Imagens das páginas
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REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, as proved by thousands of cases which had been considered hopeless. We quote a few ; Cure No. 58,216 of the Marchioocss do Brehan, Paris, of a fearful liver com laint, wuting away, with a nervous palpitation all over, ad digestion, constant sleepIcaaneas, low spirits, and the most intolerable nervous agitation, which prevented even her sitting down for hours together, and which for seven years had resisted the careful treatment of the best French and English medical men.— Cure No. 1,771. 10rd Stuart dc Decies, Lord-Lieutenant of Waterford, of many years‘ dyspc aim—Cure No. 49,842. " fifty years' indescribable agony roni dyspepsia, nervousneu, asthma, Cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickxicas. and vomiting. MariarJoly."-Cure No. 46,270. Mr J nines Roberts, of li‘rsmley. Surrey, of thirty years' diseased lungs, spitting of blood, liver derangement, and partial deaincsn—Curc No. 47,121. Miss Elizabeth Jaco s, of extreme nervousness, indigestion, gatherings, low spirits, and nervous fancies.——Curc No. 54,816. The ltev. James T. Cam bell, Pakculiam, Norfolk, “ of indigestion and torpidity of t e liver, which had resisted all medical treatment.”— In tins, 1111., 2s.9d.; 21b., 4s. 6d.; blb., Ile.; 12111., 225.; 241b, dOa—Bsrry du Barry and Co., No. 77 Regent strcct. London ; also at 61 Graeccburch street; 4 Cheapsiile; 68 and 150 Oxford street; 54 Upper Baker strcct.

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has been during twenty-five years, emphatically sanctioned by the hfedical Profession, and universally accepted by the Public, as the best Remedy for ACIDITY of the S'I‘OMACII, Ill-LAltTllURN, HEADACHE, GOUT, and INDIGESTION, and as a mild Aperient for delicate constitutions, more especially for Ladies and Children. When combined with the ACIDULATEI) LEMON SYltU P, it forms an agreeable Efl'ervescing Draught, in which its Apericnt qualities are much increased. During Hot Seasons and in Hot Climates the autumn. use of this aim 1e and elegant remedy has been found highly beneficial. t is prepared tina state of perfect punlv and of uniform strength) ny DINNEl-‘OBD and Co., 172 New Bond street, London; and sold by all respectable Chemils throughout the World


EE'I‘H and PAIN LESS DENTISTRY. Messrs LEWIN AIOSELY and pONS, 30 Bernsrs street, Oxfiord street (Established 1820), direct attention to a new and patented irprovement in Artificial Teeth, by which a GUM COLOURED ENAMELLBD BASE is substituted for the metals and soft absorbing agents generally used. By this system all Stumps and Loose Teeth are carofully protected, avoiding extraction or any painful operation. They are self-adhesive, defy detection, and insure an amount of comfort hitherto unattainable without tlieusoof metals and unsightly ligaturcs. Consultation free. Teeth from 5a. Sets, .‘1, 7, 10 and 15 Guineas. For the eficacy and success of this system, vidc ' Lancet.‘ No connection with any one of the same name.



and PILLS-EXPERIENCE—Thls question Is often asked by Bufl'cl’ltrsl from tumours, abscesses, and other alarming clauses, “What treatment of my malady Is the lilifefll and surest 'l" The uflwllcllcd testimony of thousands points out Galloway's Ointment and Pills as the most reliable of all curative means. The drugs of which they are coinpoundcd are lugth purlfying. very strengthening, and altogether 11111111111101“. The Ointment, when applied to the afiecied part, counteracts at bed humours which are iceding the dlsr-ase and poisoning the system. The Pills purify the entire trams, many malignant diseases which begin In a mild and curable form have been stopped In their snaplcious course by time invaiusble remedies. and many cancers bars succumbcd to them. _ A ‘

r'al , ‘1.


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ILLIAM S. BURTON, GENERAL I'LRNISIIING IBONMONGEII, by appointment to 11.11.11. the Parties: of Wants, sends a CATALOGUE gratis, and post pai It contains upwards of 500 Illustrations of his illimitcd Stock of Sterling Silver and ElectroPlate, Nickel Silver, and Britannia Metal Goods, Dish Covers, Hot-water Dishes, Stoves, Fenders, Miirlile Chimneypieces, Kitchen Ranges, Lani s, Goseliers. Tea'l'rays, Urns, and Kettles, Clouks, Table Cutlery, Bulbs, Toilet Ware, Turucry, Iron and Brass Bedstcuds, Bedding, Bedroom Cabinet I-hiruitnvc, Stu, with Lists of Prices, and Plans of the Twenty large Show-Rooms, at 39 Oxford street, W., I, la, 2, 3, and 4 Newman street; 4, 5, and t} l’crry's place; and I Neunnan yard, London.

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H ANDELIERS 1n BRONZE and ORMOLU for DINING-ROOM and LIBRARY. Candelabra, Moderator Lam s, in llronze, Ormoru, China, and Glass. Statucttes in iiriiin, Vases and other Ornaments, in a Show Room erected expressly for these articles.

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SLER'S GLASS CHAN DELIERS. Wall Lights, and Mantel-piece Lustrcs,f0r Gas and Candles, Table Glass, to. Glass Dinner Services for 1% persons, from £7 15s. Glass Dessert do. do. do. from £i All Articles markcd in plain figures. Ornamental Class, English and Foreign, suitable for Presents. Mess, Export, and Furnishing Orders promptly executed. LON DON—Snow Bonus, 46 Oxroan s'raaz'r, W. BIBMINGHAM—Masunc-roai mo Snow Booiis,

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War-arm Orriox Continua.

'blo Members of the Court of Directors in Rotation, and Ilenry Kingscote, Esq. | John I‘idd Pratt, Esq. FIRE DEPARTMENT.

SPECIAL NOTICE—The Directors are now prepared to grant INSUBANCES upon MERCHANDISE in the several

ocks and Public Wharves and Warehouses in London at reduced rates. Full particulars may be obtained upon appliCation.

NOTICE is also hereby iven to persons Assured against Fire, that the Renewal ceipts fur Insurances due at Christmas are ready to be delivered, and that such insurances as shall remain unpaid after fifteen Days from the said Quarter-day will become void.

DAMAGE caused by EXPLOSION of GAS made .

COMMISSION allowed to Brokers and Agents e ecta'ng Foreign and Ship Insurances.


This Corporation has ranted Assurances on Lives for a period exceeding One I undred and Forty Years, having issued its first Policy on the 7th June, 1721.

Two-thirds of the entire Profits, without any deduction for expenses of management, are allotted to the Assured. This arrangement will be found to be more advantageous to the Policy holders than an apparently larger proportion of the Profits, subject to the expenses of management.

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PANY.—Incorporated by Royal Charter and Acts of Parliamerit.

Accumulated and Invested Funds .........£i,122,828
Annual Revenue .. 422,401

Policies should be renewed within fifteen days from the 25m instant. lteeeipts may be had of the various Agencies and Branches, and at the Ilead Oifice.

London, 58 Threadncedle street, EC, December, 1868.



The following First-class Screw Steamers: KEPLES, 1,499 tons register, Captain JOHN CARROLL. COPERNICL'S, 1,371 tons register, Captain ROBERT GODSOC.

6:32.120, 1,525 tons register, Captain EDWARD JOHNA .

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Will be despatclied at regular Intervals from LIVERPOOL to BAHIA, RIO DE JANI-IIRO, MONTE-VIDEO, and BUENOS AYItES, calling at Lisbon.

For particulars. apply to LAHPOOL and HOLT, 51 Water street, Liverpool.


