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HE NATIONAL FINANCIAL COM

PANY Limited), invite SUBSCRIPTIONS for SHARES in tile ALBERI‘ INSURANCE COMPANY (Limitedl, for Fire and Marine Insurancrs. Incorporated under the l'ompsnles' Act, 1862, whereby the llalillty of cach member is strictly limited to the amount of his shares. Capital £1,000,000, divided into 20,000 alleles of £50 each. First issue 10,000 shares. Deposit on application, Al per share, and £4 on allotment. No call to exceed £5 per share, nor to be made until the expiration of three months from the incorporation of the Company, nor at intervals of less than three months. It is not contemplated, however. to call up more than £5 per share beyond the deposit and payment on allotment.

DIRECTORS.

Oswald Ii. Colven, Esq. (Messrs John Nichols and Co.). Seething lane.

E. T. Gourlcy. Esq., Shipowncr, London and Sunderlaud.

Angus McKenzie, Esq., Merchant, Old Broad street, Director of the Oriental Commercial Company.

Joseph .‘licliastcr, Esq., Merchant, Eastchoap, Director of the National Financial Company.

P. W. Spence. Esq. (Messrs J. Spence, and Co), Pinncr‘s hall, Old Broad street.

Charles Rudd Tatham, Esq. (Messrs Talham and Co.), Pudding lane.

C. 1’. Varsami, Esq., Merchant, morton street.

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assurance.
The Albert Life Assurance Company has a share clpitai
of £500,000 fully subscribed, and has an income from p:c-
miums of upwards of £250,000 per annum, not during the i
last three years has issued new policies of assurance to the
amount of £2,573,079, the premiums upon Will.“ amoqnt to L

£103,550. FIRE DEPARTMENT.

The agents, policy-holders. and shareholders of the Albert l Life Company necessarily form a connexion of the mist influential character for a Fire and Marine insurance Company.

The annual increase in the wealth of the country and in that description of property known as " insurable properly" has suggested the formation of several new fire insurance ofl‘iccs, but the Directors of this Clltnpauy be licve that in v- ry few instances has a fire company started with ‘ tsp some chances of success as attend the introduction of t a

The Company will have the advantage of the co-opcratlon , ofa trained and perfectly organized system of agi-nts; and? the Directors submit, therefore, that there is a certainty of securing, almost at once, a lame and profitable business.

The Chancellorof the Exchequer having intimated his intention to reduce the duty one-half on stock in trade, a large additional number of fire insural ccs wdl, no doubt, be effected by persons who have hitherto been deterred from insuring for the full value of their stock by reason of the

heavy duty. MARINE DEPARTMENT.

Notwithstanding the recent establishment of several marine insurance companies and the extensive business they have acquired, there is ample room for the safe and profitable enployment of capital in this direction. The vast increase in the shipping interest of the United Kingdom, together with the growing feeling in favour of the security afl'orded by joint stock companies as compared with private underwriters, point on the opening which exists for this department of the Company's operations.

The services of an able and experienced underwriter will be secured. and a large business can at once be obtained for the Company.

In the event of no allotment being made the deposit will be returned in full. Should a less number of shares be allotted than are applied for, the deposit will be made available towards the payment on allotment, and the l balance (if any) returned to the applicant.

Forms of applications for shares mav be obtained from the National Financial Company (Limited), I2 King's Arms yard, Moorgate street, 2.0.; or the brokers or solicitors of the Company. ‘

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Boulevard des Car ucines, Place de Nouvcllc Opera' opposite the Rue de la Pals, and near the theatres, has been OPENED since July, 1862. It contains 700 bedrooms, prices from an. to 25fr.; 70 drawing-rooms, from Mr. to 300:; a magnificent salon, capable of dining more than 500 crsons, and where there is a table d'hcte at six I o’clock. inners and breakfasts are served a la carts in the coffee rooms. as well as in the apartments. There is a reading-room, with the best English and foreign papers and publications, a musicroom and a drawin -room for the use of travellers, without any additional c arga. There are also baths, billiard-rooma, smoking divans, post-001cc; cabs, carriages, and omnibuaes going to the railway stations. The servants speak all languages. This superb Hotel, possessing all that modern luxury and comfort can combine, and situated in the most fashioliable part of Paris, is recommended to the attention t f' travellers.

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LHUVRE. Established in I855. 1 Situated in the most central part of Paris, Rue di Rlvoli and Place du Palais Royal. Six hundred bed-rooms at from 3f. to 20L, sixty sitting-rooms at from if. to 20f., a richly decorated dining saloon. Table d‘hote at six o'clock. Public coffee and dining-rooms. Choice wines. Dinners served A la carte both in the dining'rooms and the private apartments. Reading and conversation saloons; also saloons for musical, wedding, and other parties. All newspapers and serial publications received. Divans, coff'ec, smoking, and billiard rooms. Numerous bath-rooms. Carriages on the premises. First-class rivate equipages at command. Omnibuses running to all tile railway stations. Postal letter box. Telegraph otilce day and night.- Photographic studio. A staff of servants speaking all languages. Independently of these two hotels, the Compagnie Immobiliero has established an extensive private furnished house on the Boulevard dos Capuciues, opposite the rotunda of the Gtrandilélotel, whcae families can reside as in their own priva ores ences, an w are the ma re the utmost comfort. y y 1y upon finding

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"EASTERN EXCHANGE BANK.

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EASTERN EXCHANGE BANK (Lmrrnn).
FIRST ISSUE 50,000 SHARES.
To run Drnncroas or run Barrens Excrnnon Barn:
(Limited).
GENTLIMEN,

Having paid to the Bankers of the above-
named Company the sum of £ 1 hereby request that
you will allot me Shares in the said Company, and
I agree to accept such Shares or any smaller number that
may be allotted to me, and to become a Member of the
Company; and I authorize you to place my name on the
Register of Members in respect of the Shares to be allotted
to me, and I agree to be bound by all the conditions and
regulations contained in the memorandum and articles of
association of the Company. I further authorise you to
forward by post to my address as below the Certificate for
any Shares which may be allotted to me.

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WINE lsa erfcctly slatablc form Io ' ‘
this popular remedy? for weakp digestion. r mum‘san
Manufactured by '1'. Morse" and Son, 19 and 46 South.
Impton row, Russell {0011‘}. W.C., in bottles at 3s., 6s. and
B'fiflg.;PEPSINL LQLENGES in boggi at 2" 6d: and
I a c .

(Limited), LlVlZRPOOL.
Ir-corporalcd,with Limited Liability, under the Companies'
Act, L062.

CAPITAL, TWO MILLIONS,

In 100,000 Shares, of £20 each. First issue 50,000 Shares.
Deposit no Applicatlon of ill per Share. Further payment
on Allo'menf, £2 per Share. First Call, not exceeding
£2, not less than One Month after Allotment. Further
Calls, not exceeding £2 10s. per Share, at intervals of
not less than Three Months. It is not intended to call

up more than £l0 per Share.

