in their robes, and the different images, was very picturesque, the new governor and different officials taking part in it, the civic guard in scarlet uniform being drawn up on the platform in front of the cathedral to salute it as it issued from the portal. It then moved slowly round the square, halting for a short service before each of the temporary altars erected at intervals, and which were best seen at a distance, as a nearer inspection showed them to be backed bv looking-glasses, chandeliers, tawdry ornaments, picture-frames, and prints (one, I remember, being “ Les Adieux de Fontainebleau "), and the whole interwoven with cloths and silks and flags of the most gaudy colours. Under the reign of the old Spaniards these altars were really made up in earnest; they have been valued at 300,000 dollars, and were watched by a guard. The small street leading into the plaza from the Cabildo was once paved with bars of solid silver, in performance of a vow.
_Cusco, Mr Vigne observes, was not chosen as a capital Without good reasons. It enjoys a comparative immunity from earthquakes, and Mr Vigne thinks that: a series of magnetic experiments might be carried on there with great advantage to science as well as serviceable astronomical observations, the superior clearness of the atmosphere bringing the stars—the Northern Cross in particular— apparently nearer to the earth than elsewhere. Of the constellations which he himself observed Mr Vigne gives a very striking description. We would gladly accompany the_author still further on his journey, amidst the volcanic regions of the equator, but we have not space for the purpose, and therefore close our account by commending the remainder of his work to the public.
As was to he expected from the character of the writer, Dr Croly’s exposition of The book of Job is of an entirely orthodox character. It nevertheless developes a special theory, the principle of which is that the history of Job is a type, of which the antitype is that of the Jews from the kingdom of David and Solomon to the end of the world. Respecting its antiquity, Dr Croly held the opinion that “ the book of Job is probably the oldest in the world,” an opinion, we need hardly say, which is not shared by foreign Hebrew scholars—one of the most eminent amongst them, Ernest Réuan, who gave his consideration to the subject several years ago,—assigning to it no earlier data than the eighth century before Christ. From M. Rénau we must not expect views in agreement with those of Dr Croly; and thus, while the latter looks upon the scriptural poem as one of divine origin, the French writer beholds in it only a lesson of philosophy, but one of the very highest order. The reader of Dr Croly’s little work may compare thetheological opinion with that expressed by M. Renan, which we cite as follows: “C’est la plus grande leoon “ donnée au dogmatisme inteinpérant et aux prétentions “ do l'esprit superficiel a se méler de the'ologie; elle est en “ un sens le résultat le plus haut de touto philosophic, “ car elle signifie que l’homme n’a que se voiler devant 1e “ problems infini que le gouvernement du monde a livré a “ ses meditations.”
Biooaarar.—‘Lit‘s of Chopin.’ By F. Liszt. Translated from the French by Martha Walker Cook. Second Revised Edition. (Fcap. Svo, pp. 202.) Philadelphia; F. Leypcldt. London : Trilbncr and Co.
Laxrcooaarnr.—‘The Comprehensive English Dictionary, Ex lana~ to , Pronouncing, and Etrmclogical. Containing all English orda inrihesent Use, Numerous Phrases, many Foreign Vords Used b Engllsh Writers, and the more Important Technical and Scientific I‘erma' By John Ogilvie, LL.D., Editor of the ‘lniperial Dictionary.’ The Pronunciation adapted to the best Modern U o. By Richard Cull, I“.S.A. Illustrated by above 800 Engravings on ood. (Imperial 8vo, pp. 1,294.) Blackie and Son.