VERLAN D ROUTE—Communication b STEAM to INDIA, AUSTRALIA, be, via EGYPT. —-'1‘lic P NINSULAB. and ORIENTAL STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY BOOK PASSENGEBS rind RECEIVE CARGO and PARCELS at their LONDON OFFICE for GIBRALTAR, MALTA, EGYIYI‘, ADEN, CEI'IDN, MADBAS, CALCUT'I‘A, ‘I‘IIE STRAITS, and CHINA, by their Steamers leaving Southampton on the 4th and 20th of every month. For GIBRALTAR, MALTA, EGYPT, ADEN, and BOMBAY, b those of the 12th and 27th of each month; and for AIAUBI'I‘IUS, REUNION, KING GEORGES SOUND, MELBOURNE, and SYDNEY, by the Steamers leaving Southampton on the 20111 of every month. l'or further particulars apply at the Company's Odlcea, 122 Leadenliall street, 3.0., London; or Oriental place, Southaiuplou.

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Wedding Stationery. Heraldic Engraving, Die Sinking, Plates for Marking Linen, Books, the.

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HE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE'S DAILY ASSISTANT on all Matters relating to Cooke and Housekeeping: containing Bills of Family Fare for very Day in the Year; wluch include Breakfast and Dinner for a ' Sitau. ' l-amily, and Dinner for ’I\vo Servants. Also, Twelve Bdls of Fara for Dinner Parties, and Two for Evening Entertainmcnts, with the Con annexed. By Cal-Finn.

London: Simpltin, Marshall, and Co.


The Fourteenth Edition, with Colonred Plates, prion 2s. 6d, R RAMADGE on CONSUMPTION.

_ " Pathological snaiom has never allorded more com c_laaive_evidenee in proof of e curabilit of a disease than it has in that of consumption."-Carswell.

Also, by the same Author, price 10s. 611., ASTHMA: its Varieties and Complications. To which ll annexed a succinct Treatise on the principal lh‘seasu of the Heart.

London: Iongman and Co.


NEW SCIENTIFIC PERIODICAL. With numerous lllnmttons. No. 1, price 5a, HE QUARTERLY JOURNAL of

SCIENCE, containing Original Articles, Chronicles of Science, Reviews of Books, Notes and Correspondence.

John Churchill and Sons, New Burlington street.


Now pnbllahlng, in Monthly Parts, price 611. (per post, 8d.),

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HE UNITED LIBRARIES, 301 REGENT STREET, W., next door to the Royal Polytechnic Institution.

All the best New Books In English, French. German, Italian, and Spanish Literature added Immediately on puh~ llcatlon In large numbers. suited to the probable demand.

Subscription, from One Guinea. Catalogues and terms on application; as also the New List of Surplus Books, at gres ly reduced prlcea.

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Illustrated with nearly 1,500 Engraving: on Wood and Twelve on Stool,

THE HiLUSTRATED CATALOGUE of the INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION of 1862, conialning specimens of the best exhibits in the International Exhibition, from the works of the most famous English and Continental Art-Manufacturers; also Engravings on Steel and Wood of the Sculpture; accompanied with Essays, by various contributors, on the Progress and Development of Art as exemplified In tho works exhibited; and a dim of the Exhibition: forming a most Interesting and valuab 0 record of the Exhibition at South Henslngtori. 1n 1 vol., royal quarto. cloth gilt, gilt edges price 21s.

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L O N D O N and WESTMINSTER BANK.-NOT1CE 1s HEREBY GIVEN, that the ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING of this Company will be held at the Bank, in Lothbury, on WEDNESDAY, the 10th day of January next, at One o'clock precisely, to declare a Dividend ; to submit for confirmation the election of Frederick Joseph Edlmann, Esq, who has been nominated by the Board 01' Directors in the place of James William Gilbart, Esq., F.B.S., deceased; and to elect Three ulree~ tors in the place of Thomas Chapman, Esq. BBS, John Peter Gasslot, Esq, F.It,S, and Henry Buckle, Esq, who ruter by rotation, but being eligible for re-electloo otter themselves accordingly. WILLIAM EWINGS, General Manager.

Lothbury, Dec. 2, 1863.

The Transfer Books of the Company wlll be Closed on the 1st January next, to prepare for the Dividend. and will Beopcn on the 4th January. Proprietors registered In the books of the Company on the 31st last. will be entitled to the dividend for the current haif~year on the number of shares then standing In their respective names.


WOB are made to Measure by
Airs LIMBIBD, Practical Shirt Maker,
Six for 42s., 86s.. and 83s.

',' Homeopathic Practitioners, and the Medical Profession generally, recommend Cocoa as being the most healthful of all beverages. When the doctrine of H

,. by was first introduced Into this country, there were to be obtained no preparations of Cocoa either attractive to the taste or acceptable to the stomach : the out was either supplied in in crude state or so 11anqu mannfactored as to obtain little notice.

EPPS, of London, ‘ Ilomccopathic Chemist. was induced in the year 1839 to turn his attention to this subject, and at length succeeded, with the assistance of elaborate machinery, in being the first to produce an article runs in its composition, and so refined by the perfect trituration it receives In the process it passes through, as to be most acceptable to the delicate stomach. For general use,

E P P 8' B C 0 0 0 A is distinguished as an INVIGORATING, GBATEFUL BREAKFAST BEVERAGI, possessing a most DELICIOUS AB-OIA.1 Dr Eli-all, in his work on " Adulteratlunl of Food," mys : “ Cocoa contains a great. variety or important nutritive prlneL plea ; every ingredient nee-sary to the growth and sustenance of the body.’ findings! aI pant-Ive, cocoa stands very maeh ' n th t e co ee 0 m 12513:. lei {on In: at tixhpovdn in a breakfast ,tllld t In In rorm "geequ mill-urns inf. 51s., Had no. packets, labelled, as sold at II. 6d. per 1b., by Grown. Confectioners, and “OM.

Investments can be made either In the Share or Deposit departments, with prompt withdrawal when required. The Interest allovved Is Fivo per Cent. per annum on Shales, and Four r Cent. on Deposits paid half-yearly. No partnership 1 ability, and the taking of land la quite optional. Depositors do not become shareholders, and the lotu- only participate in any profits above the guaranteed Interest The Society has paid from 4| to 1 per Cent. toSharaholdnn, and they have received .11 per Gent. for the past year. Prospectuses, explanatory of the Shlre. Depoalt and Land Departments, will be sent free of charge and postage to any part of the world. Plots of land tor sale In Elgbteen Counties. giving the freehold franchise and securing a safe investment.


38 Norfolk street, Strand, lander, WC

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_ s. VII. llonie in the Middle Ages. VIII. The Danish Dudiits.

John Murray, Albcmarle street.



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In l. llt‘ large volume, 8vo, with numerous Illustration, 21s.


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2 vols., post Svo, 21s.

Illustrated by J. Non. Paron and W. B. Paroiv.

With Engraving! on Wood in the highest style of the art, sniall dto, cloth gilt, 21s.

iv. LIEUT.~COLONEL FREMANTLE'S THREE MONTHS in the SOUTHERN STATES, Arnri. 10 June, 1863. Crown Sro, with Portraits, 7s. M.

v. MR KINGLAKE‘S INVASION of the CRIMEA. VOLS. I. AND II. Fourth Edition, 32!.


IIII‘. I‘AGE'S PHILOSOPHY of GEOLOGY: A Review of the Aim, Scope, and Character of Geological Enquiry.

I‘cnp. Bvo, 8s. 6d.



