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THE PERFECT SUBSTITUTE FOB. SILVER.

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I ILLIAM S. BURTON, GENERAL

I'URNISIIING IRONMONGER, by appointment to 11.11.11. the Pluses of WALES, sends a CA I‘ALOGUE gratis, and post paid. It contains upwards of 500 Illustrations of his illiniited Stock of Sterling Silver and ElectroPlate, Nickel Silver, and Britannia Metal Goods, Dish Covers, Hot-water Dishes, Stoves, Fenders, Marble Chimneypieces, Kitchen Ranges, Lion 15, Gaseliers, 'I‘ea Trays, Urns, and Kettles, Clocks, Table Cutlery, Baths, Toilet Ware, Turnery, Iron and Brass Bedstcads, Bedding, Bedroom Cabinet Furniture, 81.0., with Lists of Prices, and Plans of the 'I‘weut large SDOWrRIXHIIS, at 13‘.) Oxford street, W., I, la, ‘2, 3, an A Bowman street; 4, s, and 6 I’crry’s place; and 1 Newman yard, London.

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and CLOCK MAKER by special appointment to IIER MAIJESTY the QUEEN and II.R.11. the PRINCE of WALES, ani

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may participate in the profits of the past six months at the I

After deducting the sums applied in payment of the dividend, and in addition to the reserved fund, amountingl together to £114,000, there will remain a balance of

. Lianiu'riss.

£10 per share paid up on 00,000

. shares .................. ...£600,000

Camml{£2 per share added out of

reserved profits ....... .. 120,000
—-—- £720,000 0 0

Due by the Bank on current accounts,

deposit receipts (including interest
accrued). and other obligations ....... .. 16,472,278 13 7
Reserved fund, invested in CumolS, as per |
contra ........................................ .. 110,000 0 0
Rebate on bills not due ......................... .. 27,113 4 2
Balance at credit of prohtandloss .... .. 114,902 7 4

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That the most cordial thanks of the Meetlng be given to the Governor, the Deputy-Governor, and the Directors, for the able, efficient, and profitable manner in which they have conducted the affairs of the Bank during the past half-year.

That the best thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr W. W. Scrimgeour, the General Manager, for the zeal and ability so long displayed by him in the discharge of his important duties.

That the thanks of the meeting be given to Mr Barton, thegManagcr: Mr Ihgpcn, the Manuaer of the Regentstreet Branch ; Mr St Barbe, the Manager of the Coming— cross Branch; Mr Beattle, the Manager of the Temple-bar Branch; and to Mr Newmarch, the Secretary, tor the zealous and efficient manner In which they have discharged ilieir several duties.

(Signed) P. NORTHALL LAURIE, Governor.
That the thanks of the meeting be given to P. Northsll

Laurie, Esq., the Governor, for his conduct in the chair
this day.

NIL—The dividend will be payable on and after Wednesday, the 20ih instant.

Proprietors, desiring it, may exchange their present certiflcates for new ones, expressing that £13 per share have been paid.

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THIRTY-FIR sITinaronir of the UNION BANK of LONDON.

At a HALF-YEARLY MEETING of the Proprietors, held at the Court-room of the Banking-house, 2 Princes street, Mansion house, on WEDNI'EDAY, the 13111 of January, 1861,

P. NORTHALL LAURIE, Esq., Governor, in the Chair, The following report was read by the Secretary:

The Directors have the pleasure to report that the net profits for the six months ending the 31st December last. after payment of all charges £112,487 1s. 10d. for interest paid and due to customers on their current and deposit accounts), and making ample provision for all bad and doubtful debts, amount to £114,323 14s. 811., which, with £668 12s. 8d. brought forward from 30111 June last, make together £114,992 7s. 4d.

The Directors now declare a Dividend of 18s. per Sharei clear of income tax, for the six months ending 31st December last, amounting to £54,000, and leaving a balance of £60,992 7s. 4d.

This state of the accounts induces the Directors to anticlpate that which, to the ordinary course, they would have

postponed until July next. in order that the proprietors

earliest possible period ; they have, therefore, appropriated

£60,000 of the profits of the past half-year to the reserved

fund; and out of such reserved fund, thus increased to

£170,000, they have appropriated £60,000 in adding £1 per

share to the paid-12) capital of the Company, which will thus 7

be increased from 20,000 to £780,000.

£902 7s. so. for appropriation in .1 uly next.

T1115 UNION BANK OF LONDON.
For the Half-year ending 31st of December, 1863.
GENERAL BALANCE.