Tusonoov.—‘ Sermons Preached in Lincoln's-inn Chapel, and on Special Occasions.‘ By F. C. 000k. M.A-, Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen, one of H.M.’s Inspectors of Schools, Preacher to the Honourable Society of Lincoln‘s inn, 8w. (Bvo, pp. 86!.) Murray:
Cooaanv ann Hoassrnasn.—‘Cre-fydd's Family are. The Young House-wife's Daily Assistant on all Matters relating to Cookery and House— keeping. Containing Bills of Family Fare for every Day in the Year, which includes Breakfast and Dinner for a small Family and Dinner for two Servants; also Twelve Bills of Fare for Dinner Parties and Two for Evening Entertainments. with the Cost annexed.’ By Cre-fydd.
these'images were deposited in e cathedral. San Hieromo, carry
iiPost 8vo, pp. 335.) Simpkin, Marshall, and Co.—-' The Illustrated one Management; containing Descriptive Remarks upon Anatomy; Medicine; Shoeing; Teeth; Food; Vices; Stables; likewise :1 Plain Account of the Situation, Nature, and Value of the various Points; together with Comments on Grooms, Dealers, Breeders, Breakers, and Trainers; also on Carriages and Harness. Embellished with more than 400 Engraving}, from Original Designs rnade expresslv for this Work.‘ By Edward ayhew, M.1LC.V.S., Author of ‘ l‘he Illustrated Horse Doctor' and other Works. (Bvo, pp. 612.) Allen and Co.
EDUCATIOH-—‘Th6 Revised Code. The Grade Lesson Books, in Six Standards; especially adapted to Meet the Requirements of the “ Revised Code.” ' By 1;. T. Stevens, Associate of king‘s College, London ; and Charles Hole, Head Master of the Longhborough Collegiate School, Brixton; and late Master of St Thomas’s Collegiate School, Colombo. Sixth Standard. (Bvo, pp. 220.) Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green.
Ponuo HBerlT.—‘ Another Blow for Life.’ By George Godwin, 1111.8“ etc. With Forty-one Illustrations. (Small sto, pp. 129.) Allen and o.
Gsonnor.—‘A Guide to Geology.’ By John Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., &.c., Professor of Geology in the University of Oxford. Fifth Edition. (Post are, p . 814.) Longman and Co.
FicriOlt—‘Meadowlhigh; a Tale of English Countr Life.’ By the Author of ‘The Ladies of Dover Hollow. In Two olumes. (Post eve, pp. 307, 815.) Bentley.~—‘ The Ice Maiden and other Tales.‘ By Hans Christian Andersen.‘ Translated from the German by Fanny Fuller. Second Edition. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 206.) Philadelphia: Frede— rick Leypoldt. London: Triibner and Co.--‘Immen-Lee.' From the German of Th. Storm. By H. Clark.—‘Grandmother and Granddaughter.‘ From the German of Louise Ecche. By Mme. C. R. Corscn. (ch . evo, p. 112.) Philadelphia: F. Leypoldt. London: Triibner and o.-—‘Loyd Pennant; a Tale of the West.’ By Ral h Neville. In Two Volumes. Post 8vo, pp. 318, 309.) Cha man and all.—-‘The Two Families; or, t 9 Power 0 Religion.‘ By . C. Batemnn, Author of ‘The Netherwoods of Otterpool,‘ &c. (limo, . 248.) Hatchard and Co.-—' The Family Fairy Tales; or, Glimpses ofPElfland at Heatherston Hall.’ Edited by Cholmondeley Pennell. Illustrated by Ellen Edwards. (Small 4to, pp. 206.) J. C. Hotten.
Vail-sm—‘Heine's Book of Songs.’ Translated by Charles G. Leland, Author of ‘Meister Karl‘s Sketch Book,‘ Etc. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 239.) Philadelphia: Leypoldt. London: Trilbner.
ANIUAl~—' The Post Magazine Almanack and Insurance Directory, 1864.‘—‘ The Canadian Almanack for 1864.‘
11atr-rsantr.-—‘ The Brown Book.’ A Book of Read Reference to the Hotels, Lodging and Boarding-houses , Breakfast and ining-rooms; Libraries, Public and Circulating; Amusements; Hospitals, Schools, and Charitable Institutions of London; with full Information as to Situation, Specialty, &c. &c.; and a Handy List, showing the Nearest Post-office, Money Order-office, Cab-stand, Police-station, Fire-engine, Fire—escape, Hospital, &c., to One Thousand of the Principal Streets of the Metropolis. (Svo, 152.) Saunders, Otle ', and Co.