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IX. CHRONICLES of CARLIIGFORD. Cheap Edition. Salem Chapel, 5s. The Rector and the Doctor‘s Family, is. X. MR WARREN‘S DIARY of a. LATE PHYSICIAN. Library Edition. With Illustrations on Wood, crown Qvo, 7s. 6d.


William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London.


The January Number (now ready) 8 New Volume, and contains the following interesting articles, the most important of which will be continued throughout the year:—

On the Preservation of Pictures painted in Oil Colours

By J. B. l'yue.

The National Gallery.
The Proio-Msdouns. Illustrated.
Almanac of the Month. I-‘rorn designs by ,W. Harvey.


Art-Work in January. By the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A., km,



The Church at Ephesus. By the Rev. J. M. Bcllew.

British Artists: their Style and Character. By J. Dall'orne. Illustrated.

The Houses of Parliament.

Progress of Art-Manufacture :—Art in Iron. Illustrated.

Portrait Painting in England. By Peter Cunningham, 1-‘.S.A.

Hymns in Prose. Illustrated.

Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers. Illustrated.

History of Caricature and of Grotesque in Art. By T. Wright, hi. L, F.$.A. Illustrated.

New Ilall China. A History of the New Hall Porcelain Works at Shelton. By Llewellynn Jewitt, BSA. llluitrated.

The Department of Science and Art.

William Blake the Artist.

New Method of Engraving and Multiplying Prints, Sic.

Early Sun—Pictures. Bro, the, he.

Also three Line Eiigravings, viz. :— “ Alice Lisle." By I". IIeslh. From the Picture by E. M. Ward, ILA. “ Venice : from the Canal of the Giudeeca." By E. Bran(lard. From the Picture by J. M. W. Turner, ILA. “A Vision.” By R. A. Artlctt. From the Basrelief by J. Edwards.

Engraviugs will be given during the year 1864 from Pictures by E. M. Ward, II.A., \V. P. Frith,'it.'A., T. Fired, A.II.A., H. O‘Neil, A.R.A., J. Phillip, ark, Noel Paton R.S.A., LR. Herbert, R.A., A. Elinorci iLA" D. Maclise, ILA, P. P'. Poole, lt.A.. John Liniicll, F. Goodall, A.II. A., C. R. Leslie, It.A., J. C. Hook, R.A., ac" he:

0! works in Sculpture, the “ Reading Girl" (Magni), the "Finding of Moses " (Spence), “ Ariel " glmugli), " Monu— ment to ~Nicholson " (Foley), “ Rellg on " (Edwards), akl’rlncc Leopold and Prince Arthur" (Mrs Thornycroft),

., to.

Selections from the Turner bequest to the nation will also be continued.

Ekampleo of the works of Newton, Mulrcudy, Penry Williams, Muller, E. Crowc, Mrs E. M. Ward, Alias Osborne, W. J. Grant, and others, will be given during the year.

Loadcni Juan 8. Virtue, 26 Ivy Lans.


Now ready, in post Svo, price 21s. 6d. To be published half- , I


A Book of Ready Rtfereiice for the use of Visitors and Residents In London.

Containing seleclod Lists of Hotels, Boarding Hops“, Dining Rooms, Lodgings, 8w. Full and Practical Information as to Charities of every doscrlpiion, Libraries and Institutions, Days of Meeting of the Scientific Sucleiics, Amusements, Theatrical. MUsical, so. With oiher useful information, the whole classified in a novel iuaiiiier.


A HANDY LIST, showing the nearest Post- ' OIIIce, Telegraph Station, Cab Stand, Fire Engine, ire. Co., ‘i to Low principal streets.

London: Saunders, Olley. and Co., 66 Brook street, W.; and all Booksellsrs, Newsagents, and Railway Booluialls.


Now ready, with Four Maps of tlic Duchies. See, Bvo, 12s, DENMARK and GERMANY SINCE

1815. By CirAnLas A. Goscil. John Murray, Albeuinrle street.

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H O ’ S W H O for “A complete epitome of the! handy knowledge of the personnel of the public life of this country, which every one so oiten requires to refer io."- Illustrated London

London: A. H. Daily and Co., Curnhill.

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OLDEN \VORDS: The Rich and

I'recious Jewel of God‘s Holy Wo'rd. Prayer. The

Lord‘s Supper. Christ Mystical. The Sabbath. Public

Worship. The Art of Hearing. Walking wiili God. hath.

Repentance. Arid Passages on Miscellaneous Subjects.

Selections from the Works of Divincs prlncipiilly oftiiu
Sixteenth anu Seventeenth Centuries.

Oxford and London: John Henry and James Parker. Birmingham: Henry Wright.

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i Ediiiun: , FIRST STEP in FRENCH _. 1 8 6 4 KEY to the GRAMMAR and FIRST STEP

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GRAY'S ANATOMY, DESCRIPTIVE and SURGICAL. Third Edition, by T. Houses. AssistantSurgcon and Lecturer on Anatomy, St George’s Hospital. Royal Svo, with 400 Woodcuts, 28s.


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is. The VINE and its FRUIT, in relation to

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Forming a coinpirto Course of Ifodern French, in use at Woolw'iiii, Sandhurst, Harrow, Cheltenhain, Marlborough, he, and very generally in Ladles‘ Schools. Now ready. In 12mo, price on, bound,


cimprising Vocabularies, Conversational Lessons, and copious Exercises composed from the best Authors of the Present Day. By Laou Coa-raxsnv, Examiner in French for Military and Civil Appointments, to. Fifth

KEY to the GUIDE . .

London: Longman, Green,

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SATIIRDAY, JANUAliv 16, 1864.

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U I might give a short hint to an im in! writer it would he to tell him his fate If he resolved to venture upon t c dandg rous precipice of telling unblasscd truth let him proclaim war with mankin —ncither to give nor to take quarter. If he tells the crimes of great men they fall upon him with the iron liands°f the law; if he tells them of virtues, when they have any, then the mob attacks him with slender. But if he regards truth, lct_hirn expect martyrdom on both

idea, and then he may go on fearless; and this lathe course 1 take myself.— DI Fol.

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M. Thiers has opened the debate on the Address in the French Legislative Body with a most remarkable speech, which charmed every one, even the Imperialists, but which satisfied no one. It was impossible to make opposition smaller or humbler, or to draw out a Petition of Rights in a name less shocking to the authorities. But he spoke some truths which the Bonapartists could not stomach, made concessions that the constitutionalists would not hear of, and hinted others that made the hair stand on the head of the thorough French liberal. M. Thiers, it is evident, can never lead a party in the French Assembly. He is too much tied to his part. He has been a Minister of repression. He is decidedly governmental in the French sense, and all he really demands is, that the Emperor wouldjv varnish over his government with a less transparent coat of I liberalism than that with which it is at present lacquered. '

M. Thiers is, however, directly at variance with the Imperial system on one point. He would have parliament 0. school and a university of politics, on the benches of which aspirants might show their talents, and from which they should be selected by the sovereign, the majority directing the principle of a Government, and providing the instruments to carry it on. This, indeed, was a question which it was idle to argue, for facts and experience have already decided it. The Emperor has tried his own system of government, that is, of an administration independent of parliament and people, and it has signally failed. Baroche and Billault, as well as Fould, were men reared under the old charter of the Orleans dynasty and constitution. They gone, where is the Emperor to find their successors? His own system begets none. It is cfl‘ete. And the Emperor has evidently the intention of changing it. At first his system admitted no minister to be present at the debates of the Chambers, at least no minister with a portfolio. Now he has appointed a Minister of State, supposed to be the chief depositary of the Emperor's secrets, to sit in the Legislative Body, and to answer for the Government. _

How this change has been forced upon the Emperor is pretty evident.- In the first Assembly after 1852 the Opposition had no orators, and the Government speakers had naturally the best of every debate. Of late the contrary has been the case. Had Billault lived, he might have been a match for Thiers; but M. Rouher, his successor, is not. And when the people of France read the Mom'Ieur, they must now see that the Opposition is more eloquent and more liberal than the Government. This would not do for any time. It has already shown its results in Paris, and similar results might appear in the provinces. The return, therefore, to the parliamentary constitutional system is inevitable.