Dtaecroas.
George M. Bowen, Esq. (Thomas Manning and Co.), Liver-
prol.
Thomas Chilton, Esq. (Iio‘dcrness and Chilton), Liverpool.
Edward Comber, Esq. (Edward October and Co., Liverpool;
Comhel', Son, and Co., Bombay. _
Robert Dllom, Esq. (Dirom, Davidson, and Co., Liverpool;
Dirom, Hunter, and Co, Bombay.)
Chas. EdWard Dixon, Esq., Liverpool (Dixon Brothers, and
Co., Alexandria.)
William James Fernlc, Esq. (Pcrnlc Brothers and Co.),
Liverpool.
Patrick Hunter, Esq. (Browne, Hunter, and 00.), Liverpool.
Edward Lawrence, Esq. (Edward Lawrence and Co., Liver-
povl ; Lawrence and Co.), Bombay.
Andrew Malcolmson, Esq. (J. and D. Malcolmson and Co.),
Liwirpool.
Bsnxsas.
Liverpool—The National flank of Liverpool.
London—The National Bank.
lrclund— The Branches of the National Bank.
Manchester—Union Bank of Manchester.
Leeds—London and Northern Bank.
Glasgow—Mercantile and Exchange Bank.

SoLtcr'rons.
Messrs Lace, Banner, Gill and Lace, Liverpool.

Bananas.
Livrrpoxl—Mcssrs Thomas Tinley and Sons.
London—Albert Ricardo, Esq., ll Angel court.
Manchester—Messrs Shore and Kirk, it St Ann‘s square.

Susanna—A. E. Pelly, Esq.

TEMPORARY Orrtcss:
i7 Brown's buildings, Exchange, Liverpool.

PROSPECTUS.

The Eastern Exchange Dunk (leltcd), is formed to supply a want which has been leng felt, and its value will be immediately recognised.

Although Livclpool enjoys an Immense export and import trade, and is the port t ough which the valuable manufactures of Lancaslilrc. an. Yorks'iro pass, it has not a single limit cnl'lrlez'tlni with the Mediterranean, the East indies, China, or Australia.

1 he Exports of British and Irish Produce and Mann

to “bow Frrrv Millions, out by fir the lli't'ttlcl' portion Wis
shipped from Liverpool, whilst the produce received in re-
tlu'n into Liverpool was of a value of upwards of Sixty
Millions, making a total of One Hundred Millions sterling,

Whilst London has upwards of fifty Banks, with branches
indifRn-nt countries, established for the purpose of affording
cvcry facility in Exchange transactions, there is no Bank of
this description, with its headquarters in Liverpool, con-
nected with the East.

'the profitable nature of Exchange business is well known, and the practice which has become so general of attaching Illlls of Lrulinar to Bills of Exchange renders this the safest dcscription of Banking business.

Some evidence of the safety and profitable character of the business is afforded by the present values of the undermentioned Ranks, whose chief sources of profits Arc in conncc'ion with Exchange operations.

ram or run PRIIIIT

SHARE. Parcs.
Agra and United Service Bank £00 til 45
Chartered Mercantile Bank of London,

India, and China 25 70
Oriental Bank Corporation 25 . . 69
Chartered Bank of India, Australl

and China ... 20 41
Bank of Australasia 40 74
Imperial Ottomsn Bank l0 2i
Bank of New South Wales 20 ... 57

The Barrens Excnasloe Bax: (Limited), will have its
headquarters in Liverpool. Branch Banks will be for-me i,
in the first instance, at Alexandria, Bombay. Calcutta,
C‘hina, and Australia, and as the business develops at other
p aces.

The Directors of the Eas'rmur Excrtums: BAN! will make arrangements for London business, constituting a first-class London Banking Agency on mutually advantageous terms.

The bilslness of the Bank will chiefly consist in negotiating mercantile bills ofexchsnge, grunting drafts, in urge. tinting and coil ctlng bills payable at places where the Bank has branches or agencies. It will issue circular notes and letters of credit; will undertake the purchase and sale of securities, the receipt of dividends, and effectremltt-lnces betwten the several places, including London, at which its Agvncll s and Branches will be established.

The Bank is founded under “ The Companies' Act, 1862," whereby the respective liability of each Shareholder is limited to the amount of his shares.

There will be no fee for promotion ; the remuneration of the Directors will be fixed by the Shareholders at. each annual meeting; and thetpreliminary expenses will be confined to indispensable ou ay.

The Articles of Association lie at the Office of the Solici-
tors for inspection.

Applications for Shares ,must be accompanied with a
Banker‘s Receipt for £1 per Share.

In case the amount so paid should exceed .63 per Share
on the number of Shares allotted, the surplus will be
returned; but if it should fall short, the balance must be
paid within seven days after notice of allotment, or in
default, the allotment will be cancelled and the Deposit
IOIfciICd.

r Iif no allotment be made the Deposit will be returned in
u I.

be sent through the Solicitors

APPllcations for Sharesmalvom “h m For of AP u
I Q IDS p ea.

or Brokers or the Company
tion may be had.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR SHARES,
to be retained by the Bankers.

Dated this day of 1864.
Name In full ....... Firm (if any) ....... ... .... ..
Business or Profession .. ..... ......
Place of Business ......... ..
Residence.... ...... .......... ..

ASHIONABLE CHAMBE R
FURNITURE, Superior Bedding, and 100 Bedsteads
fixed for Inspection in the Immense Galleries and Show
Rooms of Messrs DRUCE and Co., 60 and 69 Baker street,
which are upwards of an Acre in extent. Persona can here
furnish a Ilouse of any class at once 'from the Goods before
them, which are marked in plain figures, or select a single
article from a stock of the greatest magnitude and variety in
the kingdom.
N.B. A Servani’s Bed Room well and completely furnished

AID! 84'.

u LODGOD, 2i Threadneedlo street, 30th Ap‘ , l 04.

H HE HUMBER IRON WORKSfiand'
SHIP-BUILDING COMPANY (Limited).

Incorporated under the Companies Act, 1862.

THE MERCANTILE CREDtlTU‘ASSOCIATION (Limited), an e CREDIT MOBILIER (Limited)

Arc Br arcd to receive A plications for the Capital of the {£801,888 IRON W08 8 and SHIP-BUILDING COM

Cspital £1,000,000. in 20,000 Shares of £50 each, of which

10.000 have been already subscribed. Dwosit on application £1 per Share, and £4 on allotment. 0 future call to exceed 5 per Share, and at intervals of not less than three months.

It is not contemplated to call up more than £12 10s. per Share; an further capital that may be required will be raised hyt e issue of new Shares, a preference being given to the holders of existing Shares.

Draucroas.

E. W. Watkin, Esq), Director of the Great Western Railway Company. and resident of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada, Chairman.

