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16, 1864. proof against injury than iron, the whole system of rail- subject. How the private soldiers regard it I cannot tell, as army is allowed to plead ignorance of the Articles of War. way management as regards the despatch of trains is to it would be obviously improper for me to converse with them No man in the army, from the youngest drummer up to the the last degree imprudent, and must undergo a change. on such a subject, but from my own experience as a private oldest general, can possibly be ignorant of the Articles of War.

Unhappily, a remarkable instance of the fallibility of and a sergeant I can testify that there is an almost universal Colonel Crawley knew that every day past the eighth that he reliance upon guards, as always having their activity of body feeling in the ranks

that it is worse than useless to complain kept these men in arrest he was committing an illegal act. and mind available, has just occurred upon the Midland

of wrong suffered from a superior, or expect redress for in. Major-General Farrell knew that, when be knowingly perRailway:

justice received at his hand; and this conviction acting upon mitted an officer under his command to keep these men im.

the uneducated portion of the army—some of them men of prisoned he was an accomplice in an illegal action. General On Saturday night, between the Masborough and Kilnburst reckless character and violent temper-often leads them to Mansfield knew that when he decided these men had done stations, as a coal train was passing the Rawmarsh station, one of the take the law in their own hands, and in revenge for some real nothing contrary to military law, but nevertheless ordered rods connected with the engine broke and the train quickly came to or fancied wrong be guilty of outrages upon their officers them to be kept in confinement for an indefinite period, he a standstill. A goods train from King's cross to Loeds, which closely which shock and excite the public

mind for a time, and then was committing a deliberate breach of the law; and the climax followed, was also stopped. The guard of the latter train immediately pass away and are forgotten ; while the same feeling on the of all this illegality was reached when Şir Hugh Rose, the went back to signal other trains and prevent collision. Nothing, bow. part of the steady and reflecting soldier not only makes him Commander of the Indian army, in his lengthened remarks ever, was seen of bim by the driver of the next train, which was also leave the army as soon as he legitimately can, but is also

the on Paymaster Smales' Court-Martial, sympathised with the a goods train from Camden to Leeds, and it was with difficulty the cause of his using his influence to prevent young

men in whom hardships

Colonel Crawley suffered in wanting facilities to was then nearly due at that place, the guard of the Camden train he is interested

from entering a service where they run such cook his breakfast, but had not a word of sympathy or rebuko hastened back to order the danger signals to be put on. a risk and are exposed to such contingencies.

for the suffering of men so illegally imprisoned, but went out proceeded far before he stumbled against something, and, on looking, Lieut.-Col. Crawley has been honourably acquitted by the of his way to blacken the character and tarnish the memory was borrified at seeing a human foot and a quantity of brains. Court-Martial, and is entitled to the benefit of their decision ; of a brave man, whose melancholy and untimely death might Blood was scattered in all directions, and fully fifty yards further on and we are therefore bound to believe that, in carrying

out have secured his silence, if it could

not excite his sympathy. he found the frightfully, mangled corpse of the unfortunate guard. close arrest, by placing a sentry with orders not to lose sight And thus

we have the singular spectacle of officers of the He was so overcome by the sickening sight which presented itself, that he of the prisoner by night or day, he was acting in accordance highest rank trampling on the law, and treating with con, appears to have forgotten his object in going down the line, and the with the rules of the service, and that, in ordering a sentry tempt those articles they apply so severely to others; but it express train passed him at full speed, unchecked. The night was with such instructions to be placed over a married man with must be edifying to privates and non-commissioned officers, to train the driver of the express saw nothing before him. He with his a dying

wife, the annoyance and suffering the poor woman whom

the Articles of War are held up as something sacred, stoker bad barely time to leap off before his engine

dashed into the must have borne

are to be blamed on the adjutant who obeyed and on whom their slightest infringement brings down severe goods train with fearful violence. Several of the hinder waggons of the order, and not on the commanding-officer who gave it. punishment, to see how coolly they are ignored and delibethe goods train were smashed in pieces ; but the most extraordinary Such is the judgment of the Court, and Colonel Crawley rately disregarded by their highest superiors when the feature of the collision is that the engine of the express was un- comes forth unscathed from the ordeal

. So be it. I will not colonel of a regiment inflicts an illegal punishment upon damaged, and the passengers escaped with no other injury than a discuss the common sense or humanity of a code which sanc- three sergeants who have somehow or other incurred his violent shaking. Intelligence of the catastrophe was quickly con- tions such a decision ; but assuming that the imprisonment displeasure. veyed to Masborough, and the station-master, Mr Turner, with a was carried out in a perfectly lawful manner, I would call Up to this point the military authorities are not to blame. staff of assistants, proceeded to the place. The unfortunato guard, attention to the imprisonment itself, pure and simple, and Under the best system men will be found who abuse their whose name was Atha, and who belouged to Leeds, was first sought which as a soldier I have always felt was, in as far as justice power and disregard the law; and when those in authority taken the line he was on, and that he had been cut to pieces by the important question of the two. for. From the darkness of the night it was supposed he had mis- and the discipline of the service were concerned, the most call them to account for their injustice, they do all we can down London express which bad passed.

It is quite natural that expect, and are blameless. But so far as known, the Horse

civilians should be most attracted by the first, for that a Guards have not reproved, and certainly have not punished, Here were trains all following in quick succession, and man whom it was impossible to charge with any offence, and the authors of this offence. That an offence had been com two guards, one immediately after the other, set about the whom it was never intended to bring to trial, should be kept mitted was undeniablo; but that Colonels, Generals, and appointed duty of giving warning of the stoppage, but in close imprisonment for a term of weeks appears in civil Commander-in-Chief should be brought to book because both failed, the one poor fellow having been killed on his life something so monstrous and incredible that you can three sergeants had been imprisoned in defiance of law and way, the other disabled by the horrible sight of his hardly believe it. And while the pablic feeling would be justice was repugnant to the official mind. Still Parliament comrade's mangled remains. Could railway directors have readily moved by an imprisonment carried out in a cruel or had taken the matter up, and the public opinion was roused, conceived such a cause of non-fulfilment of duty ? They

irregular manner, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred the and something must be done. So we had the expensive sham have as yet assumed that in no conceivable event would legality

of the imprisonment

would be taken for granted, and of a Court-Martial, and the most insignificant of the offenders guards be unable to go back five hundred yards to signal a a man who has been guilty of no legal offence, and whom it ing might

mystify, and the professional sympathy of his judges pass unquestioned; but it will be allowed that to imprison tried on the minor charge, which it was hoped special pleadstoppage, but here we find one killed on the errand and is never intended to bring to trial, is a more serious offence excuse; while the major offence, committed in a manner that another mentally incapacitated by the shock of seeing the against law and order than to deal somewhat harshly with a no evidence could overturn and no sophistry explain away, mangled remains. And so breaks down the main reliance man whose imprisonment is quito legal and in due course was carefully excluded from the investigation; and now upon which lives are risked in running trains at short of law.

Colonel Crawley, honourably acquitted, can return to his intervals. But the practice will continue till some terrible Viewed in this light, how are we to regard the late occur-command with the sure conviction that he may carry out tragedy

occurs from it, such as was so narrowly escaped in rences in the Enniskilling Dragoons ? What are the facts ? close arrest after his own fashion with perfect impunity this very instance.

I do not allude to floating rumours and exaggerated reports, The Horse Guards occasionally publish circulars notifying but to the fucts as we can gather them from the sworn eri-rewards for good conduct as an encouragement to the deserving dence, from official documents, and letters authenticated by and well-conducted soldier. Trials such as Colonel Crawley's the signatures of those who wrote them. Colonel Crawley let us sometimes see what these rewards too often practically

placed three sergeants under arrest. Their imprisonment was amount to. Sergeant-Major Lilley, after long years of serCorrespondence.

of the most stringent character. No communication allowed vice, had reached a position beyond which those who enter

outside the prison ; sentries over them by night and day, the British army by the ranks rarely ascend; and if anyo THE ALDERSHOTT INQUIRY.

they saw none but the military officials and their own ser. thing can console his friends for the untimely fate of their

vants, who were searched at every visit. One would suppose relative, it must be the honourable testimony so universally WHO IS TO BLAME?

that men so rigorously guarded must not only be accused of borne by all ranks, from the private to the colonel, to his Sir,--Such is the question mooted in the Times, under the serious offences, but also that the 'proofs of their guilt were merit as a soldier and his character as a man ; for it is estawell-known initials of " J. O." The answer is so simple

, so abundant that their commanding-officer could bave no blished as clearly as anything can be proved by evidence that that it is difficult to believe that the question emanates from doubt of obtaining a conviction, and would lose no time in Lilley

was a steady, well-behaved man, sober in his habits, the real "J. 0.,” because the real «H. 0." is so well versed bringing them before a Court-Martial that they might receive and zealous in the discharge of his duty. Colonel Crawley, in human affairs and human kindness that he must know that the punishment due to their crimes. Why, the men were in his wordy and somewhat bombastic defence, never controthe finger of blame, and scorn if you please, can only point to never brought to trial at all ! One of them, before his impri- verted this ; and with all his desire to cast odium on every ono man, and that man figures in the memorandum of the sopment closed, was summoned to a higher than any earthly one opposed to him, he carefully abstained in this part of his Duke of Cambridge of the 18th Dec., 1862.

tribunal ; the other two, after a month's imprisonment, were, case from those imputations of falsehood and perjury he If the Articles of War are not waste paper