QUARTERLY.-‘The estminster Review for annary 1864.’ Trtibner and Co.—‘The Po ular Science Review.’ Edited b Henry Lawson, M.D. No. 10. nrdwicke.—‘ The Journal of Agnculture.’ No. 88. New Series. Blackwood and Sons.
Evnnr Two Mosrns.--‘Reissue of Punch.' Vols. XXXIV and XXXV, for the Year 1868. Bradbury and Evans.
lilosrnhY.—'The Art-Joumnl.'-—‘ The Gallery of Geo aphy, a Pictorial and Descriptive Tour of the World.’ By the Rev. hos. Milner, LLA. Part 111. W. and R. Chambers.-—‘A History of the World from the Earliest Records to the Present Time.' By Philip Smith, B.A. Part II. Walton and Maberly.-‘ The Musical Monthly.’ No. 1. (ate, ip. is, and 9 pages of Music.) A. Hall, Smart, and Allen.—‘Watts’a
ictionary of Chemistrv.’ Part XI.
l’anrnhsrs.—‘ The Patent Question: a Solution of Difficulties by Abolishing or Shortening the Inventor's Monopoly, and Instituting Na— tional Recompenses. A Paper Submitted to the Congress of the Association for the Promotion of Social Science, at Edinbur h, October 1883.’ By Robert Andrew Macfic, President of the Liverpool hamber of Commerce. To which are added Translations of Earnest Contributions to Patent Reform by M. Chevalier and other Continental Economists. (Svo, pp. 96) W. J. Johnson.
Liszt’s account of Chopin translated from the French into a neat and cheap little American volume as'a “ Life " of Chopin ” is rather an éloge than a biography, and so far as it is biography does little more than read the Polish composer’s life and character in his music. It sees in his tormented melodies the sickly irritable mind of the man who, while yet young, died of a hopeless disease, and discusses at length in successive chapters first the Polonaise as it was before Chopin and in Chopin's hands, and then his Mazurkas showing the individual soul in his music, so passing to recollections of his life and character full of musicianly sympathy and a warm friendship.
Dr Ogilvie’s ‘ Comprehensive English Dictionary ’ is thick and three-columned, with numerous clear and good little inserted woodcuts. It is comprehensive, by including all such Latin phrases as ‘ sine die,’ ‘ quid pro quo,’ &c., which being in common use, sometimes puzzle a man of imperfect education; it supplies also the common want of an interpreter of technical words, adds tables of pronunciation of classical names, geographical names, Scripture names, &c., and gives in its text derivations as well as definitions.
Mr Cook’s “Lincoln’s Inn Sermons,” which discuss doctrine as well as moral duty, are collected into a sober and sightly library volume. The reader will remember that. in adding to our classified list of Books of the Week in which their titles are fully transcribed, this account of what they look like, we simply describe their outward appearance and tell so much of their purpose as may be set forth in their prefaces. Except in the case of a few books which, like Liszt upon Chopin, are old acquaintances in some new form, or from their nature admit of quick reading and need only brief criticism, our notes on the Books of the Week reserve all critical discussion of their quality.
‘ Crefydd’s Family Fare ’ gives a series of breakfasts and dinners for every day in the year, not forgetting, as material permits, to Work the remains of one day’s dinner into the construction of the next, and separately providing, with the same eye to the dependence of one on the other, for the parlour and the kitchen. These lists are made out for two persons, and may be adopted by multiplication to any desired number. There are also hills of fare for dinner parties for each month in the year, and a couple of schemes of tea and supper festival. In each case the estimated cost, without wine, is annexed. Then follows a strong body of receipts for making all the good things mentioned in the bills of fare, with rules for carving, and miscellaneous household recipes.