D. J. Becca, Esq. (Pans, Crculedi, and 00.), Great Winchester street.

E. H. D‘Avigdor, Esq., 5 Upper Hurley street.

Captain licath, C.B., Austin Grange. Dorking.

John Lumsdcn, Esq., Mayor of Hull (Brownlow, Lumsden, and Co., shi wners) Hull.

Ca taiu J. H. arryat (Joseph Marryat, and Sons), Laurence

ountncy lane.

W. L. Merry, Esq., Director of the Mercantile and Exchange Bank (Ildmited).

J. Morris 1. Esq., Director of the Metropolitan and Provincial Bank (Limited).

W. H. Moss, Esq., Alderman, Ilull.

Christopher Simpson, Esq., Director of the Hull Dock Company, Hull.

W. ii. Smith, Esq. (Smith, Barry, and Co.), Leadenhall street.

Julius II. Thom son. I! . (Julius ii. Thompson, and Co., ship-owners), cadcnhw lstreet.

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'l‘mrronssv OFFICES. At the Offices of the Mercantile Credit Association (Limited), 21 Threadncedle street, and the Credit .iiobilicr (Limited) 80 Lombard sircct. SECRETARY (pro tem.) Arthur Dossor, Esq. ~

The com any has been formed for purchasing and extending the trial ~knowu iron ship-building establishment of Messrs Martin Samuelson and Com any of Hall. The capabilities of these works are unstlrpassurliy any in the kingdom ; they occupy elcvcu acrcs of ground, with water frontage to the river [lumber and river Hull, having a depth of water of thirty feet.

The present iron ship-building power of the establishment is equal to the construction of 20,000 tons per annum, at which rate the works are now being carried on. Messrs Samuelson and Company have orders on hand for ships exceeding 20,000 tons ; other large orders are offered, and it is proposed to take eleven acres of land adjoining the present yard, and which Mcssrs Samuelson and Company have sccured, so as to extend the works to meet the large daily increasing profitable demand for ships, and to erect rollin mills for the manufacture of the iron required for ship-bull ing, as well as for all kinds of railway and engineerin work.

a addition to the engineeriu works, foundry, a ship. building yards, there is it along slip for rcpairinlg ships of the lar est class; this is a righly rofltablc part c the usiness. he demand for the use my this patent slip has been such that it has never been unemployed since Messrs Samuelson and Company constructed it at a considerable cost some

cars a

y The situation of this establishment gives it special advantages over others of a like character. The price of shipbuilding labour is lowcr at Hull than in an of the iron ship-building ports of the kingdom; it is in t i: great iron district of iorkshirc; coal is cheap; railways run into the works, and connect them with all parts of England. Freights are very moderate from Hull, and the lar e timber trade of Hull offers advantages for the purchase 0 the timber, which is used in large quantities, on highly advantageous conditions:

Two thousand workmen are now employed at the works.

The present orders in hand for ships, engines, and general engineering work amount to above 3000001., all at very rcmuncraltve noes. .

Reports ma 0 by some of the most eminent engineers who have examined the works, and who are specially acquainted with this branch of manufacture, show that after making large allowances (30 per cent.) 00' the capabilities of the works. the trade will, with the judicious management and employment of the capital, return a dividend of 20 per cent. an upwards to the shareholders, and if the works continue to be filly employed a much larger amount.

The terms of purchase are highly advantageous; the plant and machinery, buildings, freehold and leasehold premises, together with all the stock of materials, are to be taken at the valuation of two engineers, one named by the company and the other by the vendors, with an umpire in the usual way. The goodwill of the business, including the profit on works in hand, is to be paid for at one year’s purchase of the net profits, but on an average of three years' working.

in the event of no allotment being made, the deposits will be returned in full. Should a less number of shares be allotted than is applied for, the deposit will be made available towards the payment on allotment, and the balance (it any) returned to the applicant.

Prospectuses and forms of application for she res may be obtained at the temporary offices of the company, 21 Threadneedle street, and 80 Lombard street, and of the brokers and the solicitors.

April, 1804.

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FORM OF APPLICATION FOR. SHARES. N (To be retained by the Bankers). OO'I'.’ I I O I I. To run Drnscroas or run Humans Ia'm lWonxs Asp Surrnurnotso COMPANY (Limited). Gentlemen,-Having paid to your bankers, , the sum of £ , being a deposit of £1 per share on _ shares in the above company, I hereby request that you will allot me that number, and I agree to accept such shares or any less number you may allot to me; and I agree to pay the deposit on allotment, and to sign the articles of association of the company when required ; and I authorise you to insert my name on the register of members for the number of shares allotted to me.

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SHIP-BUILDING COMPANY (Limhed.) NOTICE 18 HEREBY GIVEN, that the LIST of APPLICATIONS for SHARES in this CUMPAN Y will be CLOSED on TUESDAY next, the 8rd May, at FOUR o'clock, fbr London; and WEDNESDAY, the 4th May, at TWELVE o‘clock, for Country Applicitlons. By Order of the Board, ARTHUR DOSSOR,

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THE FINANCIAL CORPORATION (Limited),

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Drasc'roas.
Ingram Chapman, Esq., Director of Adriatic Steam
Navigation Company.
James Nugent Daniell, Es .. Chairman of Alliance Bank.
John Henry Dillon, Esq., lbany.
James Goorson, Esq., Chairman of Great Eastern Railway.
Francis Macnaghten, Esq., Deputy-Chrirmsn of London
and Blackwell Railway Company.
William Turck, Esq, Messrs Turck, Barclay, and Co.
0. Tyldon Wright, Esq., F.G.S., Managing Director at
Shireoaka.
Bananas.

Alliance Bank, London, Liverpool and Manchester.
Aurora—The Finamial Corporation (Limited).
Bnoxsas.

Messrs Seymour and Co., 33 Throgmorton street, London.

Messrs Shore and Kirk, iii alchester.
Sontciross.
Messrs Sole. Turners, and Hardwiclr, Aldermanbury.
Solicitola in Uncommon—Messrs Sale, Worthington, and
Shipman.
Aonrroas.
W. W. Deloitte, Esq., Messrs Dcloittc, Greenwood, and
Dever, Accountants, 4 Lothbury.
Ellis Clowes, Esq., 0 Lothbury.
'
Financial Corporation (Limited), 14 Lea'lenhall street,
EC, and Shire aka, Works-p, Nottinghamshlre.

This Company has been established for the purpose of working the wet-known Shit cooks Colliery, and the Directors hsve entcre-i into an arrang ment. with the Lessees of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle for the purchase of their rights and interest in the property.

'1" e Colliery, which is now at operation, is situated at Shheo llts, two miles from the town ofWorksop, in Nottinghamslltre. and has the advantage both of Water and Railway communication with all parts of Engl and. being intersected by the Chest~rfield R'ld Slockwiih Canal, and by the Manchester, She-meld, and Llncolnshirc line of Railway, with a Station and Slidings at the Colliery; and the Coal is loudol direct from the pits month, without the expense of carriage, into Railway 't‘rucks, or Barges, as circumstances may require.