, justice will without trial, and consequently without punishment, dis: indulged in so unsparingly on the others. Sergeant- Major It is all very well for certain people to try to throw dust we are shut up to the conclusion either that

great offenders reward P—Death whilst enduring an illegal confinement, a into the eyes of the public, to divert attention from the real bave been most culpably allowed to pass unpunished, or that dishonourable grave, and a blasted character; publicly stig question. Has murder (according to the laws of England) innocent men have been illegally and consequently unjustly matized in an official document by the Indian Commander-inbeen committed? Were the Articles of War obeyed in punished ; and which of these alternatives we should

adopt Chiet, and held up to the scorn and contempt of the whole India, or even at home at Aldershott,--the reception of the is a matter on which the circumstances leave us little room Indian army as a worthless, dissipated man, whose death was two illegal orders at that place was in direct contravention of for doubt. When Colonel Crawley placed these sergeants caused by his own intemperance! Verily, men who look to the Articles of War? The supposed state of the officers of

in arrest, he reported the matter to his military superiors; be rewarded for good conduct will do wisely to give the the Enniskillings, even if true (but which is more than and it is doing this officer no injustice to assume that his British army a wide berth. In any other walk in life a steady, doubtful

, and said not to be true), is no excuse for an un- could possibly make it, and nothing be kept back which was least as to be respected in his sphere ; and should some oppression. It is within a week that Sir George Grey felt likely to tell against them. General Mansfield, after con- member of the upper classes do him some grievous wrong, or himself bound

to obey the law; he reprieved the murderer sidering the case, reported that the men had done nothing subject him illegally to imprisonment, he can appeal to the Townley, although sane, because he felt himself bound by for which a "Coult-Martial could convict, but nevertheless oppressor might possibly be considered an aggravation, it the law, viz., an Act of Parliament; and yet military mar- ordered them to be kept in arrest. Sir William Mansfield, would not be held as an excuse for the offence, If he enter

It is to be seen whether the Legislature will permit chafin effect, said, "You'll never get these fellows punished if the British army and suffer injustice, God help him, for at and Old Bailey finesse to override Acts of Parliament and you bring them to a Court-Martial, for they have been guilty the Horse Guards there is none. the law. The electors of England will not be satisfied unless of no military offence, and done nothing on which a Court Discipline, strict discipline, is indispensable to the exista trial be had in a British court of justice ; and then

if it be could convict, so we'll punish them at our own hands, and let ence of an army, which without it would become an armed shown that the Articles of War are mero waste paper, all them taste the delights of close arrest, as Colonel Crawley mob and a curse to the country: But the very essence of Well and good.

Ý.

defines this method of confinement.” Which is about as discipline is that it be impartially administered to all, high Hyde-park terrace.

legal as if a judge on circuit should, in some case, say to the and low, who are under its authority and subject to its laws. counsel for the prosecution, "Well, I've looked over the de. So that while the private soldier knows that should he be positions, and I can't see that the prisoner has been guilty of guilty of disrespect or insubordination to superior authority,

any offence against the Statute or Common Law, or done any- no matter how insignificant, even that of a lance corporal, he Sir,- I am a non-commissioned officer in the British army. thing for which a jury would convict ; so we won't bring him will be severely punished , he should also know that if he is Personally I cannot complain of the service, as it has been to trial, but clap him in gaol, and keep him there till the next unjustly treated by the highest officer in his regiment, he may my good fortune hitherto to serve under commanding officers assizes, and then see what's to be done.” And I must

say confidently ask redress. Whether we are to believe, after who were strictly just, and treated a man according to his that, to my judgment, the worst feature in the case is that it the revelations in recent Court. Martials, that this is the deservings. If a man got into trouble, he had to suffer the is not a misconception or misconstruction of some obscure spirit in which discipline is administered in the British army, consequences; if he was steady and did his duty, he was point of law by a single officer, but a wilful and deliberate is a question which those who propose to enter the service respected and treated accordingly. But, however, from what breach of the plainest letter of the law, by a number of supe- will do well to consider. I bave seen during my service, and from what I have heard rior officers charged with the administration of military affairs

I am, &c.,

CHEVRON. from other soldiers with whom I bave been associated, I know in a distant part of the British dominions. By the Articles of Barracks, 13th January, 1864. that my favourable experience is wholly accidental, and

that War it is expressly enacted that no soldier shall be kept more it is quite possible that by the change of a commanding officer, than eight days under arrest without charges being preferred papers in characters assumed for the sake of effect, we may

[As a bad custom bas lately arisen of writing to the news. or from some other cause over which I have no control, Í against him, and a Court-Martial being assembled to try him. may, without fault on my part, come to grief; and some day Yet these men, whom it was never intended to bring to a been sent to us by a non-commissioned officer.-Ed. Ex.]

as well say that this sensible and well-written letter has really find that ruined prospects and a blasted character are all I Court-Martial, of whom General Mansfield declared that have gained by years of service and good conduct. This con- they had done nothing of which a Court-Martial could viction has become all the stronger by my reflection on take notice, and of whom the Commander-in-Chief of the

COLONEL CRAWLEY AND HIS SUBSCRIBERS. Colonel Crawley's Court-Martial; and I can assure you that British army declared that they had done nothing, to Sir,- In looking over the list of the subscribers to the the following remarks contain not only my own sentiments, warrant their being placed under arrest, were nevertheless Crawley Defence Fund, I cannot but observe how large a but those of every non-commissioned officer with whom I kept in illegal confinement for a month, and then dis- portion of the number are military and naval officers—many have conversed (and I have conversed with many) on the missed without trial, and without redress. No man in the of them of high degree. This, perhaps, is natural enough,

WHAT THEY SAY IN THE RANKS.

and to be expected—there is a fellow feeling amongst the old ordnance would be rendered useless, as gunners would be superior correctness; and mechanics became accustomed to look on them. Had Colonel Crawley's conduct been of a more picked off and killed before their cannon could be brought within coosiderable variations in size, often productive of serious mischief,

as not only venial, but even as a result of necessity. But like the flagrant character, there is little doubt that the same sub- range. scribers would have been equally prompt. What weight the In 1851 the Duke of Wellington having entirely satis- Sybarite, whose sleep was disturbed by the inequality of his couch, exhibition of their names will have upon public opinion is fied himself of its superiority, gave the first word for even infinitesimal inexactitudes ;' and has accustomed the men in bis another question, but there are some ladies and gentlemen in change by sanctioning the partial substitution of the Minié employment to work to the 20,000th part of an inch, till measures the list without commissions in her Majesty's service, amongst rifle for Brown Bess. The superiority of the Minié, though so diminutive have become as familiar as those of larger dimensions. Master —; how old is Master — How flattering real, was slight, and it gavo place a few years later to the In the most celebrated workshops in England thirty years ago,

mechanics were chary of criticising work which was "out" by the Enfield. must such testimonials be to the oppressed Colonel, who in

32nd part of an incb, whereas in his works an error of "division," his defence announced, with much force and indignation,

The Minié ball was a modification of the Carabine à is at once noticed and corrected, a division being the 10,000th part that none but military persons had any right to give or to tige of Colonel Thouvenin, which in France superseded the of an inch. The influence of these improvements in mechanical hold any opinion upon military matters. Will he, after this, Delvigne rifle in 1842. That carbine had a tige or short means has imparted a distinctive character of accuracy to the condescend to accept the subscriptions of the juveniles ? or stalk screwed into the breech, around which the powder other countries; and to this nothing has more signally contributed will he tell them that they are little babies, and recommend lay and upon which the base of a ball with a conical point than the standard gauges

, graduated to a fixed scale as constant them to forward their subscriptions to the fund for the house was forced by the ramrod. This pillar or stalk was liable, measures of size, for which practical engineers are indebted to the less and destitute poor, or for the benefit of the wretched of course, to become bent, and was therefore superseded by studious labours of Mr Whitworth. sempstresses P-the last certainly more worthy the attention of

Mr Whitworth was not a gun maker, and he was applied a young lady, If the young lady and gentleman are deter- the use of the Minié ball. It was a ball smaller than the mined to lend their support to redress military wrongs, why bore of the piece and easily dropped in, but having in its to only as the man most able to detect a flaw and secure not lend their aid to enable Sergeant-Major Wakefield to base a conical recess to take the point of a cup of iron perfection in the apparatus by which guns were made. obtain justice-certainly not through a Court-Martial, but a somewhat larger than the opening, which being driven in

Regarded from no loftier point of view than as an order in the court of law and justice ?

W.A.S. by the explosion, effected at once the expansion and rifling course of trade, the proposal made by the Government that Mr 11 East Parade, Hastings, January 12, 1864. of the shot.

Whitworth should furnish designs for a complete set of new macbiÎn 1852 Lord Hardinge became Master-General of the value. It would not have been difficult for him to bave undertaken

nery for the Enfield establishment, was one of great pecuniary Ordnance, and at the close of that year he succeeded the to supply the machines required, adapting those of known construc

Duke of Wellington as Commander-in-Chief. He found tion and making the necessary modifications suggested by bimself ; THE LITERARY EXAMINER. the Minié musket subject to grave disadvantages. It was and it is manifest that the simple execution of such a commission on cumbrous, the barrel weighing 41b 10oz., and the bullet the terms proposed would have been of great commercial profit to

bis firm. But actuated by a higher motive, he did not feel himself The Story of the Guns. By Sir J. Emerson Tennert, weighing 680 grains.

justified in complying with the request; and in explanation of his K.C.S., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. Longman and Co. Its tendency to fouling was considerable the distended portions of scruples, he "urged,” says Lord Hardinge, the importance of

the projectile sometimes detached themselves and clogged the groovee, ascertaining what the first principle of this unknown secret is, before "It was my fortune,” says Sir Emerson Tennent, “at rendering loading extremely difficult—and occasionally the iron cup, ang machine could be constructed, to make a rifle that shall require " an early age to hold a commission as an officer of artil- inetead of merely expanding the lead, was driven completely through no farther alteration." “lery in a foreign service, during a time of war. It was the opposite extremity, converting the bullet into a distorted tube, It was next proposed to bim to undertake the construction of " in the pre-scientific period,' and under circumstances wbich sometimes remained firmly fixed in the barrel.

machinery for producing the rifle-barrel only; but to the barrel,

In the Enfield bullet, which was adopted in 1853, a wooden plug above all others, bis objection more specially applied; and in the “which, however advantageous for observing the destrucwas substituted for the iron cup.