But although M. Rouher is no match for M. Thiers, he still had the advantage over the latter in one kind of argument and the minister certainly pushed that advantage .Wltll felicity andforce. The abstract or theoretic ' superiority of parliamentary government to Imperial absolu- . tism M. Bouhcr faintly disputed. He knew that this was not the field on_ whichtohold the combat. He adroitly passed to a comparison between the practical results of the parlia


mentary system established and at Work under the Orleans dynasty, and the results of the Imperial system since the coronation of Napoleon the Third. What had you donel during the eighteen years of Louis Philippe’s reign, asked Q N. Rouher. You pretended great sympathy for Italy, and ‘ occupied Aucona, which you subsequently evacuated in 1 order to leave Austria mistress of Italy. In contrast with ,l

to all improvement, and never a promoter of it. Your taxation was almost as heavy as ours, yet you did nothing with it, leaving fleet and army so diminished in strength, that France ceased to have a voice potential in the affairs of Europe. The only good thing you ever did was by a trick. You filchcd the Spanish marriages from England, instead of fairly and bravely carrying them by either war or diplomacy.

These were hard hits, in direct reply to which M. Thiers could have said little. He has, however, the great argument that the resources, both financial and military, with which the Emperor has done these great things, were prepared for him by the pacific and constitutional government of Louis Philippe. And, moreover, that pacific and constitutional government educated the statesmen, the functionaries, the diplomatists, and the generals with whom the Emperor has worked. If the Emperor has inaugurated free trade, completed railroads, accomplished vast public works, no doubt despotism gave him power to effect all this without parliamentary control. But the previous free Governments had discussed and examined all these questions, all these projects, and all these laws. The Emperor had but to take them ready drawn up from the portfolios of the functionaries and ministers of the last régims. What he has done he may have done by his own power, but he also has worked with the ideas of those who preceded him. Freedom, though crushed, dies leaving its land full of good seed. Despotism, when it dies, leaves nothing but the ground it has exhausted or the tares and poppies it has sown.


The remonstranco of the Derbyshirc Magistrates has drawn from the Home Office a very becoming reply, in which it is explained that the course of justice was stopped by a certificate of lunacy signed by two medical men and two Justices of Peace, which, in the case of a prisoner under sentence of death or imprisonment, makes his transfer to a lunatic asylum obligatory. Such it seems is the law under a statute of 1840. Any two medical practitioners and any two magistrates of a district, who agree to regard a criminal as insane, are thus supreme over the law of the land. They may do all that the prerogative can do, and in a shorter way, simply by putting their pens to paper. The Home Office is thus exonerated from all blame for the respite of Townley; but charged as it is with the duty of supervising justice, it has clearly been most remiss in suffering so dangerous a law to remain in force, especially as it has not been a dead letter, or slumbered, but has once before been carried into effect The Times observes on the explanation of the Home Secretary:

This statement ought to be sufficient, as we shall presently point out, to remove any feeling of jealousy in regard to the supposed injustice of the proceedings, but it discloses a state of things which ought to be for more startling and alarming to the public mind than the worst suspicions hitherto entertained. A partial administration of justice could in this country only be an accidental and isolated circumstance, and would be sure, if it occurred, to be decisively put a stop to. But the existence of a law so egre iously absurd as this enactment appears to be is far more serious. \ e have always been accustomed to suppose that the prerogative of pard0n rested entirely with the Sovereign; that when a prisoner was once convicted nothing but the Queen‘s mercy, exercised upon the recommendation of the Home Secretary, could save him. But from this statute it would appear that a prisoner under sent/moo of death can at any time be reprieved by more force of a certificate of his insanity, drawn up by two physicians or surgeons of any character or opinions whatever, attested by two justices of the peace of any idiosyncrasies or intelligence whatever. Now, as it has been made abundantly evident, in the course of the discussion on this case, that medical men of high standing may be found who will certify to the existence of insanity in almost any conceivable case of murder, and who, indeed, would be more likely to give the required certificate the worse the murder was, it is certain that the medical security for the due execution of justice in the spirit of the law is worth absolutely nothing. Nor do we s<~e that matters are made much better by the required addition of the signatures of twojustices of the peace. It would be hard if out of the magistrates of a county town two could not be induced, either by a clever lawyer, or by the medical men themselves, or by some crotchet or sentiment, or by some popular cry, to endorse such a certificate. We do not see, for our part, why anybody need be hanged with this loophole to escape by. At all events, we are certain that any clever rascal, by the help of any clever lawyer, might take advantage of the Act.

It is scarcely possible to exhaust the anomaly of such a state of things. . . It has been found dangerous that the authority of a Judgc and jury should be set aside by a Minister acting under the

this, look at our campaign of Solferino and its consequences. I authqrily 01' the Queen; but he" "1° authority, 110only of J "(158 Russia throughout Louis Philippevs reign insulted France , and jury, but of the Queen herself, is set aside by two magistrates

. and two medical practitioners. The Act is said to have been hastil tirnd BhWeithempt 0f the de'StX' The attempt to treat I and inconsideratcly passed in 1840, and it cannot be doubted thayt r8366 Ill t 6 same way under the Emperor 19d t0 the 0813- 1 such a flagrant anomaly will be at once rectified. It is to be hoped,

paign of Sebastppol and the neutralization of the Black Sen, ‘ too, that the attention of Parliament being thus imperatively drawn 1n domestic affairs were you more successful than in to the question, it will Italic the opportunity to lay down some satisforeign? You maintained prohibitions of every kind. Your ‘ factory law for the decision of similar cases for the future.

character and your Government were under the thumb of I A Minister of Justice, whose sole business was justice, the landowner, the large possessor, the manufacturer of i would not have let the public be surprised and scanduliscd all kinds, so that you could not move an inch in the way by the discovery of a dispensing power over justice placed of improvement. You were incapable of making a comwithin reach of any two medical men and any two magismercial treaty with any power. The smallest amelioration ‘ trates. With a proper watch over the interests of justice, of post-oflice, of quarantine, became instantly a mountain the Act of 1840 could never have passed, or, havingl in your way, parliamentary opposition being an obstacle: passed, would have been repealed or amended. It may be


said that any one's liberty may be taken away under a certificate even less guarded than the one in question ; but there are after-checks and remedy for error or abuse in the one case "and none in the present. The respite once granted by force of certificate, the sentence can never be carried into effect, however manifest might subsequently be the sanity of the criminal. It would be, at least, as revolting to hang a man whose execution had been indofinitely stayed as it would be to hang one out of his mind ; and we stop not to inquire how it is that it is thought more cruel to put to death a man out of his senses than one in his senses, but so it seems to be ruled absolutely by the interpreters of public feeling.

It would be little profitable now to discuss the circumstances of Townley’s certificate, alleged to be the result of a foregone conclusion. If the conviction was sincere and grounded, the date of it is of no consequence. But it is too certain that medical fancies are enlarging more and more the definition of insanity, and the enlargement that embraces crime, and gives it impunity, will inevitably be made to embrace also cases of private conduct. We cannot shut our eyes to the fact that the interest and the practice are in the exactest correspondence. The men who make lunacy their specialty are always industriously at work extending the net, adding new meshes, and taking in more and more of their quarry. It is a steady aggrandizement of the arbitrary realm of insanity.