The property purchased by the Company consists of 2,000 acres of Hard Steam Coal, which has been thoroughly proved, and levels driven in all directions; with all the buildings, worlsh'qs, and machinery, in confection with the two pits sunk in the centre of the acreage lelacd, together win the Canal Basin, Railway Sidings, and the Plant thereupon.

The Workings are free from Water, and all met with in sinking the Shafts has been stepped back with Iron Tubbing, so that no pumps are required, and no expense has been spared in adapting both the surface and underground arrangements for the full development of the Mine, by which the cost of working has been rendered very economical; the machinery and everything in connection with the Colliery are in excellent working order.

The Coal is oftlne hard qu-lity, and is in great demand for Steam purposea From the situation of the Property, and its far-lilties for communication, the Company is in a position to supply the daily increasing demand of this description of Loal.

The Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, affords direct communzcaiiort with the Ports of Hull and Grimsby.

'i be present machinery can work with case 200,000 tons pt-r annnm; this amount, which is capable of lactose, as soon as the additional Plant and Machinery (now in the course of erection) has been completed, is sufficient to guarantee a very ample return for the Capital employed.

The Directors refer to the accompanying Report of Mr T. Macoovoanr. Surrrr, C.E., who has made a special survey of the Property, for full particulars as to its condition and capabilities.

Forms of application can be had at the Offices of the Financial Corporation, 14 Leadenhall street, I-J.C.; and from the Company's Brokers, Messrs Seymour and Co., 83 Throgmorton street

Plans of the property, the report referred to by Mr T. Macdougsil Smith, and the Articles of Association, and the agreement for the [403243, are to be seen at the Company’s Offices.

f llit no allotment Is made, the deposits will be returned in u .

ORTH BRITISH and MERCAN TILE
INSURANCE COMPANY.
Established 1809.

FIRE and LIFE INSURANCE BUSINESS of every description transacted at moderate rates.

The usual Commission allowed on Ship and Foreign Insurances.

Insurers in this Company will receive the full benefit of the reduction in Duty.

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Capital" ...... .... ..... £9,000,000 Annual Income ------------ H £497,263 Accumulated Funds -----£2,233,927

LONDON—HEAD OFFICES: 58 Threadneedlc street, E.C. 4 New Bank Buildings,

Lothbury. WEST-END OFFICE...... ...... SWaterloo place, Pallmall.

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The distinguishing feature of this Company is perfect security.

The amount insured from the commencement exceeds $0,150,000.

The amount of policies issued £7,200,000.

The amount of claims paid, including bonus, £2,090,000.

The proprietors’ capital is £750,000.

The fund accumulated from premiums exceeds ten rears of the premium income, and 3t per cent. on the insurances in force.

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Thomas George Barclay, Esq. Samuel iilbbort, Esq.

James C. C. Bell, Esq. Thomas Newman Hunt, Esq.
Chat-.cs Cave. Esq. Charles Marryat, Esq.
George Henry Cutler, Esq. J tunes Gordon Murdoch, Esq.
Henry Davidson, Esq. Fredk. Partison, Esq.
George Field, Esq. G. J. Graystone Reid, Esq.
George Hibbert, Esq. William R. Robinson, Esq.

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SAMUEL INGALL, Actuary.

ERCULES INSURANCE

COMPANY (Limited).
04 Cannon street, London, E.C.

Fire Insurance on every description of Property on the Non-Tariff principle. Equitable system of Assuring secondclass lives without extra premium. Policies payable during the lifetime of the Assured.

By order of the Board.
SAMUEL J. SHRUBB, Secretary.

Hercules Insurance Company (Limited), 94

Cannon street, E.C., March 15, 1804.

H J. and D. NICOLL, Court a Tailors, GUINEA WATERPROOF OVERCOA'I‘S, and the TWO GUINEA Suits of Nicoll Cheviot, for Rough or Country wear, ma be obtained at their Establishments, 114, 116, 118, 120 cgent street; 22 Cornhill, London; and to Moseley street, Manchester; or of their Agentg throughout the Country. ‘ "

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Human Sacrifice. Svo, with Illustrations, its.

FORTY YEARS in AMERICA- By A YOUNG ARTIST’S LIFE-

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several W rki Lien h e lr l ed ' . VI- The hull" supply 0‘ Colton- —— i .
Music by (htenigers of till; Cholera; iliga'zVorktiiigathlizrhqs vu- cal Km"- - . . FIEPLLI By: 821:“; 50:1 MTRON' Author
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13

NEW NOVELS, AT ALL LIBRARIES.

E R N A R D
By the late G. P. R. JAMES.

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MARSH.

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A WOMAN AGAINST THE WORLD.

In 3 vols., post 8vo.
Richard Bentley, New Burlington street.

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NEW

NOVEL BY LADY GEORGIANA FULLERTON.

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Just ready, in 3 vols., post Bvo,
TOO STRANGE NOT TO BE TRUE.
By Lady GEORGIANA FULLERTON,
Author of ‘Lsdy Bird,’ &c.
Richard Bentley, New Burlington street.

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Morning Post.

Observer.

in his trip across the Atlantic.

no scant measure, and with much grace and power.
“ The glow, the

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SECOND EDITION.—Now ready, with Frontispiece by F. GILBERT, toned paper, crown 8vo,
price 6a.,

BEAUTIES 0F TROPICAL SCENERY;
LYRICAL SKETCHES, AND LOVE SONGS.
\Vith Notes by R. N. DUNBAR.
“He has all the feeling of a true poet; and his illustrations are always happy, and often striking."—
“He gives graceful descriptions of scenes and objects, interesting to s. large portion of the public."—
“Even Thomas Moore did not avail himself as he might have done of the experience he obtained
The present author has availed himself of the poetical treasures there is
The notes are valuable."—Morning Herald.
grace, the colour of those glorious scenes amongst which they were written, have been
caught by the author of these pleasant poems. . . . . . The amatory passages are worthy of Thomas

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LIFE of BELISARIUS. Post 8vo,
0s. so.

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\ Printed for the couvcnlence of those who are desirous of
loommuuicating information to Travellers. and inserted in

algnay's Foreign and English Handbook issued during the
\ son.

This medium of Advertising presents unusual advantages
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ference is given to those which are more immediately
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Advertisements for insertion during the Season 1864, must
, be forwarded to the Publisher by the 2nd of May, accomp aniod
by a remittance.

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BOTANYA
_o—.
I.
MANUAL of BRITISH BOTANY:

containing the Flowering Plants and Ferns, arranged
according to their Natural Orders. By C. C. BAIIIG'I'OI,
M.A., I-‘.R.S.. FL.S., he, Professor of Botany in the
Universit of Cambridge, l2mo, the Fifth Edition, with
many sdtStions and corrections, 10s. 6d., cloth.