absence of the requisite knowledge, he stated frankly that before “tive powers of ordnance both by land and sea, were

It is a question, whether eventually both iron and wood may not giving an answer he wished to visit the establishments of the princi" little favourable to the study of its construction. But be got rid of

, since it is found tbat the expansion of a leaden ball

, if pal gun-makers in London and Birmingham, and to obtain from them “they imparted an interest in the subject which recent bollowed at the base, can be effectually attained simply by the force all the information he could collect. "I found," he says in a report “ occurrences have served to revive.

of the explosion, when the metal driven outwards, fiods its first and to the Secretary for War, “great difference of opinion among them,

great resistance in the 'lands,' or smooth parts of the barrel left un- and the statements I received were so contradictory, that I was un. In the ten years since the Crimean war more has been touched by the rifling, against which it is pressed with great force, able to come to any satisfactory conclusion.” The truth was that the attempted or done for improvement in the construction of and thence overflows into the grooves.

guu trade generally in England at that time was described in the firearms and projectiles than was attempted or done in all

Embarrassed by defects inberent in different systems, one of the House of Commons as being in “a rude and unsystematic" condition.

earliest measures of Lord Hardioge was the institution of a compre- The most skilful mecbanics engaged in it worked by " knack” rather the years before that time, since firearms were discovered. hensive enquiry into the whole subject of rifled arms and projectiles

. tban by system, and the making of two rifles of equal excellence From the year 1628, when Arnold Rotsipen obtained from Charles le placed himself in communication with Mr Westley Richards, Mr was almost entirely dependent on the dexterity of the mechanic, who I. letters-patent for a new waye or meanes of makeinge gonnee, Purdey, and others of the most eminent gun makers in Great Britain. had po defined laws for reproducing them alike. It is only just, whereof a patterne and proofe was shewn to the King's selfe, down Six of these supplied paltern muskets of various diameters of bore, however, to men of such eminence as many of those engaged in to the end of 1852, not more than three hundred parents had been ranging from ·530 in. the smallest, to •650 in. the largest. Compari- that trade to state that this adherence to working by hand instead of issued for inventions; whereas more than double that number were sons were also made of the weapons in use by the armies of other by machinery was almost a compulsion of the period; since the granted within the next seven years.

military powers, and information was collected from leading factories demand was too limited to justify the erection of apparatus so costly For the general public, clear knowledge of what has suggestions tbus acquired, the adoption of the musket since known of Europe and the United States ; and by the aid of the facts and as that which would bave been required to supersede hand labour.

In this dilemna Mr Whitworth, instead of grasping at the order been done and what may yot be looked for is confused by as the 'Enfield rifle' was resolved on, and arrangements were put for new machinery for Enfield, offered to the Board of Ordnance to assertion and counter-assertion as to this or that isolated in progress for the organisation of a government factory, to be pro- conduct a preliminary series of scientific experiments in order to fact, and it has been hitherto most difficult for any one to vided with machinery, chiefly on the American model, for shaping determine the true principle on which rifle barrels ought to be conget at a plain story in the din of the conflict of inventors. production of an arm for the British forces combining, it was hoped, chester, under his own direction, in which to carry on the necessary

the various parts. Here it was proposed to commence at once the structed; provided a shooting gallery was erected for him near ManThat dificulty Sir Emerson Tennent has removed. Dis- tbe varied excellencies manifested in each of the pattern rifles sent in trials, and thus obtain data for his guidance. The actual expense embarrassing himself of all controversy, and leaving time by the most eminent makers in England.

was of course to be defrayed by the Treasury; but he intimated his and discussion to bring to the right end any vexed ques

Such was the origin of the . Enfield rifle’of 1853. It was stronger readiness to devote his time and attention to the subject gratuitously, tion of precedence among the men who have caused the than its predecessor of 1851, and at the same time the musket and its actuated only by the interest with which it bad inspired him. The facts to be such as they are, he has made it his sole care to grooves and lands on the old system, with one turn in 6 feet 6 inches. the experiments from the

influence of winds, and other disturbing ascertain and bring together into simple narrative, both Its diameter was 577 of an inch, and at limited ranges it fired a causes. In it he proposed to commence a series of trials with the easy and exact, a clear sequence of the facts that form the bullet weighing 530 grains with great accuracy and force

. During most accurately made rifles which could then be produced. To those history of the Rifled Musket, Rifled Cannon, and the Iron the ten years that have elapsed since its adoption, although other which proved ibe best he would apply certain tests, to determino the Navy since the year 1852. The little work is, for greater essential quality, it admits of no doubt that the Enfield rifle is still ticulars in which they severally excelled, and of the sources to which clearness of statement, divided into three parts, which superior to any arm yet adopted in other countries, and its efficiency that excellence was due ; and thus, by combining results, be hoped separately discuss the course of improvement in the was well attested at the Alma and at lokermann, where, in the words to ascertain the conditions required for producing tbe most perfect Musket, the Cannon, and the Construction of War Ships. of the Times correspondent, 'it smote the enemy like a destroying instrument. The information 80 acquired was to be at the service of Before the Crimean war our battles were fought only angel.'

the government, to whom, in order to facilitate manufacture, he with old-fashioned artillery.

The Enfied rifle, thus brought into use, had also a conventual success in constructing machinery to produce and reproduce

would supply graduated gauges, with directions for their use. For The muskets borne by our soldiers in the Peninsula and at

siderable tendency to foul; the velocity of its ball proved rifles giving the greatest possible range and accuracy without the Waterloo differed in no cssential particular from those with wbich to be lower than had been looked for, its trajectory there- minutest variance in excellence and quality, he had tắe firmest relitheir ancestors fought at Blenheim and Ramilies ; and the substitution fore was higher and its precision less. Moreover, although ance

, not on speculative theories but on the teachings of experience, of the percussion-cap for a flint-lock took place at a still later period. all were produced by the by the same means from similar derived from bis accomplishment of the two great mechanical desidewhilst ihe utmost care and ingenuity were exerted to bring sporting The variation could only be accounted for by some subtle to the millionth

part of an inch.” Military weapons were allowed to retain all their primitive rudeness, material, no two guns were alike in their performance. rata" the production of true surfaces and perfectly straight lines, and guns to perfection. Money and skill were bestowed without stint on å rifle to brivg down a deer ; or on a fowling-piece with which a imperfection, and advice was taken of Mr Whitworth who pheasant was to be shot; but any weapon, however clumsy, was was justly pronounced by the Secretary of State for the

The offer was not at once accepted. Prompted, howibought sufficiently good when the issue of a battle or the fate of an War Department to be the most celebrated mechanician ever, by the Earl of Ellesmere, Lord Hardinge urged upon empire was in the balance.

“ of this country.” Mr Whitworth was especially distin- the Treasury compliance with the sensible suggestion that The old musket allowed so much windage, or space guished for the minute accuracy of his machines.

the right sort of arm should be clearly ascertained before between the shot and the circumference of the barrel, For the attainment of this consummate perfection, it is the belief could not be less than two millions sterling.

entering upon an expenditure for the supply of arms, that that the shot rebounded from side to side as it passed of Mr Whitworth that the superiority of all machinery is dependent through the barrel and left it as the last rebound might on two elements--the power of measuring with unerring precision, The assent of the Lords of the Treasury was signified in May 1864, have determined its direction. Gravitation also very and, associated with it, the faculty of producing a true plane surface, and a gallery of 500 yards in length by 16 feet broad 20 feet

high sensibly affected the direction of its course of small that is, one so absolutely level that, when opposed to another of equal was forihwith commenced in the grounds attached to Mr Whitworth's velocity. As the result of experiments made in 1838, the Royal, Mr Airey, in bis evidence before a committee of the House of wheels for shooting at varying distances, rests for steadying the aim, soldier was told in firing at a man at 600 yards to fire Lords, in 1855, stated that the degree to which Mr Whitworth bad and screens to exhibit the flight of the projectiles. Two military 130 feet above him, or in other words, if he wished to succeeded in making perfect the planing of surfaces was entirely ufficers were nominated by the Commander-in-Chief to assist at the hit the church door to aim at the weathercock. At the unknowo before bis tim..”. To such a pitch of excellence has be experiments

, and Mr Westley Richards was associated with Me batile of Salamanca only one shot in 437 took effect. It brought it by a process peculiar to himself

, that a plate of metal pre- Whitworth at the request of the latter, who was desirous of benehas been said that for every man shot by Brown Bess the exhibits a contact so intimate as to enable the operator to lift the reputation.

pared by bim, when opposed to the face of another similarly treated, fiting by the information and experience of a gun-maker of bis bigh weight of his body in lead had to be fired away. During under one with it, as if by its actual adhesion to the other ;-or if the Caffre war, 80,000 cartridges were fired at a single less closely applied, so that the thinnest possible layer of atmospheric The gallery having been thrown down by a storm, expeengagement in which only twenty-five of the enemy fell.

air may still remain between, the upper plate will rest on the unes riments were not begun till March, 1855, the interval

cluded particles, as if floating on quicksilver. Not very long ago, a well-trained marksman, provided with an old With similar devotion to accuracy

Mr Whitworth, in the search heavy ordnance.

being occupied with experiments for the improvement of regulation musket,

was placed to fire at a target eighteen feet square for a means of determining dimensions with precision, constructed a from a distance of 300 yards, and found that he could not put even machine, so accurately and delicately made, as to measure objects into that spacious area one bullet out of twenty. At 200 yards his suc- which differ even by the millionth part of an incb-a division so

Here we must pause for the present, to complete next cers was not greater, and yet the fire-arm thus tested was the regular minute as to be perceptible only by touch after it has ceased to be week our outline of the substance of this well-timed weapon of the British soldier, so late as tbe year 1852.