Mr Mayhew's ‘Illustrated Horse Management' is a companion volume to his ‘ Illustrated Horse Doctor," but of wider interest, for_it contains full details of stablefittings, tells how to discriminate the points of a good groom,
or of a horse, or shapes of carriages, and is meantto enable any man who keeps a horse or horses to understand what they require. It is a handsome, well illustrated volume, printed on thick smooth paper, and indexed; though the index, not wanting in fulness, has been made by somebody who shows often a ludicrous want of perception of the first rules of the index-maker’s art.
Mr Stevens’s ‘Guido Lesson Book’ is a collection of extracts from books and current journals adapted for elementary exercise in reading, with analysis and interpretations of the more diflicnlt words.
Mr Godwin’s ‘Another Blow for Life’ is one more noble and strong effort to direct attention to the hidden wretchedness among the very poor in London, and to urge that we have no right to shut our eyes on it, as if it were in all parts absolutely irremodiable. It is so produced that it may lie among the pretty books on a drawing-room table, where, when opened, its pictures and its truthful text may startle here and there a heart into the sense of an undreamt-of duty.
Professor Phillips's ‘ Guide to Geology' in its fifth edition appears this week in an enlarged form, although still a clear and brief sketch of the science.
A pleasant novel, entitled ‘ Uncle Crotty's Relations,’ reached us too late for insertion in our list of last week’s books, and is, we observe, omitted from the above register. We have read the book, however, and may record here not only its name but the fact that it is agreeable, though we shall pick some little holes in it when we come to set forth its merit more explicitly.
The other novels of the week are ‘ Lloyd Pennant’ and ‘Meadowleigh,’ by the author of ‘Mary PoWell.’ There is a religious novelet for the young in Mr Batem an's tale of ‘ The Two Families ;’ and a collection of original ‘ Fairy Tales’ for family reading, by Mr Cholmondely Pennell, is very prettin produced. Neat little American volumes contain, one a couple of translated tales from the German, ‘ Immen See,’ and ‘ Grandmother and Daughter;’ another, an American translation into a cheaper edition than the English one, of Andersen’s ‘ Ice Maiden,’ without pictures, but. with two additional appended tales, ‘The Silver Shilling’ and ‘The Old Church Bell. The translation, by Mr Leland, of ‘Heine’s Book of Songs,’ is also inacheap little American edition, and well printed, like the other American books we have been naming, on very good
The following circular has been issued by Monravieti', dated the 10th (22nd) December, 1863: “ By my circular of the 30th November (12th December) I directed lists of the nobles and the whole population to be drawn up in all districts. The chief object of this was to purify the country of all persons of all classes not deserving of confidence, and also of ill-disposed persons who might in future disturb public peace. Considering that, according to the last reports, some of the insurgent leaders have fled across the frontier on the approach of winter, and dispersed their hands, quartering them on sympathising inhabitants of the country, and especially on the farms of small nobles and in the villages of crown peasants, in order that they might be ready to recommence the insurrection at a more favourable opportunity, I hereby direct your excellency to remind the military chiefs of districts and all ranks of the police to be particularly careful that no one shall escape being inscribed in the above mentioned lists, and that the strictest search be made after all persons unworthy of confidence, participators in the insurrection, and former insurgents, who are all to be arrested, as also those who give them refuge or assist in concealing them, and at once sent under a strong escort to the governors for deportation to the interior of Russia. Particular search is to be made in Roman catholic convents, rectories, and the residences of priests in general, and the houses and estates of nobles. The proprietors and residents of houses which have served as a refuge for ill disposed persons are to be fined according to regulation, besides being punished in their persons according to law. In directing your excellency to inform all your subordinates that they are made strictly responsible for the execution of this decree, I expect from their activity and zeal that in'the month of January there will not be a single person unworthy of confidence in the country lhat has not been observed by the police, and that by that time the country will have been completely purified of such injurious persons."
Transportation for Life of Polish Exiles.