0
ELEMENTARY COURSE of BOTANY.
Structural, Physiological, and S sternatic. With a brief
Outline of the Geographical an Geological Distribution
of Plants. By Anruus Hutsrnn, F.R.S., LS" Ac"
Professor of Botany in Kin s College, London.
trated by upwards of 500

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3.
RUDIMENTS of BOTANY.
Introduction to the Study of Plants.
lien rasr. With Illustrative Woodcuts.
foolscap eve, 3s. 6d.

A Familiar
By Professor
Second Edition,

4.
BRITISH WILD FLOWERS. Illustrated

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REYNARD the FOX in SOUTH
AFRICA; or, Iiottcntot Fables and Tales, chiefly
Translated from Original Manuscripts in the Library of
his Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B. By W. II. J.
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TORN LEAVES from the CHRONICLES
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JEREMY BENTHAM'S THEORY of
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Donna-r. In 1 vol., Bvo, 7s. 6d. [Now ready.

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‘MISCEGENATION. The Theory of the

Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White
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THE SONG of SONGS. The Voice of the
Bridegroom and the Voice of the Bride. Divided into
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Rendered into Verse. From the Received English Trans-
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RIG~VEDA SAN HITA : a Collection of
Ancient Hindu Ilymns, constituting the Fifth to Eighth
Ashtaknl, or Books of the Rig-Veda, the oldest Authority
for the Religious and Social Institutions of the Hindus.
Translatedfrom the Original Sanskrit by the late Ilonncr:
HAIHAN \V ILBON, MA, F.lt.S., kc. Edited by Jusrs
B. BALLANTYNI, LLD., late Principal of the Govern-
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RASK‘S GRAMMAR of the ANGLO-
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Edition. 8vo. [In the Press.

ESSAYS on LANGUAGE and LITERA-
TURE. By Tiros. Warn, of the British Museum.
Reprinted, with Alterations and Additions, from the
Transactions of the Philological Society, and elsewhere.
One Volume, Svo. [In Prcporation.

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London: TRUBNER & Co., 60 Paternoster row.

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THE POLITICAL EXAMINER.

If I might 've a short hint to an impartial writer it would be to tell him his fate. If he rose val to venture upon the (Ian croul precipice of telling unbiass truth let him proclaim war with mankin ~neither to give nor to_takc quarter. If he tells the crimes of great men they fall upon him With the iron hands of the law ; if he tells them of virtues. when they have any, then the mob attacks him with slander. But if he regards truth, let him expect martyrdom on both sides. and then he may go on fearless; and this is the course 1 take myself.— D: For.

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Before Garibaldi could get back to Caprera the political construction to be put upon his visit to England had not unnaturally become the subject of animated discussion

by the enthusiastic reception he had received amongst us, the party of progress has of late given more than ordinary signs of activity; and its zcal has been stimulated rather than damped by the unconstitutional acts of repression into which the Government has suffered itself to be betrayed. Garibaldi showed his sense of the injustice and indecency of these acts by peremptorin refusing, during his stay in England, to meet the Minister of VictorEmmanuel accredited to our Court. His conduct in this respect, as he wished it tobc understood, was inspired by no personal dislike of M. d'Azeglio, still less by any intention of showing disrespect to the King of Italy, for whom the bloodless conqueror of Naples has generally evinced a strong feeling of attachment. It was meant avowedly as a protest against the subservient and craven spirit of the French party at Turin, too long, unhappily, in the ascendant there. Against their yoke Victor Emmanuel himself is often as much disposed to rebel as Garibaldi. Neither of them is a profound politician, but each in his own way has an instinct of truth and right which compels him to reject with loathing the viceregal dependency of the Administration which looks to Paris for its orders, as to Paris it refers its origin.

The recent elections in Southern Italy of candidates belonging to the national party have struck a wholesome fear into the time-servers of Turin. In reply to pointed questions in the Chamber of Representatives on the 4th inst., as to the manner in which Garibaldi’s reception in this country was regarded by the Italian Government, the Minister of the Interior had the folly to reply that the real question of the day was rather—What was the Government to understand regarding the intentions of the popular party and its chief? He hoped, he said, they were not about to take the initiative as to the future policy of the country out of official hands. So long as its direction was left to them, it would be guided by the advice of the Western Powers; and he would have had his hearers believe that it had been so when the money and papers of Garibaldi were seized the other day at Genoa by the police, avowedly upon the insulting suspicion of tressonable purposes. Is this impudcnt assertion meantto convey the idea that the British Cabinet have been playing double; and that while welcoming the wounded soldier of Aspromonte with honours hitherto paid only to royalty, Lord Palmerston has been diplomatically winking at the treacherous and unpatriotic part played by an anti-national Administration in Italy? Hereafter, when the French Minister of the Italian Interior ventures to talk of the Western Powers he had better distinguish between them, and say which he means.

Regarding Italy there is and can be no identity whatever between the feelings of the English Government and that of France. The reception given to Garibaldi here is not the only touchstone 'of the truth in this matter. There is another which must not be forgotten. M. Mazzini has been for years, and is now, an honoured guest amongst us; and during his stay in England he was, as everybody knows, not only sought out and consulted almost daily by Garibaldi, but on one of the most interesting occasions during his visit was saluted by the candid and generous soldier as “ his political master.” The careful suppression of the incident in certain journals served but to impart to it greater significance. Now this man, with whom Garibaldi chose above all others publicly to identify himself in the face of all Europe, lies under sentence of transportation to Cayenne by the as parla decree of a Frerich tribunal, and lies under sentence of death by an Italian tribunal for loving Italy too well. It is no secret that Garibaldi has more than once remonstrated with the King against the infamy of allowing such a record to remain unannulled ; it is no secret that Victor Emmanuel, if he were left to_himself, would wipe the stigma from the annals of his reign. It is not to be endured, then, that England’s name and fame should be trifled with thus by any insolent pretender to official authority. If the King

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SATURDAY, MAY 7, 1864.

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of Italy be a dynastic prisoner en parole, that is his affair, and the afl'air of his humiliated subjects; but while there is a free printing press in England the slander shall

“1 not go “ unstripped and unwhipped,” as our Cromwellian

ancestors would have phrased it, that our Government lends any sanction or encouragement to a policy of repression beyond the Alps, or to the continuance in their present state of Venice and Rome.