discernible by the eye. So nice is the adjustment, that in using it "Story of the Guns." But the book itself should be Although it anticipates, to some extent, the thread of the following an inch of steel can be held to be an inch, only so long as the thermo- read by every man who has a lively interest in the narrative, I may be permitted here to notice, that on the occasion on meter stands at 62°, the slightest excess of temperature producing maintenance of English power, which is English peace, proved rifle which had then recently been issued was brought for- steel, when placed

in the machine is so expanded by the slightest touch against all who may desire to see it broken. The arrangeward, under precisely the same circumstances, and scarcely a shot of the finger as to show an appreciable lengthening even under the influ- ment is clear, the style simple, every technical term that missed the target; demonstrating, that if a soldier can be enabled to ence of the infinitesimal amount of heat thus imparted.

must be used is also explained, and the subject so treated hit uniformly, where be hit but once out of twenty times before, his It might be supposed that the value of measures so minute must is of high interest eren as a detail of remarkable energy increased value is equivalent to an addition to the numbers of the be but abstract and visionary, and that it could be only in the larger of research applied in these our times to a particular army in precisely that proportion. Not only so, but the distance at quantitiest but their use might be available. In practice, bowever, inquiry. But above all its use is that it will enable thouwhich the new weapon could kill having been increased from one or the importance of aiming at such accuracy bas been visibly demontwo hundred yards to fourteen hundred or more, it came to be felt, strated. The former habit of being contented with

approximate sands to whom the daily argument about guns, so long that unless artillery could be improved in the same ratio as the rifle, measurements engendered a positive inability to duly estimate joined to the current news, is a speech in an unknown

The tongue, to enter into the whole of the momentous question affections of bis countrymen, and with an assured hope of a bappy misery which follow the pursuit of vicious courses. with a strong intelligent interest that will make itself felt immortality, be bad gone down, according to his own pathetic scene is laid in an English village, and the “two families"

are those of an honest, hard-working shepherd, and an wherever and whenever the pressure of a well-informed aspiration, with all sail set.” Who that loved him would have wished to recall him?

idle, drunken blacksmith, each of whom has a helpmate public opinion is most needed.

with qualities to correspond. Good training and good The Rock-cut Temples of India. Illustrated by Seventy- example on the one hand, with bad example and neglect

four Photographs taken on the spot by Major Gill; on the other, produce their inevitable consequences; but The Life and Letters of Washington Irving. By his Described by James Fergusson, F.R.S., M.A.R.S. the “power of religion” is shown by its fruits of reNephew, Pierre M. Irving. In Four Volumes.

Murray.

pentance, and the story ends happily for all. Whatever Vol. IV. Bentley.

Rock-cut temples, or chitayas and monasteries, or may be the reader's creed, his prompt assent will be given This last volume of Washington Irving's life, treating viharas, are the earliest remains of Indian architecture to the form in which this lesson is presented. Miss only of the American side of his history, save where the Originated by the Buddhists and appropriated by the Bateman's clever volume is admirably adapted for young quarrels of English publishers about the right of issuing Hindoos, they are so numerous that fifty groups and not less people, but all may profit by its contents. his works make an unwelcome digression, is perhaps less than a thousand separate examples of them have been found, interesting than those that have preceded it. Yet the last of the fifty groups, all but three only—those of Behar and years of a hale old man's life, rich in fame and in the love Orissa in Bengal, and that of Mahavellipore in Madras -

BOOKS OF THE WEEK. of friends that should be dearer than fame, cannot fail to are within bounds of the Presidency of Bombay. As that HISTORY.—Court and Society from Elizabeth to Anne.'_Edited from be attractive. The narrative of the present volume extends part of India lies nearest to Egypt and Ethiopia, those the Papers at Kimbolton, by the Duke of Manchester. In Two Volumes.

. from 1847, when Irving was sixty-four years old, to 1859, regions were looked to for the original models of the BIOGRAPHY.— The Life and Letters of Washington Irving.' By his when, at the age of seventy-six, his work in life was cave temples ; but Mr Fergusson, when describing these Nephew, Pierre M. Irving. In Four Volumes. Vol. IV. °(Post 8vo, ended. structures in his . Illustrated Handbook of Architecture,' PP: 305.) Bentley.

ARCHITECTURE.-The Rock Cut Temples of India. Illustrated by The volume is filled chiefy with letters to and from the suggested that the localization might be accounted for by Seventy-four Photographs taken on the spot by Major Gill. Described now famous man on public and private matters :

the peculiar suitableness of the rocks in the cave district by James Fergusson, F.R.S., M.R.A.S. (8vo, pp. 21, and 74 leaves with The following letter was written to a young lady, who proposed to for the formation of such structures.

photograph and description on one side of each, the other side blank, and

“The whole cave blank interleaving.) Murray, come to him and ask his counsel about the publication of some poems " district,” he then said, “is composed of horizontal strata TOPOGRAPHY. - Horeb and Jerusalem.' By the Rev. George Sandie. of a brother who had graduated with distinction, and been cut off in the bloom of his youth:

of amygdaloid and other cognate trap formations, gene- (svo, pp. 417.). Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas.
“Sunnyside, Feb. 8, 1851.
" rally speaking of very considerable thickness and great (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 210.) Trübner and

Co.

TRAVEL.- The Cities of the Past.' By Frances Power Cobbe. Dear Madam,-While I sincerely sympathise with you in the "uniformity of texture, and possessing besides the advan NATURAL HISTORY.— The Herring, its Natural History and National affliction caused by your great bereavement, and have no doubt your "tage of their edges being generally exposed in perfectly Importance.' By John M. Mitchell, F.R.S.S.A., &c. With Illustrabrother was worthy of the praise bestowed on his memory, I must "perpendicular cliffs, so that no rock in the world could tions. (8vo, pp. 372.). Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas.

GUNNERY. - The Story of the Guns.' By Sir J. Emerson Tennent, must respectfully excuse myself from the very delicate and respon “either be more suited for the purpose or more favourably K.C.S., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. (Post svo, pp. 364.) Longman and Co. in the coolness and correctness of my own judgment in matters of “situated than these formations are. They were easily

EDUCATION.- A Mathematical Course for the University of London

containing an Outline of the Subjects in Pure Mathematics included in the kind, and have repeatedly found the exercise of it, in compliance "accessible and easily worked. In the rarest possible the Regulations of the Senate for the Matriculation and Bachelor of with solicitations like the present, so productive of dissatisfaction to "instances are there any flaws or faults to disturb the Arts and Bachelor of Science Pass Examinations ; with the entire Series others, and poignant regret to myself, that I have long since been driven to tbe necessity of declining it altogether.

uniformity of the design; and when complete, they of Mathematical papers set by the University from 1838 to the Current “Trusting you will receive this apology in the frank and friendly afford a perfectly dry temple or abode, singularly uniform larged and Improved. (8vo, pp. 134.) Longman and Co. spirit in which it is made, I remain, with great respect, your obedient" in temperature, and more durable than any class of temple THEOLOGY. – The Gospel in Ezekiel.' A Series of Discourses. By servant, “ WASHINGTON IRVING." . found in any other part of the world.”

Thomas Guthrie, D.D.' Fortieth Thousand. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 470.)

Edinburgh: A. and C. Black. Here is a reply to a modest application from an unknown admirer During a long residence in India, writes Mr Fergusson

Fiction.- Wildfire.' By Walter Thornbury, Author of True as to "pen (him) just one original thought:.

now, in the Preface to this very beautiful series of photo. Steel,' &c., &c. In Three Volumes. (Post svo, pp. 303, 302, 292.) Hurst " Dear Sir, I would be bappy to furnish you with the original

A Sporting Sketch. By my command, and certainly not at present . So I hope you will be and Ellora, he was able to visit all the Rock-cut temples Svo, pp. 348, 315.) Chapman and Hall. - Christmas

at Old Court. By thought you require ; but it is a coinage of the brain not always at graphs from the Rock temples and monasteries of Ajunta and Blackett. A Box for the season. content with' my sincere thanks in return for the kind and compli- then known to exist in that country. First, in 1836, he the Author of " Richelieu in Love, &c., &c. (Post svo, pp. 475.) mentary expressions of your letter.”

examined those of Cuttack. In 1838 an extended tour was Bentley.-- Dan to Beersheba ; or Northern and Southern Friends. No man could be more bored than Mr Irving, by, as he once made for the purpose of exploring those of Western India. Pose reservo, Popice Chapman and Hall,

Verse. - Pictures of the Past,' and other Poems. By William expressed it; "all sorts of letters from all sorts of persons." I In 1841 he completed the investigation by visiting those Bradfield. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 228.) Longman and Co. Nottingham : remember his once showing me a letter asking him to subscribe to of Mahavellipore. A paper read to the Royal Asiatic Simkimrand Brownie

QCARTERLY. — The Quarterly Journal of Science.' No. 1. January, be answered. Every letter to be answered is a trifle ;' but your life Society in 1843, and published in the eighth

volume of 1864. (svo, pp. 212.) John Churchill and Sons." The Edinburgh in this way is exhausted in trifles. You are entangled in a network its Journal, embodied the results of these investigations, Review' for January, 1864. of cobwebs. Each letter is a cobweb across your nose. The bores and that paper was republished in 1845, illustrated by Parto NII.--: The Events of the Month : a Magazine of News, Litera

—. of this world are endless." nineteen lithographic plates of Rock-cut architecture. ture

, Science

, and General Information. Pari I. (Imperial'svo, pp. But there were better claims upon his letter-writing Mr Fergusson thus, in one sense, made the subject his own; 48.)' J. and C. Mozley:-" The Impartial Leader.' No. 1. (8vo, pp. powers. Here, in part of a letter written to his old friend, but in so doing he excited a wide interest in it, and pro- New Seress Loes.

Denis Lane.- i'he Church of England Temperance Magazine.' James K. Paulding, when he was seventy-two, is a plea- duced the expression of a strong desire that these monu PAMPHLETS.— The Critical School and Jesus Christ: a Reply to M. sant picture of his closing days :

ments might be carefully preserved and yet more generally Renan's Life of Jesus.' By Edmond de Pressensé, Pastor of the French You hope I am "sliding smoothly down the hill." I thank you studied. The Court of Directors of the East India Com Evangelical Church, and D.D. of the University of Breslau. Author of for the hope. I am better off than most old bachelors are, or deserve pany, in accordance with a memorial presented to them, Translated by L. Corkran. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 86.