By the following decree of the Emperor, Poles who have been transported for political offences are forbidden ever to return to their country, even after the term of their exde has expired : “The Emperor, in accordance with the proposals of the Western Committee, has decided that all persons deported from the western provinces (Lithuania, Volhynis, Podolia, and the Ukraine) for politicalofi‘ences, to the penal companies under the civil authorities in the interior of the empire, shall, after the expiration of their term of punishment, not be sent back to the western provinces, but transported for permanent residence to the Government estates in the distant Governments of the empire, except Siberia. In informing you of this decision, you are requested to forward to the Foreign Department lists of all such persons as may he in the penal companies in your Government, not later than six months before the term of the expiration of their punishment, to enable the necessary arrangements to be made with the ministry 'of the crown property for transporting them to the crown lands, in accordance with the Imperial will."
Russian Torture of Prismzers and Exiles.
A letter from Wilua, dated 22nd Dec., says: “ The Russian organs frequently deny that prisoners brought before the military tribunals are ever tortured. All of course are not subjected to the severest treatment, but those who are most suspected are tormented in various ways, in order to force them to make disclosures. They are‘kept in cells on bread and water, without any light for weeks, in a fetid atmosphere, and are threatened with death, torture, and even burning ahve. It is a fact that among those who lost their senses in prison, and are now in the lunatic asylum, some cxcluim, “ Pardonl do not flog me; " and others constantly complain that they see before them a red hot oven, and that they will be thrown into it. Does not this prove what means are used by the Russian inquisitors? You have no doubt heard of an insurgent chief in the palatinate of Kowno, named Antony
kno ing how to read, but ardently attached to his country, and full of courage and devotion. He was born in the crown village of Dusiaty, and the Russians have only waited for an opportunity to wreak their vengeance on its inhabitants. The opportunity soon arrived: a spy brought some information which furnished the imperial troops with a pretext for entering the village and searching the peasants. MajorGeneral Kowalewskoj and Colonel Belize, who led the Russians, began by flogging the peasants in the market place, in which they had first ordered a gibbet to be erected. After the peasants had been subjected to every indignity and the most terrible suffering, the soldiery were let loose on the houses with permission to plunder. Seventy-four families, consisting of 280 individuals, were then sent to the citadel of Dynaburn, whence they are to be transported into the Governments of Samar and Saratow, in Eastern Russia. Russian monjicks are to be sent as settlers in their places. On the 18th December, 173 persons, including thirteen women and nineteen children, were again sent into exile from Wilna, and on the night of the 20th upwards of twenty persons were arrested, among whom was the widow of the well-known national poet Syrokomla, with her children and servants, and the guests who happened to be in her house."
The Cologne Gazette contradicts the statement of the ofiicial Dzimnik of Warsaw, that political exiles are well treated and are sent only into parts of Russia which are not very distant. “ Letters from the exiles," it says, “ to their relatives prove that they are sent to the Amoor, east of the Baikal Lake. They receive four kopeks a day, their heads are shaved, they are chained together, and proceed to their destination on foot, with a mounted escort of Cossacks. Chained and on foot on a journey to the Amoor in January l Ilow mild, compared with this, is even the picture of a slave caravan in Soudan. And among the Poles so deported are the noblest, the most accomplished of the nation -—mcn who have grown old in prosperity, and even women and damsels who had collected money for their relations, or clothes and bandages for their brothers in the field. And all this that Russia may rule as a robber to the Vistula."
The Execution of lekiewicz.