Let us for a moment suppose a law relating to bodily health like that of mental health. Suppose that upon certificate any one could be laid hold of, carried to a hospital, or licensed place of cure, and dosed and regimened. Would not every trifling symptom be treated as proof of serious disease? Would not the definition of health be strained higher and higher, that of disease more and more enlarged, till it would seem difficult to find any one answering the description of tho hale and hearty?

The Mad Doctors have this peculiar privilege, that they lay down the law for making their patients. If other doctors could do the same by bodily health, what would become of us? The streets would be thin, the hospitals overflowing, and half the population confined for falling short of a gigantic standard of health. It is high time that the crotchets of the lunacy-mongers should be checked as dangerous, and all proceeding in the direction of the professional interests to the multiplication of patients.

With the whole case now before us, it is clear that the first error was Mr. Baron Martin’s request for inquiry. Quad queen's habes. The trial over which he presided was all the inquiry fitting and necessary. But the judge was stagger by the confidence of Dr. Winslow's opinion. Why if there had been a question about the matter Dr. Winslow would have declared Baron Martin mad. We are all mad according to his strained standard of reason, and large definition of insanity. But no harm would have followed if the matter had rested with the inquiry of the Lunacy Commissioners, and the judgment on their able report. They found Townley not indeed of sound mind, but coherent in his reasoning, and understanding all involved in a train of reasoning upon preposteroust false premisscs, and they conclude thus to the point.

Being of opinion, therefore, that the prisoner continues to be now in the same mental state as when he committed the murder and underwent his trial we think that, applying the law as laid down by Mr Baron Martin to this case, the prisoner, George Townley, was justly convicted.

Upon this report there could be but one judgment, but meanwhile the certificate was signed which paralysed justice. Four gentlemen had formed an inquisition, and come to a conclusion which nullified the verdict and sentence of a criminal Court, and gave impunity to murder. It matters not how they did this. What concerns the public is that there should be no such power, or at least no such power in hands of such uncertain fitness. The medical profession is the very largest, and has extremes of the very highest and very lowest qualification and character. The magistracy, too, is a large body, for the most part highly respectable and trustworthy, but having its weak members. Out of these two bodies in every county it can never be difficult to pick two of each who would take a wrong-headed, crochety view of any question of sanity involving life and death. Mark how such a question acts upon the best minds, and then judge of its operations on the worse. If Baron Martin was staggered by the extravagant doctrines of Dr. Winslow, can we wonder then if magistrates with less reason for self-reliance are swayed by the nearest medical authority always bcsctting them, and alleging their intimate, knowledge of the particular case? There should be no such power as that so incomprehensibly created by the Act of 1840, or it should be vested where there are qualifications and character of the highest order for its safe exercise.

As we have said before, in this particular instance we think little of the charge of foregone conclusion; for if the gentlemen who signed the certificate really thought Townley insane, they could not suffer him to go to execution because they had formed a strong opinion that he


ought not to be executed. They were not to let the man die waiting an uuprejudiced opinion on his case. The whole mischief lies in the monstrous law of 1840, an arbitrary dispensing power placed within the reach of some hundred thousand hands, good, bad, and indifferent, nay, some few possibly corrupt.


Que diable alloitdl faire dans cette galore P—Il no songeoit pas a ce qui est arrivé.-—Captaiu Osborne thought he thoroughly understood the Chinese and their perfidy, but he did not. Hence he let himself out to the Emperor to fight his rebels, upon conditions (wanting nothing but validity) which would have given him freedom to act with the greatest efficiency, and at the same time secured him against being made the instrument of any barbarity. For these objects it was agreed between the Inspector-General, Lay, who had the management of the affair upon the part of the Chinese Government, and Captain Osborne, that Osborne should be the Commander-in-Chief of the European Chinese navy acting under orders from the Emperor through the Inspector-General, and no others. On these and other understood conditions he equipped and went out with a flotilla to China, where he found such terms proposed as left him no alternative but to break off and return home with his squadron. In a Word, he had gone on a fool’s errand, and comes back with his fingers in his mouth, saying, “ Who’d have thought it P ” But he ought to have thought it, for he professes to know these people, and that not the slightest dependence is to be placed on their engagements. Indeed, for the memorandum of agreement between Inspector Lay and Captain Osborne, it is set forth by them that

We have to deal with Asiatics prone to deceit and falsehood, ready to evade any engagement, directly it interferes with their views or momentary interests. \Ye are about to afford them material military aid, and it behaves us to guard against its being misapplied, and thereby bring scandal upon ourselves and those who in Great Britain have promoted our views; above all we are to take care that the great power and proportionate responsibilities conferred upon us by her Majesty’s Order in Council be not abused by us, by our successors, or by the Chinese authorities.

But here is the foolish inconsistency that, while they knew that no faith was to be expected, they were proposing conditions worthless without faith. Indeed these two gentlemen, so knowing in Chinese affairs, were reckoning on impossibilities—and after all, the Chinese Government was not more, but less false than might have been expected. It did not promise all that was asked, and fulfil nothing. It did not get the flotilla into its service against the rebels, and then break all its engagements. It did at once what with even worse faith it might have done at lost. It made none of its easy false premises. It proposed to place Captain Osborne under its Chinese Commander-in-Chief, and three Governors of Provinces, and so passively was he to be under these authorities or their deputies as not to be able to stir hand or foot—-“ to act, advance, retire, or “ remain stationary,” without conferring with these dignitaries, and accepting their decisions as final.

Captain Osborne very properly refused to be placed in such thraldom under the pretence of a command, but his reasoning for the expectation of a better treatment seems to us of the sort called reckoning without the host:

To the argument advanced by the Chinese F oreign-oflioe “ that the course proposed by Prince Kong is ausual one in Chins," I reply I did not come here, or my followers either, to accustom ourselves to the treatment usual with Chinese sailors or soldiers, or to assist them in s retrogressive policy in the treatment of European employés or Europeans in general. The employment of ships of war and war steamers of Euro an construction is an innovation, that of European officers and gen amen still more so. I and my force are part and parcel of a new order oft/rings indicating “ progress in China." I will be no party to her lapsing back into her ancient system and treating Europeans as if they were Cbinamen.

And because he and his forces as he would have commanded them would have indicated, and to some extent, realized progress in China, he and his flotilla were sent home. It is the old story of the devil sick. The rebellion is a chronic trouble to the Chinese Government, but the suppression of it by an English force acknowledging no directing authority but the Emperor's, doubtless seemed a remedy worse than the disease.

And looking at the matter from Prince Kong's point of view, we can hardly be surprised at his preferring known to unknown evils. He was warned, we may be sure, that the people strong enough to put down the rebellion which the Government could not quell, would be strong enough by a parity of reasoning to cope with the Government itself; and that it was the way of the English in the East, to come in as auxiliaries and to remain as conquerors and masters. And it cannot be denied that our antecedents warrant this jealousy. We may know better and do better now, but in these matters we have a character to retrieVe which requires time. And how should we like to see a French auxiliary force engaged in this intestine Chinese strife. Should we not have our misgivings of the turn such an intervention might take?