) Elliot Stock. – Recent to be. I have a bappy home, the happier for being always well praying that some person should be appointed for that Forms of Unbelief; some Account of Renan's Vie de Jésus." dreary animal. My brother, the “General," is wearing out the purpose, sent Captain-now Major-Gill, to copy the fast William Lee, Minister of the Parish of Roxburgh. (8vo, pp. 39.) serene evening of life with me; almost entirely deal, but in good perishing frescoes of Ajunta. The pictures that he sent tection the Only Remedy. By G. Wray, of Tunbridge Wells, and health and good spirits, more and more immersed in the study of home during the first year of his residence at Ajunta are Rotherfield. (svo, pp. 23.) Ridgway.- What England should do with newspapers (with which I keep him copiously supplied), and, through now to be seen in the Indian Court of the Crystal Palace.

her Convicts. A Solution suggested. By W. M. Wilkinson. (8vo, pp. them, better acquainted with what is going on in the world than I

30.) Allman.- The National Shakspeare Committee and the late Mr am, who mingle with it occasionally, and have ears as well as eyes have reached this country, buł instead, Major Gill sent home in the Present. An Inaugural Lecture, delivered on October 6, 1863, at King's

“For many years past,” says Mr Fergusson, “ no further drawings Thackeray. (8vo, pp. 23.) Clayton. Gerinan Grammar, Past and open,

I have had many vivid enjoyments in the course of my life, yet spring of this year to Mr Layard nearly two hundred stereoscopic College, London. By Dr Buchbeim, Professor of the German Language no portion of it has been

more equably, and serenely happy than that the chase, of Indian life, and illustrations of the Mahometan build- Paldy.--'A Brief Reply to an Important question being a Letter to enough to town to dip into it occasionally for a day or two, give my ings and of the scenery in the neighbourhood of Ajunta. Of the Professor Goldwin Smith from an Implicit Believer in Holy Scripture. mind an airing, keep my notions a little up to the fashion of the remaining half, many were duplicates, but those forming the illustra- | (8vo, pp. 24.) Saunders, Otley, and Co. times, and then return to my quiet little home with redoubled relish. tions of the present volume have been selected as being all those in

The Duke of Manchester's two volumes, illustrating the collection which could fairly be considered as representing Rock. Court and Society from Elizabeth to Anne,' are based, says During a part of the dozen years here recorded, Irving cut architecture." busied himself with the preparation of a revised edition of The oldest of the group of these caves is that at are at Kimbolton. A few are in the Record Office; one is

the preface, upon papers of which nearly all the originals his earlier works. Through them all, moreover, he was Behar, formed between B.c. 200 and the fifth century of in the Private Cabinet of the Empress Eugenie; and others hard at work on his Life of Washington,' the book on our era. The most complete group is that of Ajunta, which suggested an extension of the account of Catharine which he spent most care, and which will doubtless live amply and beautifully illustrated by the photographs in of Aragon-who died at Kimbolton-are at Simancas. the longest. "You have done with Washington," wrote this volume. These temples, formed between the first The preface adds that " for the account of Queen Catharine Prescott, in a letter of honest praise, "just as I thought century B.C. and the tenth or eleventh of our era, and “and for information concerning many of the persons and "you would, and, instead of a cold, marble statue of a illustrate every pariety of Buddhist art within that period. " demigod, you have made him a being of flesh and blood, Next to these in importance is the group at Ellora, consist to the historical knowledge and literary skill of Mr W.

occurrences alluded to in the work, the Editor is indebted "like ourselves-one with whom we can have sympathy." ing of three series, a Buddhist of about the eighth century, .. So thought all other Americans, and the happiness of a Hindoo formed during the next two or three centuries, " tender his thanks for assistance which so greatly

Hepworth Dixon and Dr Doran, to whom he begs to Irving's closing years was not a little increased by the and a Jaina group of a century later still, the eleventh or

« increases the interest of these volumes." With Catha. honour heaped upon him. Of none of his writings could twelfth. They belong, therefore, to three religions, and rine of Aragon the work opens, and the first half of he complain that they were not cordially received. In the their variety thus gives them a special interest. It is to the first volume deals with affairs of Henry the Eighth's United States he realised more than 42,0001. by the sale the Ajunta and Ellora groups that the illustrations in this reign, the second half with affairs from the accession of of his books; from English publishers he received volume are confined. Excellent in themselves, well Elizabeth to the Revolution. The second volume begins 12,2171. 103. for copyright; the largest payments being mounted, each having its description under it written by early in the seventeenth century with an account of Walter 3,1501. for the 'Life of Columbus,” 2,1001. for the Con- the one most competent expounder, --who introduces the Montagu, and advances to the close of Queen Anne's reign. quest of Granada,' 1,5751. for the Tales of a Traveller,' whole series with a general account of their origin and The work is illustrated with steel engravings of the fulland 1,0501. apiece for Bracebridge Hall,' and Tales of structure, these photographs form one of the most inte length portraits at Kimbolton of Henry Montagu, first Earl the Alhambra.' He died as he wished to die. On resting and delightful books that ever recommended itself of Manchester, Charles Montagu, first Duke of Manchester, November the 28th, 1859, he dined with his nephew and alike to the mistress of the drawing-room and to the and Charles Montagu, Earl of Halifax. niece, with whom he had been staying: scholar in his study. Only enough has been here said

Mr Pierre Irving's Life and Letters of Washington On retiring for the night, at half-past ten

, his niece Sarah, who by Mr Fergusson to enable every one to read all that is Irving closes with the publication this week of the fourth always took charge of his medicines, went into his room to place told by the pictures themselves, and they are eloquent. them as usual, within easy reacb. “Well,” he exclaimed, “I'must

volume, which we have reviewed in a preceding column. arrange my pillows for another weary night!” and then, as if balf

Of the beautiful book of photographs from the Rockto himself, "If this could only end!” or “When will this end !”

cut Temples of India, with descriptions by Mr Fergusson, she could not tell which ; for, at the instant, he gave a slight excla

The Two Families; or, the Power of Religion. By J. we also have spoken this week in another column. mation, as if of pain, pressing his band on his leit side, repeated the

C. Bateman. Author of The Netherwoods of

Mr Fergusson's theory as to the Mosque of Omar, in exclamation and the pressure, caught at the footboard of the bed, and Otterpool,' “Who is to have it?' • Forgiveness,' &c. Jerusalem, is stated by the Rev. George Sandie in the feli backward to the floor. The sound of his fall and the screams of Hatchard and Co. Sarah brought the whole family in an instant to his room. I raised

preface to his 'Horeb and Jerusalem,' to be at the root o. his head in my arms. Every means was resorted to to recall anima This little book is so well written that we trust it will the accouut of the Topography of Jerusalem which that tion, and continued until a physician-Dr Caruthers, from a distance have a very wide circulation. The story is an extremely volume contains. The purpose of the volume is to trace of two miles-arrived, who pronounced life entirely, extinct. He simple one, and in the most natural manner sets forth the the route of the Israelites of the Exodus, from Goshen to had passed away instantaneously;: The end for which he had just advantages, no less worldly than spiritual

, which arise Sinai, and to determine the sites connected with the Life departure was sudden ; but so he was willing it should be. In the from strictly moral conduct and the practice of sound and Death of Christ. The book contains a folding map of fulness of years, with unclouded intellect, crowned with the warmest religious principles, as opposed to the degradation and the Peninsula of Sinai; a plan of Horeb and Sinai; plans

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showing the Topography of Jerusalem according to Dr of the Past,' by Mr William Bradfield, is said in the our day of whom we know that they can raise the Robertson ; according to Josephus; according to Scripture, author's preface to have been inspired by his love for dramatic taste of the public if we will let them, a and in the time of the Early Pilgrims; besides three topo- antiquities; usually the most coy of all the Muses. metrical English version of the Spanish masterpiece, graphical pictures, one endeavouring to represent Calvary A new quarterly, the 'Quarterly Journal of Science, which, though but a translation of a translation, is and the adjacent part of Jerusalem, during the Crucifixion, well planned, and with much that is of sound popular indeed in itself a careful and most creditable piece the others, general views of Jerusalem in the time of the interest in its contents, is among the publications of the of English dramatic literature. It is further to the Kings and in the time of Christ.

week, and there are two new monthlies. One of these is credit of Mr Vining, as manager, that he has not Miss Cobbe's. Cities of the Past? is a reprint from the Impartial Leader,' which takes for its motto "No Party only accepted and produced such a play, but has engaged Fraser's Magazine,' of the author's impressions of travel" --but Truth and Truth only," while announcing itsele as also artists to represent it who can prove of how much during a solitary pilgrimage to the East. It lightly written by Catholics, and resolved "never to speak against better things than we have had of late, the genius also of describes in successive sketches besides Jerusalem (as the “ Catholic opinion.” It promises to give a philosophical mis- our actors and actresses is capable. City of Peace), Baalbec (as the City of the Sun), Cairo cellany,—" for higher intelligences--only, in fact, for those Don Agustin Moreto of Cabana, son of Agustin Moreto (as the City of Victory), Rome in the Carnival (as the "who are pleased with solid contemplation;" a creed, and Violante Cavana, by seventeen years a younger man Èternal City in a temporary phase), Jericho, &c. (as a Day“ truth only;" controversy, in which we intend to dis- than Calderon, was born at Madrid in the year 1618, two at the Dead Sea) and a Day at Athens.