817,444,384 5 1

Cr. assure. Cash In the Bank .......... .. £711,014 8 a ,, in Bank of England 779,080 13 7 ,, lent atcall ............. .. 071,000 0 0

£2,493,331 2

Investments In Government stock, Esche

quer bills, Debentures, ch. ............ .. 921,200 4 2 £118,100 19s. 8d., L'onsols (taken at 021) 1 reserve fund ................................. .. 110,000 0 0 Bank premises, consisting of lrceliold buildings in l'riiici-s street, Minsloiihouse street. Argyll place, and Fleet street; and lease and hstuies of No. 4 l’iillmall East ............................... .. 108,773 4 3 Loans, biltdlscounied, etc. ................ .. 13,811,077 14 s $117,444,364 s 1 PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT. Amount of dividend of 18s. per share ..... £54.000 0 0 Appropriated torescrvcd fund ................ .. 60,000 0 0 Balance, being undivided profit carried forward to next half-year ............... 993 7 4 £114,092 7 4 Profit unappropriated on 30th June, 1863 £668 12 8 Amount of net profit of the half-year ending 31st December, 1503, after deducting all expenses, and interest paid and due (£112,487 1s. 10d.) allowed to customers on their current and (1ch111 accounts... 114,323 14 8 £114,292 7 4

The Governor then declared a dividend for the past halfyear of 18s. per share, clear of income tax.

Also the capitalisation of 60,0007. of the reserved fund, by adding 11. per share to each of the 60,000 slmres ot' the Compsuy.

It was resolved unanimously,

That the report now read be adopted, printed, and circulated among the proprietors.

(Signed) JAMES PARQUIIAR, Deputy Governor.

Extracted from the minutes.
HENRY NEWMARCII, Secretary.

PLATE.—The following First-class Screw Steamers: KEPLEP. .... .. 1,499 tons register, Captain, John Carroll.

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(including the sum ofi than £25 Per Share.

Dincroas. Jaiéies Goodsou, Esq. (Chairman of Great Eastern Railway 0.) >

' Richard Spooner, Esq.. (Deputy-Chairman of Bank of Hindustan, China, and Japan).

James Duncan Thomson, Esq. (Messrs Thompson, Watson, and Co., Cape Town), St Peter'thambcrs.

Thomas Colterell Esq., 50 Eaton square (Director of Bank of Hindustan. China, and Ja an.)

Geor e Smith. Es . (Deput - hairmau Kent Water-Works, an Director of set Lon on Bank).

Joseph William Holland, Esq., Birlcy house, Forest hill.

Robert Collum, Esq. (Director of Scottish Union Insurance

i, Company, and Director of the Finn \‘auey Railway Company).

Louis Nathan, Esq., 32 York terrace. Regent's park (Director 01 Van Dieman’s Land Company).

Richard Davis Heatley, Esq. (Messrs lIestley, Cowan, and Co.) 6 Great Winchester street.

Soucrroas. Messrs Maples, Maples, and Teasdale, 6 Frederick's place, Old Jewry Messrs Hughes, Mastermsn, and Hughes, 17 Bucklersbury.

Basxras. Messrs Barclay, Bevan, Tritton, Twclls, and Co., 54 Lombard street.

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The enormous increase of commerce and industrial enter.prlse has caused proportionate requirements for financial aid and accommodation, 11 large proportion of the must i important works of the time being dependent, in their ' early stage, upon temporary assistance from the capitalists , of the City of London.

The necessity for such facilities has long been recognized and successfully acted upon on the Continent, and it is now fully admitted hero.

The Association will undertike all financial business of importance, including the negotiation and arrangement

' of loans on security of rates, harbour (11101, or other ‘ similar securities, and will Itself make alvauces wherever the transaction ls only for a limited period. The Shares of the existing Financial Associations are steadily increasing in value, and stand already at the following premiums ou the amount paid up :—

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The BANK of NEW ZEALAN D, Bankers to the General Government of New Zealand, the Previncial Government of Cargo, 810., dtc., give Notice that they are authorised to Sell by Public Tender, the first lnstalment of £200,000 of the Half-million Loan issued under the authority of the Otsgo Loan Ordinance of 1862.

The Debentures, with Coupons attached, are issued in sums of £100, bearing interest at the rate of 6 per cent. per sunum, commencing on 1st January, 1:164. to be redeemed on 1st July, 1898.

Both princi s1 and interest are made payable at the Treasury, in unedin, or at the Bank of New Zealand, London, as may be arranged.

Tenders will be received until Onc o'clock on Wednesday, 201h January, 1804. specifying the total amount'of Debentures required, and the premium per cent. which will be given for the same.