Our diplomatic troubles over Poland and Denmark have caused as sufficient mortification of late to make a far more serious reproach less easily borne; and if there be any feeling of gratitude to this country for the unaffected sympathy it has shown for the cause of Italian unity and independence, that gratitude

. ° ' ' b th among politicians of all classesof his countrymen. VVarmed'etm be evmced 1" no way more appropriate y e

leaders of Italian Liberalism than by their insisting on explanations in the Italian Parliament of insinuatioas so hurtful to our national honour. We do not believe that Garibaldi has taken with him any official promises of intervention by English arms in the Peninsula to aid the completion of his glorious task; but neither can we for a moment entertain the belief that Mr Elliot has been authorized, directly or indirectly, to intimate to the Cabinet of Turin that England acquiesccs willingly in the retention of Venetia by mere brute force. Austria never had less claim on our consideration or respect; and as for Rome, it is but a few days since its Legate a. Iatere has been pouring forth his archiepiscopal maledictions upon us for the welcome given to the hero of Marsala. It is impossible, therefore, that there can be any foundation for the statement ascribed to the Italian Government; and we have no doubt that there are those to be found in the Italian Chamber who will enforce its early rctractation.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

Tried by the test Mr Ewart applies to the punishment of death for murder, there is not a law of prohibition that would not be condemned as ineflleacious or worse. There is imprisonment with hard labour for rape, for manslaughter, for robbery, for assaults, for frauds, and yet all these offences continue to be comgtted, and the proportion to the population can indeed reckoned with statistical exactness. Where, then, is the deterring-effect of the punishments? In what cannot be distinctly seen is the only answer.

Complete prevention of crime is beyond the power of human law, and all that can be done is to keep it within certain bounds. There are temptations which will prevail against the fears, and reckless depraved natures which will have their gratifications in despite of all consequences. These swell the black account of crime, but there are large numbers wavering between right and wrong who let “I “ dare not wait upon I would," and take warning from the examples they see of suffering guilt.

One of the sages of antiquity having the votive offerings in the temple of Neptune pointed out to him as evidence of the god’s benignity and potency, asked ‘thrc are to ‘be seen the offerings of those who have perished at ‘sea’?

In the region of justice the case is reversed, and we have a clear view of the defiance not of the obedience to laws. “'e distinctly see and number the wrecks, not the ships that arrive safe in port.

But the advocates of the abolition of capital punishment not only contend that the punishment has no deterring effect, because crimes are still committed, but go farther, and maintain that the punishment actually encourages to guilt. They contend that death is not the most dreaded punishment, and in proof of the sincerity of their opinion, when some wretch is sentenced to be hung they exert themselves to the utmost to obtain a commutation of the punishment.

It may be true that capital punishment is the least certain of punishments, but we are much mistaken if that consideration is not countervailed by the intensity of the dread; and of this we are certain, that no one with murder in his thoughts goes into a statistical calculation of the proportion of acquittals for that crime in comparison with others.

And if capital punishment were abolished, would not all the same objections as regards deterring example apply to the punishment substituted, imprisonment for life we will suppose?

What right have you, it would be asked, to substitute for death a punishment you have admitted to be worse than death, more cruel, and approaching to torture? And unjustifiable as the thing is in point of humanity, it is in effect as inoperative for prevention as was the gallows, for murder still continues to be committed. And ~hcre would come a repetition of all the present arguments and instances. And the fact is, that the scope of the reasoning is against all laws of prohibition, because they can never operate as more than checks, never succeed to the extent of complete prevention.

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Mr Ewart makes the important admission that for a time the abolition of capital punishment would encourage the worst crime; and we will make, on our part, the admission that if we were beginning the world, legislating for a new state of society, we should best show respect for life by not taking it except in sheer self-defence. But even adopting that principle, the question remains whether the execution of a murderer is not as justifiable an act of selfdefence on the part of society as the killing of an enemy— a rebel or a foreign invader. Mr Roebuck has, with his usual courage, taken this ground in justification of capital punishment.

But to return to Mr Ewart's admission. The immediate effect of abolition would certainly be great encouragement to murder. One dread would be taken away without the substitution of another, or rather, the secondary punishnient raised to the place of the greater would have comparatively no terror whatever. The gallows gone, the jail would not appear even in a distant perspective. In time perpetual imprisonment might be understood and wholesomely dreaded, but meanwhile would it be justifiable to expose society to the dangers of emboldened guilt? should innocent lives be sacrificed in an interregnum of criminal justice?

In disparagement of the opinion of the judges as to the necessity of capital punishment, Mr Bright refers to the opposition of the Beach to the mitigation of the Criminal Code half a century ago. But is this quite fair? As Sganarcllc says, It y a. j'ugofs 0t fayots, and not less do the judges of the present time differ from the judges of the Georgian era. The legal profession has, in common with the rest of society, made its advances in enlightenment and humanity. It has dropped the old pedantries and prejudices, and ceased to regard the law as the perfection of reason. Compare Lord Westbnry with Lord Eldon, Sir A. Cockburn with Lord Ellenborough, and you have some measure of the progress made. ‘Imagine Lord Eldon’s judgment on the case of Dr Williams and Mr Wilson, and Lord Ellenborough's opinion on secondary punishments and prison discipline. The warning, “ Beware of the “ judges,” is no longer necessary. Their opinions are entitled to a respectful hearing, and should be accepted for what they may be worth. The days of oracles are gone by.

Mr Bright refers to the impression made on the minds of foreigners by our sanguinary laws of past times, when the punishment of death was almost the common measure of all offence, as if the reproach still attached. Indeed he declares that we still remain the most merciless of all Christian countries, because we retain capital punishment for murder. In the application of that word merciless Mr Bright begs the whole question. It is for the protection of innocent life that the law makes example of the murderer. There is a country where assassination is a pious mission, where cutthroats pass to and fro not only with impunity but favour and reward, and does Mr Bright consider it a model of the merciful in comparison with our own, where deeds of blood are regarded with such horror and visited with the most terrible retribution?

But Mr Bright even cites Russia as an example to us, and quotes the saying of“ the Empress Catherine: “ We must punish crime without imitating it," a speech in which there is more cpigram than reason. For is flogging with the knout no imitation of the crime of injury to the person ; is forfeiture of property no imitation of robbery? Exile to Siberia is, perhaps, indeed, no imitation, for crime has no cruelty like it.

Mr Bright also holds up some of the American States as models, and contends that their abrogation of capital punishment has not impaired the security of life in cities where enemies meeting in the streets shoot each other forthwith, and the survivors are taken to jail in a sort of triumph, and after a mockery of trial go forth “remarkable men,” and with all the honours of homicide. Lynch law, too, is another feature of that happy state of society; and a. subject of constant complaint by the respectable part of the American press is the insecurity of life. We say nothing of the murder of unoffending negroes in the streets of New York, because of no account do the free and enlightened citizens hold such lives.

Whether the abolition of capital punishment conduces to humanity, and tenderness for life, may be seen in the horrors of the civil war, in which prisoners have been shot in cold blood in retaliation for imaginary outrages. Indeed we know of no war in history conducted with so much ferocity as this war in the land of the two great humane abolitions.