cern between truth and falsehood;" social intercourse years after the death of Shakespeare. Lope de Vega was Mr Mitchell's book on the Herring, written on the banks that “shall traverse the world, and lead the mind to make born two years before the birth of Shakespeare, and in the of the Forth under inspiration from the Scottish Athens, “a thorough acquaintance with human doings in general,” year of the death of Lope de Vega, at the age of seventyhas for its frontispiece a folding sheet, lithographed and in fact, the reader is promised liberal supply of a compre- three, Calderon was a man aged thirty-four and Moreto was printed in colours and metals, showing the herring as it hensive omniscience, with fun and anecdote to make infal- a youth aged seventeen, already displaying his turn for song appears immediately after it is taken out of the water, in a libility amusing. The other new Magazine, which is to record and drama. He had written at least two, probably more, picture of the size of life, and with its iridescence imitated "Events of the Month,” adds to the chronicle sketches, of his numerous comedies before the age of twenty-three, by a silver sheen. Five other plates represent the different essays, and a serial tale, beginning “ Maud Ramsay, seated, and his career was smoothed for him by the affectionate forms of boat used in the English, Irish, and Scotch, the “ with her doll on her lap, on the morning of her tenth regard of Calderon, who appreciated heartily his genius, and Dutch and the French herring fisheries. The work thus birthday," a review of Lord William Lennox's ‘Remi. probably procured for him his introduction to the Palace. illustrated is founded upon that by the same author which 'niscences,' an account of the earthquake on the 6th of When Moreto began writing, the Spanish drama, which had obtained the medal offered by the Royal Scottish Society of last October, and such queries, to be answered next month, just attained its topmost height of glory was there Arts for the best essay on the Natural History of the as “Why is our present dynasty called the House of wrestling with the superstition by which it was to be Herring, considered in connection with its Visits on the 'Brunswick ?" For the success of a monthly chronicle toppled down into the depths. Lope de Vega was but Scottish Coast.' Since that essay was published the more vigour of execution and a firmer unity of purpose are nine years dead when the King's Council subjected the author has, he says, been prosecuting his researches for the essential.

stage to a rigid censorship, reduced the number of the purpose of producing a work at once more popular and

actors, forbade the production of original comedies that more elaborate. He has frequently visited the fisheries

were not histories or lives of saints, and condemned on the West Coast, the East Coast, Cornwall, and the THE THEATRICAL EXAMINER. the works of Lope de Vega as pernicious. Thus it English Channel, and the coasts of Ireland. He has

is that we have from Calderon and Moreto so many sacred been on board several of the Dutch fishing busses, and

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE LONDON STAGE,VIII.

plays. But there was a true earnestness in those men, a went to their head-quarters at Vlaardingen and Maassluis ;

spiritual expression of the religious fervour that was he has visited the shores of the Baltic on both sides, and

Since we began these articles, at a time when the hard intolerance in many, and this characterised also their the shores of the German Ocean ; has resided for some time literary credit of the London stage appeared to have one fellow poet and dramatist, a man younger than in Norway, and visited the principal fishing districts in that reached its lowest ebb, we have from time to time gladly Calderon but older than Moreto Solis y Ribadeneira, at country. "He has visited also most of the French fishing recorded indications of a turn in the tide of theatrical one time Secretary to Philip IV. Solis died in the unfulports from Dieppe to Marseilles. Portions of his work affairs. Managers begin to risk some action upon a better filled resolve to take holy orders. Calderon died a member have been read before the Royal and the Royal Physical opinion than they once had of the public taste, and there of the Congregation of the Apostle Peter at Madrid, to Societies of Edinburgh, as well as at the meetings of the are few or none of them who do not honour their profession which he had given all that he possessed. Moreto, having British Association at Oxford, Manchester, and Cambridge. too well to neglect the opportunity for its advancement forsaken poetry and the world, became a priest, and died The author believes that he has solved the hitherto disputed that they now find in the unsuspected readiness of the Rector of a Refuge at Toledo, where it was his chief duty questions as to food, periodical visits, migration, &c., and public to enjoy that which is really good.

to tend the afflicted poor. In his latter days Moreto says that he has for the first time established the important Embodying, then, for a short time in this argument our regretted the lighter works of his wit, blameless as they fact that herrings visit our coast twice a year. Mr Mitchell comments on the pieces produced at the theatres, we shall all were. His graceful touch more than once gave new adds in his preface that he gives for the first time the now proceed somewhat hopefully from week to week with life to a' hasty work of Lope de Vega's that had passed geographical distribution and also the chronology of visits the discussion hitherto so often interrupted. With hearty into obscurity, and even this play of El Desden con el of the herring, not only on the British coasts, but where- satisfaction we record in the first place the triumphant Desden, which has made his fame in his own country ever else it has been ascertained. The work is subdivided reception at the Princess's theatre of a poetical English imperishable, is founded on a poor play that preceded it into three books : Book I. setting forth the Natural His- version by Mr Westland Marston of the German version of called • The Avenger of Women,' if not on Lope de Vega's tory of the Herring; Book II. the different modes of Moreto's masterpiece, which has long been reckoned one forgotten Miracles of Contempt.' fishing and curing at home and abroad; Book III. telling of the four classical pieces of the elder Spanish drama, The original play is like Mr Westland Marston's version the progress of the Herring Fishery from the Earliest El Desden con el Desden. This was the play which of the German version of it, in three acts, and, of course, Period to the Present Day.

Louis Quatorze when he wished to delight a Spanish wife in the usual rime asonante. Schreyvogel's version agrees Of Sir Emerson Tennent’s ‘Story of the Guns' we have and mother caused to be produced at his Court with the with Gozzi's in altering the name of the hero from Don been speaking this week in another column.

utmost magnificence of appointment, and with Molière for Carlos to Don Cæsar. This change Mr Marston adopts. Mr Kimber's 'Mathematical Course,' or cram-book of its translator. But Molière's version of the play under the He follows his German original also in omitting the Mathematics for the Matriculation and B.A. or B.Sc. name of the Princesse d'Elide was as complete a failure as character of the Prince of Bearn from among the suitors, examinations of the University of London, presupposes his imitation of Spanish heroic comedy in Don Garcie de in altering the name of the “gracioso” Polilla, con"some acquaintance with the most elementary principles Navarre, except that Don Garcie, produced for the public, fidential secretary to the proud Princess Diana, into of Arithmetic and Algebra," and its object is said by the was immediately damned, while the Princesse d'Elide, Perin, and in adding the short character of a Fioretta, with author to be to "economize the time and energies” of produced for a Court fête, was received with polite admira- whom Perin may have a little comic business. students preparing for the before-named examinations by tion and supposed at Court to be a great success. The The gracioso was a popular addition made by Lope de “presenting in one volume the information they must piece is usually omitted, and very properly, from editions Vega to the stock characters of a Spanish play. He was a “otherwise collect from various sources."

of the works of Molière, for it was written in such haste comic character, sometimes half a buffoon, like the 'fantasof Dr Guthrie's Discourses on 'The Gospel in Ezekiel, to obey the King's wish and punctually to grace his grand tical person of the contemporary English Stage, more first published about nine years ago, it is enough to observe festival, that Molière had only time to put the frequently the lively representative of the shrewd popular that the copy among the Books this Week is one of the first act and the first scene of the second act of his version mother wit, and the person of his drama through whom “fortieth thousand."

into metre, and hurried the rest into prose; so that the author might be with the first to laugh at any extraThe Novels of the week are the 'Wildfire' of Mr Walter the chansonnier Marigny said this Comedy had been vagance of plan or fervour of romance about his story; Thornbury, a tale of the French Revolution ; Mr Charles summoned in such haste to Court that she had only time Not seldom, and especially in Moreto's comedies, he is at Clarke's Box for the Season,' which is not an opera box, to put on one of her buskins, and appeared half naked, the very core of the play, and it is so in El Desden or but Boulter's Farm, otherwise the Chateau,' in “ the with one shoe off, the other on. More successful was the Donna Diana. Here it is he who suggests to the hero how "grand pasture lands of our favourite hunting country;" Italian version of this famous drama by the truest and he may touch in his cold Diana the warm heart of a woman;

Dan to Beersheba,' a novel of American Life North and wittiest poet among Italian writers of comedy, Count how he may melt the snow on her proud heights till it shall South before the Civil War, but written without reference Carlo Gozzi, familiar to Germany through at least one throbbing come down upon the valley in an eager flood. to that catastrophe ; and 'Christmas at Old Court.' The work in Schiller's version of his Turandot. Gozzi Italian- True as his love is, let hím leave the other suitors to prowork last named is a novel introduced by lines of verse to ized Moreto's masterpiece under the title of the Philo- voke her scorn by their submission, but let him surprise Mr Webster, closed by an Epithalamium on the marriage sophic Princess, or the Antidote,' “Principessa Filosofa, o her on her own ground, holding himself as grapes above her of the Prince of Wales, as recited by Miss Avonia Jones il Contraveleno. Germany too has its popular version of reach, though elsewhere all the vintage of earth may seem on the Adelphi stage, and introducing into the middle of El Desden con el Desden in the Donna Diana of Joseph to have been tilled only for her. He does so. When the its modern story a mock antique drama on Cervantes' story Schreyvogel, a journalist of refined taste but little genius, warmth of his love rises to his lips there is the 'gracioso,' of the Curious Impertinent, which is called " The Shakspere who translated two of Calderon's plays as well as the play the gay confidant of either side, to warn him back into a « Forgery," and modestly suggested to have been perhaps of Moreto. He was Kotzebue's successor as secretary of show of ice; or if the lady doubt her senses, there is the sly written by Robert Greene. A soliloquy in it, upon which the Viennese Court Theatre, and commonly wrote under gracioso, a true friend though a deceiver, at her ear. our eyes happen to fall, begins thus:

the name of West. It is evidence of its popularity at is her confidential private secretary, who affects to be of one Madman !- But am I not more mad than ho

home that his Donna Diana has been one of the plays mind with herself, and can she doubt him? The part is To let a shadow sland between me and

chosen for acting in London by a German company, and well played by Mr Vining with a true gracioso's breadth Bliss more than beavenly ?