Adeposit of £5 per cent. on the amount of each Tender must be previously aid to the Bank of _Ne_w Zealsnd and receipt for same our used in letter of application.

Tenders will be 0 tied in the presence of all persons interested, at One o'c ock on Wednesda , 201h January, 1864, at the Bank of New Zealand. The big est bidders shall be deemed the irchasers, provided the prices are not lower than the minimum placed in a sealed pa er on the table before the Tenders are opened. Where ‘cndcrs are made upon the same terms, a pro rats distribution on such Tenders Will be made. _

The Debentures contracted for will be delivered at the Bank of New Zealsnd, on Monday, 1st February, 1864, upon pa ment of the balance due thereon.

‘he discoveries of Gold Fields in many parts of the Province of Otago, and the consequent influx of a large population, have rendered immediately necessary the formation of roads, the improvement of inlaii navigation, the erection of puhhc buildin s, and the undertaking of other works essential to the wel-being of the community. To these purposes the proceeds of this Loan will be app ed.

The principal and interest of this Loan are charged and made payable out of the revenues of the province.

The Revenue for the year ending 30th September, 1803, amounts to £321,007 13s. 90. Expenditure, half-year ending 31st March, 1863, exclusive of roads and public buildings £101,032 18s. 8d. It is to be less noted that the Revenue for the last two years has been chlefly derived from the sale of town property. The sales of rural lands have been suspended until the land regulations are amended. From this source an increase of £100,000 may be expected to the Revenue.

Forms of Tender may be had at the Ofllces of the Bank, 50 Old Broad street, and at the Agency of the Provincial Government of Otago, Edinburgh; at both places the following ordinances and domments may be consulted viz. :—

1. An Abstract of Revenue from 1854 to 1863 inclusive.

2. An Abstract of Expenditure from 1854 to 18631110111sive.

8. Statement of various Loans authorised to be raised by this Province, and the position in whlch they stand.

4. 'lhe various Loan Ordinances, together with the Provlnclal Government Gazette, containing proclamation of Governor's assent to them.

5. The Coupons Signature Ordinance, 1863.

6. Report of Select Committee on Finance, 1863.

7. Large map of the Province, showing the positions of

the Otago Gold Fields. F. LARKWORTHY, Managing Director,

00 Old Broad street, London, llth January, 1864.

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LOSS OF APPETITE, WEAKNESS,

&.c.--A TONIC—Dr Ilassall and the Medical Profession recommend that valuable stimulant, "WATERS’ QUININE WINE." _

Manufactured only by ROBERT WATERS, 2hfartin’s lane, Cannon1strcet, London, EC. Sold by Grocers, Italian Warehousemen, and others, at 30s. a dozen.

__ Wholesale Agents, 13. Lewis and 00., Worcester.

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NEW YORK BY CAPTAIN BURTON. Ready-this day, in 2 vols., with Portrait of the Author, lap and Illustrations.

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" Captain Burton's ascent of the vir 'n summits of the Camaroons Mountains would have me e the reputation of any other explorer. . . . This is, at any rats, an interest worthy of the attention which Cs tain Burton devotes to it, and we thank him for a book whic is as instructive as it is pleasant, as significant and sug cstive to the watchful statesman ss it is full of amusement or the verisst idler. To those who care only for amusement we commend his description 0 f the Cameroons, and his narrative of the incidents which befel him on his route up and down them, while the serious and practical suggestions of the work will suflsicntly commend themselves."—The Times, Jan. 81h.

Tinsley Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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Tinsley Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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the above, LADY AUDLEY'S SECRET, 60.

RECOMMENDED TO MERCY. 6s.
GUY LIVINGSTONE. as.
BARREN HONOUR. 6s.

SWORD AND GOWN. 4s. 6d. Tinsley Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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This day is published. the Second Edition, with Map and Illustrations, in 2 vols.,

WVANDERINGS in WEST AFRICA; “as from LIVERPOOL to rsssanoo r0. By

Tinsley Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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COAST of IRELAND. Tinslcy Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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This day is ready at all the Libraries, in 3 vols.,
E L D in BONDAGE; or, Granville
de Vigne. By ‘ Ouroa.’
Tiuslcy Brothers, 18 Catherine street, Strand.

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CAN DOVER GRAMMAR SCHOOL,
For Children under Fifteen Years of Age.
Visitor.-Ths Lord Bishop of WINCHESTER.
Warden—The Rev. 1'. V. Thornton.
Ilesd Molten—The Rev. T. Gwynn, ILA.
Second Master.-The Rev. 1". T. Wintle, M.A., he.