It will be observed, in the debate of Monday, that the most effective argumtnts against capital punishment have been furnished by the conduct of the Home Office, and if some better organization for appeal and review be _not devised, the abolitionists will certainly carry their pornt. Indeed, for our own part, we would rather see the law changed than such scandals as the cases of MoLachlan, Townlcy, and Wright, for the greatest of all evils is the uncertainty of justice.

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A Royal Commission will be appointed to inquire into the operation of the laws affecting life, and it will doubtless apply itself to the consideration of the different shades of guilt now confounded under the one black name of murder. \Vcll observed Lord H. Lennox:

Who could maintain that inquiry was not needed into the state of a law which awarded the same punishment to a man who for days and weeks subtilely administered doses of poison to a near relative, all the while exhibiting a false and treacherous affection, and to a man who destroyed the woman with whom he was cohabiting after a drunken brawl, and under the influence of strong provocation and outraged feeling? A sentence, he thought, should rest upon such solid grounds that, once passed, it. should be irreversible, and should not be dispensed with either at tho capricc of the Minister or in obedience to popular clamour.

By the last proposition we do not understand the speaker to mean that sentences shall not be reversible upon subse— quent discovery of error, but that they shall not be disturbed capriciously, or through the exercise of influence, private or public, upon the mind of a Minister. Above all, for every reversal or remission there should be cause shown, the reasons given, whether of strict ustice or of mercy. The dispensing power, once regarded with such constitutional jealousy, is now, in effect, wholly irresponsible, and the arbitrary behest of the Home Secretary is—

Hoc volo, sic jubco, sit pro rations voluntas.

Justice and mercy have, however, been of late so strangely dealt out that public opinion determines they shall no longer be inscrutable prerogatives.

THE CONFERENCE AGAIN.

The gouty London Conference that had taken to its bcd, got up on Wednesday, attempted to hobble a step or two, found that it could not, and went back between the blankets. The Germans assert that they made no additional demands whatever, but simply adhered to their original position, that of no armistice being possible without the raising of the blockade. The Danes distinctly refuse to give up what they rcgard‘as the one small advantage they have been thus far able to hold over an enemy who has again and again proved his word and promise false. There may, nevertheless, be more pride or misjudgment in the obstinacy on either side than cure for important or tangible interests. Should German vessels take advantage of the cessation of the blockade to put to sea, their cargo would be only the greater abundance of prey for the Danes; if they saw reason and pretext for redeclaring it. Germany is not one solitary city or limited country, in which a blockade can in the least prevent the acquisition of stores of all kinds. Indeed, the interior of Germany is more accessible from Dutch ports than from the greater part of those properly German. A temporary suspension of the blockade would thus not essentially damage or alter the position of that belligerent which is most powerful at sea. 1

Whatever, therefore, may be the justice of the Danish cause, the politicians of the country should beware lest they work harm to themselves by placing insurmountable obstructions in the way of an arrangement. The more zealous partisans of the Danes, indeed, seem of late to have taken the English Government for their special antagonists; and the chblatlef asserts that more is to be obtained from Prussia than hoped for through England. Is this wise, and is it fair? Could any sane man foresee such madness of German patriotism as that which has made even the Treaty of 1852 stand for a bar to the continuance of. Holsteincr and Dane under the same government. The law of the north of Europe seemed to give to an abso‘

v lute King the right of nominating his successor. The Emperor Alexander had done it. Why not the King of Denmark? If there were those difficulties and that unfairness in the way of proceeding, which have become apparent, and that are alleged, surely it was for the German Powers and people to have urged them, and made it known to the world then? England laboured then in the sole interest of securing the integrity of Denmark. She has failed only because the copartners to that Treaty are backing out of it. Is England to blame for this? Can we take all Europe by the collar, and force it into respect of treaties P

On every occasion since 1852, when interference appeared , useful England did what she could. Had Lord Russell’s advico of 1862 been followed, affairs might have been now in a far different condition. We cannot affirm that they would, because there has been no reason but that of violence in German counsels; but if anything could have averted the disastrous war, acceptance by Denmark of Lord Russell’s unpalatable advice would have done it. Is Lord Russell to blame for such advice having been scouted? Again, if King Christian had been allowed to follow the dictates of his own prudence, he would have suspended his sanction of the Constitution left by his predecessor. Had he done so, the invasion of Holstein could hardly have taken place. Is England here again to blame? Had the German invasion of Holstein and Slesvig taken place in despite of the King's refusal to sanction the Constitution, it is more than probable that the English Cabinet would have agreed upon some strong measure of intervention; though England certainly is not more bound by political ties than France or Sweden to interfere, and the especial claim on her is one of a just sentiment alone, depending on the sympathy of this country with constitutional freedom wherever else it thrives.

The Danes should consider all these things, instead of representing in the official journals those of our Ministers who have toiled for them, as “ lost to all sense of shame."

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If such are the comments with which Mr Hall’s organ accompanies its relation of the acts of the Conference, they will, we -fear, not serve the Danish cause. \Ve admire heartily the Danish resistance of German aggression, and the courage of the men who perished nobly on the bastions of Dybbol, though with no other material effect than to rehabilitate the monarch and his minister in the good opinion of the people of the capital. But the policy of Danes who would turn the force of their enmity and resentment upon the liberal ministry of England, the only administration that could have any real sympathy for them, is a very different kind of party warfare, which no foreigner here can have recourse to, without deeply damaging his cause.

As far as we can see into the Conference, Prussians and Danes are alike anxious to break up that assembly, destroy hopes of peace, and continue the disturbance of the north of Europe; the Prussians stirred by an infamous greed, the Danes by natural resentment and the tough spirit of an unyielding patriotism. But if so, it is time for neutral Powers to interfere, and prevent, whatever its cause, the continuance of a vain waste of human life. The four neutral Powers, England, France, and Russia, with Austria, which is a semi-neutral, may, indeed, not agree upon adopting what may be called the English view of the Danish question. And this we must regret. But at the same time, it must be considered, that no prompt settlement of the question is possible, unless in a manner which can unite the action of the four Powers. This cannot be done without large compromises.

There may be great objections, for example, to consulting the Estates of the Duchies, but if France make such proposal seriously, if Russia approve of it, and Austria and Prussia do not dissent, how is it possible for England to stand alone in opposition to such an idea? It is, after all, most consonant to our own political ideas and institutions. And although it may have its dangers it is not surely, when all Europe demands a Parliamentary vote and sanction, for England to stand up against it.

There is little doubt, indeed, that a population or state such as Holstein would be for severance from Denmark. We do not believe in the same result for Slesvig, if the Germans evacuate the Duchy, and if it be insured against undue pressure of any sort from either side. There is much feudalin in Slesvig, as we observed last week, and it has no objection to a Danish King if he be not forced to employ Danish counsellors. So that if the Duchies were left, according to the French proposal, to decide their own fate, we do not think that this decision would be so destructive or unjust to the Danes as persistence of the Germans in this unchecked war of hrigandage if it gave them all that is Danish on the mainland.