All’s well that ends well, and glad we are that no more English hands are to be lent to the uses of the barbarous Government of China. The treatment of those still in this faithless service is thus described by Captain Osborne :

Foutai L6 is an able Chinaman, and as unprincipled as all Chinese officials. his plan would be to render me powerless, and then to use or toss mo aside, just as he does all European leaders in his force. 119 is a civilian by education, ruling over military and naval affairs Without the slig test knowledge of either. He iss uandering the

revenue of the province as well as that derived from uropean trade,


and is in league with an rinci led traders in Shanghai. Although he can procure from the ritis stores all such military supplies as he can require, he is encouraging the import of munitions of war by private firms, and granting permits to land the same in spite of all our proclamations against the importation by foreigners of goods contraband of war. Having secured the services of an excellent officer in Major Gordon, who appears to have entered his service, not that of the Emperor of China (for he holds no authority from the latter), Foutai L6 proceeds to render him powerless, and to hamper his action in two ways—first, by depriving him of the means to carry out any decisive measures; and next, by placing in exact] similar positions a number of other Europeans, and laying one 0 against the other. Major Gordon wishes to attack gouchow-foo, and asks for 100 Europeans. The Foutai agrees, but says the 100 men must only be entered for one month. Gordon declines to enter into any such arrangement, seeing its injustice and folly. The Foutai insults him by questioning his desire to fight the rebels, and proposes that the assaulting column shall be formed of all the European ofiicers in his employ, and that over their bodies the Chinese would advance to victory.

Again, what faith can I have in any mandarin’s listening to my advice as a subordinate, when I am told by General Brown, Commander-in-Chief of our military forces in China, and the superior of the Foutai, that he will listen to no advice or suggestion the General offers; that he purposely avoids all conference with him; and when an interview is sought by General Brown insolently replies that he is too busy to see him ? and be it remembered that Foutai Lé is not a bit more unreasonable than other mandarins, and that hois an aVerage specimen of his class.

Yet, knowing the incorrigible fatuity and faithlcssness of this conceited people, Captain Osborne would have entered their service, relying upon engagements, pretext for breaking which would full surely never be wanting. With the pretensions of knowinguess there is a simplicity in this conduct absolutely ludicrous.

The wisdom of our Government does not shine in the license it gave for this expedition against all sound international principle, and not less against long experience, which teaches the utmost distrust of all Chinese engagements.


The verdict of the Court-Martial on Colonel Crawley is approved, and Colonel Crawley is reinstated in the command of the Inniskilling Dragoons, with this gentle hint for the improvement of his conduct :

His Royal llighuess trusts that he will prove by tact and judgment in the performance of his duties that he appreciates the importance of his position as a commanding officer, and that the painful experience of the past has not been lost upon him.

For it is only by a happy combination of temper, judgment, and discretion, united with firmness, that the command ofa regiment can be properly conducted, and the more difficult the elements with which a commanding officer may have to deal the more requisite is it for him to possess and exercise these qualifications for command.

As Terence says, Haoc conmwmoratio quasi cxprobati'o est.

The Commander-in-Chief proceeds to deal more plainly and unspariugly with the conduct of Major Swindley, Sergeant Turnbull, and Adjutant Fitz Simon, whose evidence he pronounces evasive, hesitating, and unsatisfactory. All of these gentlemen are to be removed from the regiment. That me be a necessary step in the circumstances, but we confess t at we do not like to see it placed in the order of a punishment consequent on the evidence they gave before the Court-Martial. Evidence ought to be privileged, and if witnesses for a prosecution know that they have to apprehend reprimand and punishment for the manner or substance of testimony, they will suppress or qualify what they might otherwise fully and boldly state, and the interests of truth and justice must accordingly suffer.

A witness should not be made to feel that he is on his trial without the opportunity of defence, and that the ruin of his professional prospects may depend on the construction put on his evidence, the animus attributed to it. N o usage can justify a practice contrary to the first principles of justice.

And how one-sided is this animadversion. If the prosecution is open to censure, so, too, should be the defence, and the Commander-in-Chief might have made his observations on Colonel Crawley’s affront to the Court, which he charged with playing fast and loose with principles; and on his insult to Mr Smales, glanced at as an habitual liar. These and other outbreaks betrayed the temper and character of the man, and might as properly or improperly have been made matter of animadversion as the manner of the evidence of Messrs Swindley, Turnbull, and Fitz Simon.

His Royal Highness dcplores the alteration in the Inniskillings, but he has touched upon the cause of it in reciting the qualities and demeanour requisite in a commanding officer. It is because that “ happy combination" was wanting that the regiment fell into discord and insubordination. What it will be henceforth it is not difficult to conjecture, and certainly no good soldier of Lilley’s class will be disposed to serve in it. Truly, says the Duke, without discipline an army is worse than useless, but the question is, how discipline is to be maintained in an army whose laws do not protect its soldiers against wrongs, and in which such a case as Lilley's remains unpunished, a scandal to the service, and deterring the better sort of men from entering it.

The Commander-in-Chief retracts a censure he had passed on Sir H. Rose in a way which implies that there was foundation for the statement that Lilley drank to excess. There is no proof to that effect. All that is proved is that he drank some brandy, probably more than was good for him, as ho was of a full habit, and little might be too much, but to this he was probably driven by his unmerited, illegal, and cruel imprisonment in the heat of a tropical summer.

We hell have an opportunity before long of returning to this case, so here we step.

For the first time in an official document we see this


word “defiant” used. It is of the mintage of the penny romances, and unknown to the English language. There is the verb to defy, and the substantives defy (obsolete), and defiance, but no such word as defiant. The writers of the sensation school probably borrowed it from the French def/Font without understanding the French, and attributing to the word the sense of defyingly instead of distrustingly. And so it is that our language gets corrupted from the basest, the most illiterate sources.


The bars mention of the names of these places shows the wide expansion of the interestsin which, wisely or unwisely, we are concerned, for Peshawar and Japan are, at least, 6,000 miles from each other, and 13,000 from England. We have but a few words to say of either of these wars, for they are not of any great importance. Let us begin with the first named. Peshawar we believe is a Persian word, signifying the advanced post, that is, the first place occupied by the Northern nations in their invasion of India. The whole North-western frontier of India in bounded by a. broad chain of mountains, with several passes through it, long, narrow, intricate, and difficult. This chain contains many small valleys, and these are inhabited by a rude, warlike, and indigenous race, fanatical because they are Mahomedans, for without Mahomedanisrn there is no fanaticism in the East. These men have been the sure enemies of all who pass through their fastnesses. They opposed Alexander, and Timur, and Baber, in their invasion of India, and they opposed ourselves when going to Cabul and returning from it. The valleysin question are inhabited by a people who have taken the general name of Eusofzees (better written Yusofzis) meaning sons of Joseph, but notwithstanding this common designation, assumed, no doubt, only since their conversion to Mahomedanism, they are divided into several independent tribes. It would appear from a well-written letter in the Times dated from Peshawur, that during the last fifty years the Eusofzces have been joined by a considerable number of settlers from Northern India, and since the mutiny in 1857 by mutincer sepoys. These parties had established themselves in the valley of Sitana, at a town called Mulks. Here was the den of thieves from which issued the parties that levied black mail on our territories, and against which our military operations were directed. The force consisted of 6,000 soldiers, which besides " much cattle” would imply a host—including servants, drivers, and camp-followers—of some 60,000, a number that we may easily believe was not easily maintained in a poor country with a hostile population.