that Mr Westland Marston, except a serious departure of comedy. The novel may have been born to the author of a kindly from his text in the last scene, has thought it worth a close Mr Herman Vezin, a quietly good actor who can Doll among the Muses, but lines like these make us sus- translation. Direct from Moreto Mr. Marston evidently rightly speak blank verse and give true but enforced pect the other muse an Ida who is coy. If so, the author has not taken a line, but he translates him through a con- expression to a poet's thought, well represents the life can apply to himself and his aim to shine in the same work scientious German, and we only wish he had confined himself and love under the mask of the suitor who coerces himself as modern novelist and as Elizabethan dramatist, a line or at the end of the play as elsewhere to the few changes that to surprise disdain with a disdain yet greater, though two from the true Greene:

satisfied the man he followed. Of that presently. Mean- as a true Spanish gentleman punctilious of courtesy. Rare wit, fair face, what heart could more desire ?

while we are, on the whole, exceedingly well satisfied. Mrs Charles Young, now Mrs Herman Vezin, plays the But Doll is fair, and doth concern thee near :

Mr Marston could find, perhaps, good critics to argue in Diana with much grace and feeling, and marks with Let Doll be fair, she is won; but I must woo

support of the modification of the denouement, sacrificing, variety of expression the gradations of her passage from And win fair Ida; there's some choice in two.

we think, poetry to stage effect, which is the one change a cold disdain to a piqued curiosity, a wound of pride, a But, Ida, thou art coy.

he has made. He is a man credited deservedly with growth of wonder, admiration, and the loosening of the Let this, however, be said without prejudice to the good dramatic taste. Enough and more than enough we whole woman's nature in the Princess. It is a wonderful author of Richelieu in Love,' of whose new book it yet have had of the contemporary rubbish of the minor part for a great actress, capable of displaying nearly the remains for us to speak critically.

theatres of Paris. It is greatly to the credit of Mr Vining whole range of her power, and absolutely demanding, in the The only book of poems published this week, 'Pictures that he has taken from one of the few English writers of second act, that she shall put forth all her arts of

fascination. Mrs Herman Vezin is not a great actress, two medical men, that that inquiry did not, like all previous inquiries / borough magistrates and two medical men of Derby, and myself. but she is a charming one who has achieved her best of the same kind, originate with

the gaolauthorities, but was promoted Mr Scott, the other county magistrate who signed the certificate of the successes in the poetical drama, and the quality of her

Donna adviser. Sir George Grey had no previous information that this was has suddenly been called into Scotland for the purpose of attending his Diana has assured the success of this play on the London the case, nor could he be in any way responsible for any irregularity sister's funeral.--I have, &c., W. T. Cox.” boards. The famous scene in the second act, where the -if irregularity there was—in the proceedings. No person other "To the Right Hon. Sir G. Grey, Bart., M.P., &c.—Sir -We the cold suitor, invited to speak commonplace of love to the than a magistrate could be admitted to examine the prisoner or to in- undersigned justices of the peace for the county and borough of Princess whose colour it has, by her contrivance, fallen guire into his mental state without the sanction of the visiting justices Derby, and medical men of Derby, who signed and forwarded to you to his lot to wear, pours his whole soul out earnestly at forebave been aware of the proceeding, and as no cominunication on 27th and 29th December last, having liad our attention called to a her feet, is triumphantly scorned, and recovering his the subject was received from them at the time, or has been received memorial, signed by certain magistrates of the county of Derby' guard dexterously turns the tables on the lady and builds from them up to the present time by the Secretary of State, he could dated the 5th inst., beg to solicit your consideration of the following new success on his humiliation, is remarkably well played. only presume that what was done was done with their knowledge and facts. Upon the trial of the prisoner

, Mr H. F. Gisborne and Mr J. v. But why

could not Mr Westland Marston have faith to the Secretary of State, in conformity with the law, on the receipt of confined, deposed to the fact of the prisoner being insane at that the end? 'We believe that he fell into the old snare of such a certificate, it was immaterial how the inquiry originated, pro- period, -viz., on the 11th of December, and the Rov. H. Moore doubting the power of an English audience to enjoy the vided the certificate was in accordance with the provisions of the chaplain of the gaol) made a written report of the prisoner's insanity

in his Minute-book, for the inspection of the visiting justices early in simple play of wit and poetry. In the original play, and statute. in the German version of it too, the disdainful Diana is in

“ There is one other passage in the letter from the magistrates to the month of December, and we have been credibly informed and

which Sir George Grey thinks it right to refer. They say that the believe that, notwithstanding such evidence of the surgeon and the last scenes all a woman, with the passion of her love effect of the

respite of Townley and of bis removal to a lunatic asylum governor and report of the chaplain, none of the visiting justices or set free. To provoke her indifferent suitor into a word of' has been to cause much dissatisfaction, and to create a feeling, greatly county magistrates, excepting ourselves

, have visited the prisoner or desire to win her, she tells him she has relented from her to be lamented, that there is one law for the rich and another for the taken any action whatever upon such evidence or report. We beg proud theory, and means to give herself to one of his poor; that justice has been turned aside by the power of money; and further to state that we entered upon the inquiry as to the prisouer's rivals , but she is caught in that poor little trap, and that if Townley and his friends had been poor be would have been mental condition

from a mere sense of duty, and we took considerable executed.' The magistrates may possess information as to the pains to ascertain the true state of his mind. On the one hand, we tied in a knot of etiquette that seems to bind

expenditure of money by Townley's friends of which the Secretary of believe our certificates to be perfectly true, while, on the other, we are her to make good the word so lightly spoken. She is in State has no knowledge ; nor is he aware of the manner in which the assured that none of the county magistrates who have signed the the last scene as a caught bird fluttering in the net, with magistrates believe such money to have been expended. But the most memorial of the 5th inst. have any personal knowledge of the subject none of the high concern about yet saving her dignity that satisfactory proof which can be given that the course taken with matter of our certificates. Neither the prisoner's adviser nor any of Mr Westland Marston gives her. She is all anxious dread regard to Townley is one which it required no expenditure of money his friends were present at our examinations, and they have in no way

to obtain, and which would have been equally taken had Townley and influenced our judgment, or attempted to do so.-We have, &c., W.T. when they seem to be binding her to the man and her dis- his friends been poor

, is a reference to a similar case which occurred at Cox, J.P. for the Borough of Derby; J. B. TORMAN, J.P. for the dainful suitor to the woman she and he have, in affected the Spring Assizes held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1862, when a man Borough of Derby; Thos. Roe, Mayor of the Borough of Derby ; disdain of each other, professed to choose for mates. Mr namned Clark, himself a poor man, and with no friends who were not HENRY GOODE, M.B. and M.R.C.S.; Thomas Harwood, Surgeon; Westland Marston makes her struggle yet to brave it out; convicted of wilful murder and sentenced to death. In that case, as in

also poor, and in whose defence no counsel even was retained, was &c., and Medical Officer to the Derby Union." makes Perin bid the Count fix his eye on her while she re- the case of Townley, the learned judge before whom Clark was tried, peats at the dictation of her father the form of betrothal to the in reporting the case to the Secretary of State, expressed his opinion THE ALLEGED CONSPIRACY IN PARIS. other man; makes her catch his eye, break down, cry out that the verdict was right, bnt called ihe attention of the Secretary of

According to the Droit Greco seems to have been chosen by Mazzini at the

unsympathetic face of the knight to whom she is State to the evidence as to the unsound state of mind of the prisoner to be the chief of the conspiracy against the Emperor discovered or plighting herself; and in short, gives the British public important a bearing 'upon the question whether he ought to be

at the time of the trial, as having, to use his own words, "so intensely invented by the French police, whose public character being worse something like the dose of clap-trap it is commomly con- executed. In consequence of this representation from the judge, an than Mazzini's places them of course first under suspicion, and Imperatori sidered to require. The German adapter, from whose text inquiry as to the insanity of the prisoner was directed by the Secretary and Saglio were adjoined to him. Trabucco, who has been condemned in this instance Mr Marston has departed, with better of State, and the result in that case, as in the present, was his at Paris and at London as a thief and a swindler

, is said to have taste follows Moreto, who in this last scene showed removal to a lunatic asylum. Sir George Grey trusts that this state- solicited by a letter to Mazzini the honour of becoming one of Greco's

lieutenants. The four left Lugano, bringing with them about 4,0001., only, a woman in a tender tumult of distressful love, exists, and which they appear to have shared, that a similar course, handed by Mazzini

to Greco; also poignards, revolvers,

percussion until Don Carlos has been admonished by the under similar circumstances, would not be adopted in the case of a caps, and explosive bombs. They are about the size of a man's hand, gracioso that he must now give her opportunity poor man as in the case of one whose friends had the power of expending of these bombs were found at the time of the seizure. Alter passing herself to loose the knot by which she is restrained. To money in his behali.

c.

through Switzerland and France the four are said to have arrived in the expectation that he will now plight his faith to his