The true source of the difficulty has been the uncertain attitude of France, who is following a secret policy of her own among the lesser German States, and for whom the pear one day to be gathered out of the Prussian garden is not yet ripe. France, too, is just now much out of pocket by the Emperor's own piece of Mexican brigandage, and has, moreover, newly cast upon her hands an expensive insurrection in Algeria that first broke out in Oran, with the destruction of a detachment of French troops, and is likely soon to spread over the whole Tell country. Not only does the Emperor hold back from all vigorous community of action in the interests of public justice, but, in pursuance of his hidden projects, it is very doubtful whether, after the area of conflict had once been cxtendcd, he might not play a part that would raise general war in Europe.

THE STREET NUISANCES.

We have to thank Mr Bass for bringing in a Bill to protect the public against the noisy nuisances now infesting the streets. The existing law requires reasonable cause for the removal of vagabonds playing on grind organs, or brass instruments of torture. But magistrates differ as to reasonable cause, and J usticc Midas is of opinion that no one can have reason to complain of the sweet sounds from a decayed hurdygurdy, or the alternations of grunts and squeaks of a brass band. Another magistrate thinks only sickness or mathematics reasonable cause. A third holds the right opinion, that the streets should be kept to their right

uses—traffic, and that there is reasonable cause for stopping

the conversion of them into orchestras, or we should rather say, places of abominable discord.

What Mr Bass proposes is to extend protection to serious occupations which will not. bear interruption; but, as Sir F. Crosslcy observed, people have a right to something more, and ought to be allowed to live in the houses they pay for in peace and quiet. Because a householder happens not to he a calculating machine, he is not to be tormented with noises from daybreak to midnight. He has a right to as much quiet as consists with the necessary traffic of the streets. There is a time for all things, and the choicest music intruded upon the car at every hour of the day would be intolerable, much more so the drone of hackneyed tunes by decayed organs, or the grants and squeaks of a herd of filthy German swine. _

Unhappily, nature has provided no defence against-this crying evil. We can shut our eyes against disagreeable sights, we can stop our noses against bad smells, but we cannot stop our ears against the assaults of discordant sounds. The sense of hearing is completely at mercy, and no mercy is shown it in this vast, ill-regulated town. In

Paris no street music is suffered on any pretext, and if

people choose to have it it must be in their houses or courtyards. And our own Legislature has admitted the principle that some consideration is due to the ears in sup

pressing the dustman’s bell; but what was the annoyance of that bell to the detestable noises that have succeeded it? and the bell was not ringing everywhere from sunrise to midnight.

The treet nuisance is defended in Parliament by two lineal descendants of Midas, Sir John Shelley and Lord Fermoy, and on Mr Bass’s motion the latter brayed a bray that the attempt was to suppress street music, and to interfere with the recreation of the people.

The people, in the common sense of the word, have no interest in the matter. The brass bands and organs, the Savoyard and German vagabonds, are not to be found in the alleys and courts, but in the squares and handsome streets. The German gangs are not paid in pence, but in silver and gold. If your wife or daughter is on a sick bed, or your mother dying, you cannot buy her quiet at a less price than half-a-sovcreign. The organs are more moderate in their cxtortions, in proportion as their power of annoys once is less, but you must pay both, and all day long.

There is a gang of German boys that has carried extortion to great perfection by having instruments excruciatingly out of tune. Their activity is as great as their discord is intolerable, and they make themselves heard, detested, and dreaded in every part of the town. Yet. there are people who mistake even this performance for music, and who reward and encourage it, so that the trade is doubly profitable, chiefly by extortion, partly by ministering to vulgar, vicious taste. A musician, noticing that the band by which he was tormented always played its false notes in the same places, called the leader into his house the other day, gave him wine, complimented him on the good playing of his band (whereat he looked uneasy), and added, I have especially admired the skill and regularity with which you introduce your discards. “ Ah,” said the street bandmaster with a knowing look, “zat is our business. " It is by zat we live.”

A Persian Ambassador on his first visit to the Opera was in ruptures with the band when tuning the instruments, but when they commenced the overture to Figaro, he said, “ This is poor stufi’ indeed, but what they com~ “ menced with was celestial music.”

There are folks with this sort of taste, and who really like discords when they pierce their dull ears with a sharp shriek.

Some of the Germans, it must be admitted, play well, but the greater number are mere horn-blowers, or else they know that it matters not for profit whether they play well or ill, for that certain ears are as well pleased with bad as with good music, and that others are to be tortured into buying off their tormentors.

It is curious to observe the parts of the town of which complete possession is taken by the nuisance-mongers. Aristocratic Dover street is devoted to them,—organs, brass bands, disgusting fellows with blacked faces grimacing and bowling negro melodies, are to be found in that unhappy street at all hours of the day. We have a suspicion that there is something more than extortion in this disgraceful phenomenon, and that Fermoys and Shelleys abound in that locality, and do not care to disguise the long ears that have come down to them, and attest the ancient quarrel with Apollo.

THE POPE OF SOUTH AFRICA.

Dr Colenso has just issued a letter to the Laity of the Diocese of Natal, discreet as usual and courteous in all its references to antagonists, but amusing for the neatiiess with which it turns the tables upon 1t. Capetown, Metropolitan, and defends the Established Church of England against Dr Gray’s unwarrantable assumption to be Pope ltohert the First of South Africa.

Since the 16th of last April the Bishop of Natal has ceased to be that Bishop, if there be force in the ordinances of the Bishop of Capetown, the Bishop of Grahamstown, and Bishop Twells. They pronounced, in Dr Colenso's absence, sentence of deprivation, unless be retracted within a period of four months; and then, without being so civil as to wait till their allowance of four months"grace to the heretic should be expired, they issued, on the very day after their sentence, a damnatory circular against him to be read in all churches throughout his diocese. It was read by the Dean of Maritzburg from the altar of Dr Colenso’s own cathedral church. But as Dr Colenso remains Bishop of Natal in spite of spite,-he must needs reassure his people, to whom that circular of ungenerous South African condemnation has been read. This he has effectually done, more effectually than it will be possible for Dr Gray to show in his own defence that he has not been casting himself, instead of the Bishop of Natal, out of the English Church.

For Dr Gray, when he pronounced judgment, expressly declared that he could not recognize any appeal, except to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and that only by favour, “ waiving in this particular case, which is itself novel, and “ of great importance to the whole Church, any real or sup“ posed rights of this Church." The sentence so_ passed by the Pope at Capetown and his two sympathetic Bishops, one of them his nominee, on their own sole responsibility, and passed without help of legal assessors, is passed in assumption of a power not possessed by the Archbishop of Ca nterbury himself, or by any other ecclesiastical authority, except the Pope of Rome. The Archbishop of. Canterbury, in his own particular Province, cannot deprive even a deacon of his office and ministry without having his

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