The force commenced its march in the middle of October and returned in the middle of December, having had two engagements with the enemy. They destroyed the robbers’ haunt, and lost in killed and wounded 600 men and thirty-five officers. In the conduct of the expedition there appears to have been a diplomatic mistake. As soon as our force had entered the mountain country, it attacked the tribes indiscriminately, instead of confining itself to the peccant party. As soon as a more sagacious and betterinformcd political agent presented himself, the mistake was corrected, and the principal tribe, coming over to us, assisted in the punishment of the marauders. What surprises us is the extent of the force employed. We should have thought that one-third of the number ought to have suflioed, and would surely have been far more easily fed and handled. It was at least equal in number, and far superior in material, to the armies with which Clive, Wellington, and others have gained great and decisive battles.

Such little wars as that now terminated may be expected to occur now and then for a long series of years to come, for in India, besides its principal more civilised nations, there exist, exclusive of mountaineers on our frontiers, a considerable number of half savages, protected by forests and hill fastnesses, ready to commit raids on the peaceful plains for any real or imag'nary injury. Thus we have had wars with the 6011 s of Central India, men who had their yearly human sacrifices to bless the earth with fertility; we had a war with the Sontals, a people of whom no one at a distance had heard until we were at war with them. Such also was the case with the mountaineers of Assam and Cachar, whose incursions we had hardly put an end to when we are assailed by the Eusofzees at the distance of some 2,000 miles. But such petty wars, although troublesome and rather costly, in no manner involve the stability of our empire.

As to our quarrel with the Japanese, that certainly promised for a moment to be formidable, but it too has been brought to an end, and for the present, at least, there is no prospect of a war with Japan, although we must expect from time to time to have threats of war from the dissatisfaction of the feudatory Princes at our presence. Even they, we have no doubt, may come to be couciliated, when, through the prosperity of trade, they share their custom duties and get better prices for the produce of their estates. For the present they are wretched conservatives in matters of trade; but in time they will come, no doubt, to their senses, like others of the same class of thinkers nearer home. As to the punishment of the Prince of Satsuma, we confess that we ourselves could, from the beginning, see nothing amiss about it, unless, indeed, that the tone of those who inflicted it was somewhat too exultant. Even the Prince himself seems to have come to this conclusion, for he admits that he struck the first blow, has engaged to pay the indemnity for the murder of Mr Richardson, and agrees to use his best endeavours to discover and punish the assassins. All that remains for us to do is to conduct ourselves with forbearance, justice, and firmness towards the Japanese. There must be no encroachment on their sovereignty, and above all no cessiou of territory demanded. The rest must be left to time and to the humunising influences of trade. That trade is already respectable. This year, for example, the Japanese are expected to export 30,000 bales of raw silk, which is about fifteenfold the quantity furnished by China forty years ago, and the tea which they new expert has advanced from nothing until it exceeds in quantity all that our own Indian territories supply—tho fruit of thirty years’ ex— ertions. The estimated population of Japan is hardly onetwelfth part of that of China, but its trade is, even now in its infancy, far greater in proportion to the number of its inhabitants, although but the growth of five short years. That is a trade which, while it is equally beneficial to the Japanese and ourselves, must not be lightly surrendered.


Whilst the embers of national strife and popular rivalry are with difficulty kept from bursting into flame upon the Eider, we are threatened with another little war in the opposite corner of Europe. The Parliament of MoldoIVallachia has voted the resumption by the State of the property possessed by foreign (Greek) monks, these having refused to pay any dues to the State, or enter into a compromise or negotiation with it.

We may defer entering into the merits of the case; but meanwhile beg to say, that diplomacy is worth very little, if its mission be to provoke wars, instead of preventing them. Surely it can prevent any such outbreak between Turks and Christians, if it would be as fair to one as to the other, and act as the real high-minded arbiter and umpire, instead of making itself a party in every cause, and seeking to set Turk against Christian, and Christian against Turk.

The whole matter in dispute is property not worth more than from a quarter to half a million sterling, or rather the rent or interest that may be supposed to accrue from such a sum. Is this worth setting the East in a, flame for? The Imperial Congress of Paris invented no other way of enforcing its pleasure in the Principalities than that of a Turkish occupation. In this the said Congress quite lost sight of the gradual change which has taken place in those countries. Formerly a Turkish occupation was humiliating and bad enough ; now that the Christian races have enjoyed the management of their own affairs, it would be intolerable, so intolerable that it would not he suffered. The entrance of Turkish soldiers into the guaranteed Christian provinces would prove merely the signal for the inhabitants of them to rise in resistance. It Would be easy to provoke such a beginning of war, but where would the end he to be seen?

The most mistaken policy in the world is that which prevails at present, which irritates and excites enmity between the Christian provinces and Turkey, and which encourages the Sultan to keep up a large army, at the very time when he really does not want one. There is no European Power now menacing Turkey. Russia has enough to think of at home, so have all other Powers. Yet this is the moment at which Turkey is invited to keep up a large army. A morning contemporary said the other day that the Ports would have been in great peril if it had not crushed Montenegro, and that it would never be out of peril till it treated Servia and Moldo“'allachia in the same way. What absurdity is this,--tc hope to strengthen Turkey by placing her in continued enmity with her Christian provinces and populations!

The present is a period of peace which may not always last. And a true friend of Turkey ought to counsel her to reduce military expenditure and live at peace with her Christian subjects, in order to be the better prepared for the time when that country may be seriously threatened by its true enemy—Russia. Instead of this, the Sultan is prompted by his own inconsiderate ardour and idle jealousies to quarrel with petty princes, who desire no better than to be fairly treated and to live at peace with him.

One has but to look at the Turkish Budget in order to see the result of such insane policy. That Budget consists nominally of fifteen millions sterling, of which fifteen there are but ten absolutely to be reckoned on. Of this, the interest of the national debt takes four millions sterling; whilst army and navy, military expenses in fact, absorb five and a half millions. The rest is allotted to the expenses of the civil government and those of the Sultan. The Sultan, however, takes his share, and more than his share, and the civil servants and administration get nothing. Their dues are always in arrears, and the greater part of them must rob to live. The payment of the troops themselves is in arrear also. And all these exigencies are met by the facility of extraordinary credits, or by issuing those treasury bills which it required a loan the other day to buy in or to reduce.

The British public is interested financially and politically in the wise and honest conduct of Turkish affairs. But somehow or another the Sultan has advisers who drive him into a course which must end by ruining his empire and leaving his creditors to look for themselves. Here, for example, is a war threatened with a Christian province; coercion, occupation not to be achieved or attempted without an expense infinitely greater than the sums that were claimed or forbidden to be alienated. There is not it

shadow of right, or of policy, or of common sense in the affair. And yet English writers are found ready to cheer on the Turks to this military crusade against the Christians, which must prove the ruin of both; for certainly the Mussulmanswill not be the least sufferers by such a struggle.


It must be confessed that the coincidence of these two cases in point of time, and their startling divergence as regards results, have imprinted a deep stain on our practical administration of justice, as distinguished from its theory, so frequently and vauntingly held up for admiration and imitation. Townley was found guilty, not only on his own ferocious and reasoning avowal, but on the clearest evidence, of having murdered his helpless and unresisting victim, under circumstances of premeditation and armed preparation, which would really make the case a sample for a text-book, as showing all the ingredients necessary to satisfy the old phrase in the indictment, “ of " malice aforethought.” That at the time of the murder, and of the trial, ay and at the present moment, he was and is as sane as the judge before whom he was tried, or the twelve men who declared him guilty, no one can entertain a doubt, except indeed the “ Mad Doctors,"— childish and insane themselves on their favourite theme,— or except those who think that the punishment of death cannot lawfully be inflicted, even on a murderer, and who therefore catch at the plea of insanity, though with nothing but the deadly act itself to support it, as a sort of pious fraud, to prevent another life being taken. Wright, on the contrary, was convicted on his general plea of Guilty, evidence having been considered unnecessary after that plea, of having put to death a woman of violent and intemperate habits, capable of resistance and even of aggression, not with premeditation, but in a fit of anger at being suddenly woke up from his sleep by the woman herself,— with what degree of violence or circumstances of provocation does not distinctly appear. Of the two mur erers, therefore, Townley’s guilt is by many shades of a blacker hue. Well, the greater criminal, by means of an absurd act of parliament, almost unknown and unheard of, but which the murderer’s command of means enabled his agents to ferret out, is provided with a comfortable home for the rest of his days at the public expense; the lesser offender was hanged last Tuesday. The contrast, both between the circumstances and consequences of the two cases is, to say the very least of it, most unfortunate, and goes far to justify the indignant exclamations of the crowd assembled at the execution, that if Townley’s life was to be spared, Wright was judicially murdered.