The Times of yesterday in publishing the remainder of the cor- Paris on Christmas day. They thought it best to separate, reside in mock love he replies, therefore, that since he is the respondence promised in Sir George Grey's letter, thus summarises different botels, and frequently change their lodgings. Several days *Princess's knight and wears her colours, he is not yet free its contents : “ We are in a position to place before the public this were passed by them in ascertaining the places to which the Emperor to plight his troth elsewhere. He waits till she has for- morning a complete history of the proceedings connected with the was likely to go, and the hour at which he would leave the Palace. mally released him from her service. Then the Princess respite of George Victor Townley, and the case has acquired na and to the Bois de Boulogne. In the lining of Greco's trousers is said to herself plucking eagerly at the knot where she is tively observed. On the day following the conviction of the prisoner the explanations which they have very freely given, each man was to warned that she may loosen it, claims and obtains the Mr Baron Martin, who had tried him, re-opened the question by a word of both knights that they will abide by her decision. communication to Sir George Grey, suggesting, but merely suggesting, carry a poignard, a revolver, and two bombs. The eiglat bombs were Her decision is, that she belongs to him who has con- a further inquiry into the convict's actual state of mind. The Judge's should not have been injured by projectiles the four Italians were to quered Disdain with Disdain. And who is he ? asks Carlos. letter was not decisively, wordedo ou of his own opinions; Indeed, it como take advantage of the confusion, rush forward, and use their revolvers With two little tender whispered words,— Tusolo,—the medical witnesses at the trial had deposed in the strongest manner

veyed but this much-ihat he thought the conviction right, but as two and poignards. The examination of these daggers showed that the softened woman timidly creeps forward and lays her heart to the actual insanity of the prisoner as he stood at the bar, the Judge blades bore the trace of a very subtle poison." Their money," says

the Gazette des Tribunaux “was all expended in much extravagance, of love down at his feet. Mrs Herman Vezin would have thought it right to call the attention of the Home Secretary to the

as at one dinner the four spent upwards of 2002. They did not wish to known how to give grace to such a close, if Mr Westland point thus raised. To this letter Sir George Grey, after three days' Marston had not resolved that the taste of the British public nothing in the report of the trial to call for fresh investigation, and he being obliged after the crime to fly from Paris, and they therefore

consideration, replied in terms implying that he himself could see expose themselves to the risk of being without resources, in case of demands less delicate fare. And thus it seems that even begged the Judge to give him his own impression on the subject

, received any answer to their letter at the time of their arrest. The our good dramatic poets, like our players, can fall into the Mr Baron Martin answered that he could not say that he had truth of the declarations made is proved by another circumstance. A mischievous error, against which we so often have protested, formed any

decided opinion on the point,' but that he thought there letter was seized at the post-office addressed to Greco, written by of adapting their work to an assumed standard of bad taste. himself to the Commissioners in Lunacy, frankly avowing

his convic: which they waited for, and that if bad arrived sooner they should have Here we must stop for to-day, but we will not wait a tion that the verdict was right, and that the prisoner had been sane at week to say that Mr Falconer's new play, Night and Morn, the time of the murder, but stating the question which had been since accomplished their project. Saglio, who is only twenty-two years of at Drury LANE is certainly the best he has yet written. raised as to his present sanity, and commending it to the consideration age, is the only one of the prisoners who appears to show any of the Commissioners. These gentlemen lost no time in proceeding to

repentance."
Derby and
instituting the inquiry with which they had thus been charged. following terins the manner in which the conspirators are said to have

A Paris correspondent of the Emancipation of Brussels relates in the
THE TOWNLEY CASE.
On the 28th of December they made their Report. In this document

been arrested : they appear somewhat disposed to let Sir George Grey form an opinion Tho_following is a copy of the letter addressed by Sir George Grey for himself from the minutes of the proceedings which they submit l’Athènes, 185 Rue St Honoré, but in a few days they separated, and

“On first arriving in Paris they stopped at the Hôtel de Lyon et to Mr Evans, M.P., in reply to the memorial of the magistrates of the to him, but they do communicate their own conclusions to the extent Trabucco and Imperatori took a furnished room at 4 Rue Croix des county of Derby in the case of George Victor Townley: Grey to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 7th inst., trans- extraordinarily perverted moral sense, and of the hereditary taint alleged, carefully watched. At length, on Sunday, the 3rd of January, M.

“Whitehall, Jan. 8.--Sir, -I am directed by Secretary Sir George gant opinious thus deliberately professed by him (the convict), of his Petits-Champs: They were left comparatively free, in order that their mitting a letter addressed to him by the magistrates of the county of and apparently proved, to have existed in the family of the prisoner's Derby, whose signatures are attached to it. Sir George Grey has grandmother, we cannot consider him to be of sound mind; but his views the house in the Rue Croix des Petit-Champs, accompanied by some

Lagrange, police-officer, was charged to arrest them, and he went to road that letter with the attention to which both the importance of the of right and wrong, false as they are, appear to have been coherently acted subject it refers to, and the persons from whom it proceeds, justly upou, and with a full sense of what they involved. He reasons now agents. He was aware that the two men were in their room, but entitle it. In order to place the magistrates in full possession of the as he acted in committing the murder. Upon the point of his alleged they came out, in order to avoid bloodshed. At about four o'clock proceedings which have taken place with reference to the case of belief in a conspiracy against him we pressed him very closely, Trabucco left the house, and was immediately secured, and at the same George Victor Townley, a copy of the correspondence between this but we could not satisfy ourselves that this was in the nature moment some of the agents went up to the room to arrest Imperatori

. office and the Lunacy Commissioners, together with two certificates of of a delusion. They close their Report in these terms: "Being of Another party of police at about the same time captured Greco and Townley's insanity received by the Secretary of Stato, and of the order opinion, therefore, that the prisoner continues to be now in the same the other conspirator at 185 Rue St Honoré, as already stated.” for the removal of the prisoner Bethlem Hospital under the provi- mental state as when he committed the murder, and underwent his trial, sions of the statute 3 and 4 Vict., cap. 54, sec. I, will be transmitted we think that, applying the law as laid down by Mr Baron Martin to to you as soon as it can be prepared.

this case, the prisoner George Victor Townley was justly convicted.' Signor Mazzini has written the following letter, wholly denying * The magistrates will learn from this correspondence that it was in Such was the point to which the case was brought by the action of the bis alleged participation in the conspiracy: consequence of information conveyed to the Secretary of State by the Home Secretary taken upon the suggestion of the Judge. But by Accusations of every description have been, since the arrest of learned judge before whom the prisoner was tried, that, in his opinion, this time action had been taken in other quarters. On the day before four Italians at Paris charged with an attempt against Louis a further inquiry as to the sanity of the prisoner was necessary, that the date of the Commissioners' Report a certificate was forwarded to Sir Napoleon, heaped on me by the organs of the French Government, the Lunacy Commissioners were requested by the Secretary of State to George Grey, sigued by three justices of the peace and two medical and repeated by the English press. It has always been my known undertake the inquiry. Sir George Grey feels that it was impossible practitioners, briefly testifying, ia such language as a certain Act of habit io not discuss accusations put forth against me by avowed to refuse an inquiry so recommended by the judge, and he is not aware Parliament demanded, that George Victor Townley was insane. And enemies, and I feel a special dislike to do so when the accusations that, under the circumstances of the case, le could have intrusted the on the day after the Commissioners' Report a similar certificate was come from the agents of a man who, as far as in him lies, is by mere inquiry to more able or responsible persons, or to persons likely to con- forwarded, signed by two justices of the peace, one of whom had signed brutal force depriving my country of the unity which she claims, and duct it with greater impartiality and freedom from any preconceived the first certificate, and two medical practitioners, being identical making of Rome the basis of operation of the brigandage infesting opinion or doubtful theories. The Commissioners' report is among the with those acting in the first instance, to the same effect as before the south of Italy. Yielding; however, to solicitations of dear papers which will be sent you with the least possible delay, but the There were, therefore, three Reports made in as many days-one, in friends, I do declare : That I never did instigate any body to kill Secretary of State was not called upon to decide on that report alone the form of a certificate, on the 27th of December, another, from the Louis Napoleon. That I never did give to any man bombs, air guns, whether the sentenco of the law ought to be executed or not, because Commissioners of Lunacy, on the 28th; and a third, in the shape, as it revolvere, or daggers for that purpose. That Trabuco, Imperatori, at tbe same time that he received it be received also a certificate, dated were, of an amended certificate, on the 29th. Why the last should and Saglio are entirely unknown to me. That, therefore, the meeting December 27, sigued by three justices of the poace (one for the county have been sent it is not easy to see, unless it was thought better to com- summoned at Lugano, the absurd place of under-lieutenant given to and two for the borough of Derby) and two medical men, stating, in ply exactly with the words of the statute, which spoke of two' Imperatori in a brigade of four men, and the giving of the photothe terms required by law, that they had examined and inquired into justices of the peace, neither more nor less, whereas the first certificate graphs to the men, are absoluto falsehoods. That my pbotographs, the mental state of the prisoner, and certifying that he was insane. bad been signed by three. In fact, it was the latter of the two docu- with my autograph at the bottom, are sold for the “Venice EmanciThis was followed by a certificate to the same effect, dated the 29th of ments on which Sir George Grey acted, having, as is now known, pation Fund" at the office of the Unita Italiana, at Milan, and elseDecember, and signed by two justices of the peace for the county of no discretion in the matter. An Act of Parliament obliged him, on where. That no letter, with or without money, has ever been Derby (one of them being the same who had signed the former certi- the receipt of such a certificate as was sent to himn on the 29th of Decem- addressed by me to Greco in Paris. Greco I know. Hundreds, I ficate), and the same two medical men. Copies of these certificates ber,, to direct the removal of the convict from the gaol to a lunatic might say thousands, of young men belonging to our National Party are also among the papers which will be sent to you. Upon these asylum, and consign him to a madhouse instead of Icaving him to be of action, are known to me. Greco is an enthusiastic patriot, who certificates from four justices of the peace and two medical practitioners executed. This obligation be simply discharged."

took an active pårt in the enterprises of 1860 and 1861 in the south the prisoner, in accordance with the construction which has been upi

of Italy; and he has had, as sucb, contact with me. Any note of formly placed on the section of the Act before mentioned, was ordered The following is a copy of a letter addressed to Sir George Grey by mine in his possession, if there be any, must, however, belong to at to be removed to Bethlem Hospital

, the capital sentence being respited, Mr Cox, the magistrate of the county of Derby, who signed the least nine or ten months back. Enough in reply to accusations but not commuted. The magistrates in their letter of the 5th inst. certificate of insanity in the case of George Victor Townley: bitherto merely grounded on French police reports.--I am, &c., say, with reference to the inquiry made by two magistrates, aided by " Derby, Jan. 8.-Sir,-I beg to inclose you a letter signed by two Jap. 14.

JOSEPH MAZZINI,

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