A letter from Kowno of the 29th ult. says: “ Yesterday was a day of deep mourning for the patriotic people of Poland and Lithuania. A hero of the insurrection whose name will be mentioned with esteem and admiration by all future generations of his countrymen. the valiant and noble Abbe Mackiewicz, who was captured by an unfortunate chance some days ago by the Muscovites, was banged by order of the cruel Mouravieff, in KownO, on the 28th inst. The heroism of this wellknown Polish leader, who has held the campaign from the beginning of the insurrection, the generous manner in which he treated the Bus— sians who fell in his power during the war, the noble words he said when he was brought before the younger Mouravieft' in Kowno—(‘ I have fought for the freedom and independence of my country; this is all I have to confess. Now, general, do your duty as servant of the Czar') ——all these had surely made an impression on every other civilised enemy, and had saved the life of the captured hero from a cruel revenge. Alas! the Mouravielfs and their fellows know nothing of such noble feelings: and the gallows received a fresh martyr. Abbé Mackiewicz died as he had lived. His last words were a prayer for Poland. The Russian oflicers celebrated this day, as usual, by a solemn ball." In the town of Szercszew, on the 19th ult., in the district of l’rusznny, were banged by order of Mouraviefl‘, Anthony Ilkowski, the peasant, John Hruezyk, and the Prussian subject, Augustus Salomon, for having taken part in the Polish insurrection.
BRESLAU, Jan. 2.4The Russians have imposed upon the kingdom of Poland is fresh contribution of 6,000,000 roubles, of which amount two millions and a half will be impcsed on Warsaw.
BERLIN, v'Jan. 5.—Accordiug to intelligence received here from Warsaw, 250 prisoners were despatched on the 2nd inst. to Siberia, among the number of whom was Count Stanislas Zamoyski.
Wausaw, Jan. 6.-—A decree has been issued by the Government
ordering the sequestration of all the moveable and immoveable pro
perty of the higher clergy participating in the insurrection, in addition to the former contribution of 6 per cent. recently imposed upon the bishops and upon eighteen canonries.
Caacow, an. 6.—Genera1 Krnk has had an engagement with the Russians at Loch, in the government of Lublin, the result of which was indecisive.
KONIGBBERG, Jan. 6.—An ukuse of the Czar has been published, calling under arms all soldiers now living in the kingdom of Poland on indefinite furlough.
Tunas, J an. 7 .—It is reported that the civil Governor, Laszezepski, has been relieved of his functions, and will be replaced by Her: von Rozuow. The treasury of the Government Finance Committee has been transferred to the citadel.
Tm: Lmoasnma Durance—At the weekly meeting of the Executive Committee at Manchester, on Monday, Mr Mncluro stated that 8071. 7s. 7d. had been received durlng the week, and that the balance in the bank was 225,0051. 99., including the sum of 5,3621. , 14s. 9d. interest for the six months ended Dec. 31st, 1863. llis ‘, monthly report shows a decrease in the numbers employed in the mills and manufacmries of the cotton districts. This change for the worse, amounting to a reduction of 10,546 in those working full time, has not exceeded the anticipations expressed last month, and there is reason to fear that during the next three or four weeks the time worked in the mills of the district will not be more than at present. Three months having elapsed since the last census of unemployed operatives was taken by the larger committees, a house-to-houso visitation has been made lin most of these towns where, as explained in the last report, it is
impossible to do so monthly. This inquiry proves that the total , number has been, during the interval, reduced by 29,267 operatives, vand that as compared with the last week in March there are, at the :preseat time, 33,969 fewer operatives; of these persons 18,244 have emigrated to the colonies or United States, or migrated to some parts of the United Kingdom, whilst 15,725 have found employment in other occupations within the cotton districts. He also statesthat of the 149,038 still reported “ out of work," about 4,000 are obtaining casual employment for one or two days per week in other trades in their immediate localities. The last week of December as compared with January shows a decrease of 275,877 in the total number relieved; but there were 10,050 more relieved in December than in November, theincrease being 1,476 of those dependent on the guardians only, 5,308 upon local committees only, and 2,257 of those whose relief from the guardians is supplemented by the relief committees. Mr Faraall‘s report stated that on the 26th ult. there was an increase in the number of persons receiving parochial relief in twenty-seven unions in the cotton manufacturing districts, as compared with the number so relieved to the previous week of 1,213.
Lukastewski. He is a Lithuanian peasant, a common man not oven