But there is one point of view, in which the proceedings in Wright’s case seem to require some further comment. In ordinary accusations of crimes and misdemeanors the plea of guilty may, with some few exceptions, be safely recorded and acted upon. Indeed, we have often had occasion to regret and condemn the morbid reluctance, which judges and magistrates have shown in receiving this plea. or admission of guilt. But in a case of murder there is this material difference, that though the deed of death may he confessed, it often becomes a question of great nicety, whether that deed amounts to the full crime of murder, or may reasonably be reduced to that of manslaughter. We cannot, therefore, but. consider it a matter of deep regret, that Mr Justice Blackburn did not direct a plea of Not Guilty to be recorded, and the evidence to be gone into, so as to give the opportunity for any circumstances of mitigation to appear. The prisoner, it is true, repeatedly and pertinaciously avowed himself guilty. That is, he avowed that he had killed the woman. But he did not, he scarcely could declare himself guilty of murder in the legal sense of the word ; because no one, not versed in the administration of our criminal law, would be able to decide what is murder, what mauslaughter. Nor would the depositions, which no doubt the learned judge had carefully perused, be decisive on this point. Every one, accustomed to preside or practise in a criminal court, knows how often a single question and answer on cross-examination will alter the whole complexion of a case, from that which presented itself on the ex parte examinations before the magistrate. In the present instance, if the evidence had been gone into, who shall say that some question put by the judge himself, acting according to the humane maxim as counsel for the prisoner, or suggested by the sagacity of the jury anxious to arrive at the whole and exact truth, might not have brought to light some act of violence or aggression on the part of the unhappy woman, heard by the neighbours, though unnoticed by the prisoner in the confusion and irritation of his half-awakened faculties, or forgotten by him since in the conflict of remorse for his crime and terror of its punishment. We remember no instance in latter times of a person sentenced and executed for murder on his plea of Guilty, and we sincerely hope we may not witness another.

Under the present Secretary for Home Affairs the rigour of the law and the clemency of the Crown have both been made to the last degree offensive to public feeling. He is not indeed to blame for Townley’s escape from condign punishment, but when he declined to listen to intercessions on behalf of Wright, professing himself bound to let the law take its course, the Judge seeing no reason to the contrary,wc could not but remember the deviation from that course in the instance of that most wicked murderer M‘Laughlin. The judge in that case, as in Wright’s, saw


110 reason why the sentence should be reconsidered, or

disturbed, but there was a element in Glasgow, and it was said the sentence could not be carried into effect without three regiments to enforce it, and prevent a rescue. For Wright the appeals for mercy were not so backed, for the mob of London is more obedient to law, but Wright's execution is the first for many years revolting to the popular, we may say, the general feeling. And to say the least, that is a very ugly fact, for thus “bad begins and “ worse remains behind.”



Most cordially do we join in the chorus of congratulation which is still resounding through the country, on the late addition to the Royal Family, and, we trust, to the comfort and happiness of the Queen. But with equal heartiness do we en ter our protest against the bad language in which this auspicious event has been promulgated. The first announcement, indeed, which we read in the Times, told us very becomingly that the Princess had been “delivered ” of a fine boy. But to this was sub'oincd a bulletin, signed by on M.D. and a surgeon, acquamting us that her Royal Highness was “ confined of a Prince." Did ever mortal Englishman, educated or uneducated, hear of such an expression? We would defy Mrs Slipslop herself to beat it; and sure we are that the famous Dr Slop, who ushered Mr Shandy's son and heir into the world, would have been heartily ashamed of it. Was the word “dclivered” repudiated as not sufficiently refined for these gentlemen? And yet what expression can be more appropriate, suggestive at once of safety, and of the thankfulness due for the escape from danger? We always ask ourselves, when reading the fantastic details of the Court movements, what must foreigners think of us? And in the present instance, we blush to imagine the comments on the English reading public who tolerate such trash, which must be made by the many strangers to our soil who yet are critically conversant with the English tongue. Common sense, grammar, and the real signification of words are all set at nought, in the wretched attempt to appear above using the ordinary decent phraseology of our own full and forcible language. Then again, all subsequent notices of the subject are headed “Acmu-chcmcut of the Princess." This is theold story, on which we have heretofore commented, of affecting to consider the event too indelicate to be mentioned in English, and therefore taking refuge in a foreign tongue; as if, admitting any indelicsoy to exist, except in the prurient mind of the would-be cuphcmist, the idea could be purified and refined, by clothing it in French !— It is sickening.


Upon all railways there is one grand rule for safety. If a train be brought to a stand, or dashed to atoms, the guard is to go back five hundred yards, with a lamp if by night or a red flag if by day, to warn any following train of the obstruction in its path, and cause it to step. It is by relying implicitly upon this precaution that companies are enabled to dispatch trains at intervals of five minutes or less. Wood and iron at best are fallible, axles break, tyres fly, rails get displaced; so a breakdown, or worse, is always amongst the possibilities, and thus an obstruction may be in the way of a following train a couple of miles off rushing on at the rate of forty miles an hour. But. what matters it? Is there not the guard with his instructions to go back five hundred yards to prevent mischief? And the nature of a railway guard must now be considered. Nothing can hurt the railway guard. To say he is imperishable is to say little of his properties. He is unalterable, unharmable, always in possession of all his faculties, mental and bodily. He is never shaken, never stunned, never in any way incapacitated for anything he is expected to do. He is like Ilorace’s hero, justum et tenaccm proposifi, and the ruins of a smashed train strike him impavidmn and self-possessed. He may have been banged about as if a shuttlecock between the battledores of two Brobdingnag giants, but he is not a jet the less fit to gird up his loins to run back five hundred yards and stop the coming train. And in this errand he never sprains an ankle, never stumbles against a stonehnevcr makes a false step; for if he were liable to such accidents, or to any others great or little, trains would not be run one on the heels of another, in the comfortable belief that the guard’s activity would always, in the event of a stoppage, prevent collision.

Assume for a moment that the railway guard may be like other creatures of flesh and blood; that in a sudden stoppage he may be stunned by a blow on the head, or lamed by one on the leg, or blinded by one on the eyes, or any other disabling casualty; and the single security is gone, upon which are built all the arrangements of the road for the despatch of trains. You are in a train followmg another at a short interval; in the event of a break down of that train from any of the many possible causes, your life depends on the charmed life and indestructible activity of the guard of the preceding train. If he be no more than mortal, if he may be disabled in any way, stunned or crippled, you may in a couple of minutes be pounded to a mummy or maimed for life. You have been placed where you are, rushing along on the heels of another train 1n the reliance that the guard of the train before you Will always be able to run back five hundred yards if any accident should happen. If it should unfortunately he proved that


railway guards are mere flesh and blood, sud not more

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