Boys are prepared for the p, Iic schools, for the Oxford, non-member examinations, on for agricultural and commercial life. Two scholarships of 151. each, tenable for one year, or at the option of the successful candidates. Nominations to Marlborough College are given every year. Terms : —11cad Master’s house, nominated pupils, 451.; others, 607. Second Master's house, nominated, 351.; others, 401. The next Term be 'ns January 251h. For further particulars, apply to the ev. Thomas Gwynn, Candovcr Park, Micheldever Station, Ilants.

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SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

NEW SERIES OF SCHOOL MAPS.

x U S T A L A S I A. l Scale—86 Hilcs to an Inch. Size—4 n. 10 in. by 4 ft. 2 iu.-—Mountcd on Canvas, Varnished, with Roller, Ills.

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. Rom-c in the Middle Ages. . The Danish Duchies. John Murray, Albsmarls street.

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Q MATHEMATICAL COURSE for the

UNIVERSITY of LON DON; containing an outline of the Subjects in Pure Mathematics included in the Regulations of the Senate for the Matriculatlon and Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science Pass Examinations; with the entire Series of Mathematical I'a crs set by the University from 1838 to the Current Your. By Tnoisas Kilian, ALA. Loud. Paar I. (Matriculation Examination). larged and improved.

London; Longinan, Green, and Co., Paternoster row.

New Edition, en

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Cloth, gilt edges, price 2s. Gd.. by post 2s.8d., Sixteenth

Annual Edition. ‘

HO’S WHO for 1864.‘

“A complete epitome of that handy knowledge

of the personnel of the public life of this country, which

Every one so often requires to refer to.“ - Illustrated London ews.

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London: A. H. Bally and Co" Cornliill.

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'I'los Ma includes Australia. Tasmania, New Zeoland, Borneo, an the Malay Archipelago. The natural features are accurately and distinctly represented, and the tracks of all the Australian travellers up to the present time are laid down. The divisions of the British Possessions into provinces and counties are shown. The names of all the chief towns are made prominent, while those of the smaller county and post towns, with the most considerable villages, are inserted in smaller type. It has been thought desirable to give the names of more places than are required merely for elementary trachin , owing to their irii ortancc at the present time as points or emigration, andt eir connexion with the growth of the colonies.

AUSTRALASIA, Showing the Division of the British Possessians into Dioceses, Price 14s.

This is another edition of the same Map, with the addition of the Ecclesiastiml Divisions, which are printed in red, so as not to interim with the distinetness of the other divisions

The Maps of Europe and Holy Land have been already published. England and “ales, and Asia, are in preparation.

Depositorics -Ismdon: 11 Great Queen lstroct, Lincoln‘s

gill belds; s Boylessheags , ss Piccadilly; and by all ,solisellcrs. '

other INSTRUMENTS, played on with the Bow, from the Rcmotest Times to the Present; also an Account of the Principal Makers. English and Foreign. By W. Ssunrs. I".S.A., and S. A. I-‘ossrizs,

London: J. Russell Smith, 36 Soho square.

New Ready.

UNCTIOlN AL DISEASES of
WOMEN 1 Cases Illustrative of a New Method of ‘
Treating them throuin the Agcnry of the Nervous System by y
means of COLD and lll'lA'I‘. Also an Appendix containing
Cases Illustrative of a New Method of treating EPILEPSY,
PARALI'SIS, and DIABETES. By Jours CHAPMAN, Ml).
8vo, price 2s. 6d.
London = ’I‘riibner and Co., 60 Paternoster row.

OUNTESS of PEMBROKE’ S
MONUMENT. THE BUILDER OI." THIS DAY,

price 4a., by post bd., contains z—Fioc view of the Countess
of Pembrokc's Monument—“Going Along." Como and
Turin—Professor Smirke on Architecture —Tho Bhore
Ghaut Incline—The Shakapsare Celebration—Condition of
llu:kiugliamshire, with illustrations—Materials for Life of
Vaudyck—Architecturul Alliance and Congleton—New
Stables, Lyme Hall, Cheshire—Architectural Association—
'I‘lie Pictures Discovered at Gloucester—Hie late Mr J. J.
Scales, Architect—The Linseed Oil Question—Progress in
Balfaero-Odlce = 1 York street, COveht Garden; and all

Bookie] Ian. I

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An Illustrated Edition, From Sixty Original Drawings by Gzonos Cloiasuarut, Lsscn. and Tunisian.

Quarto, with magnificent emblematic cover designed by John Leighton, I".S.A., rice 21s., or in morocco, 31s. 6d.

" There could not be ound a more pleasant book than ' The Ingoldahy Legends.I Aserica of humorous legends illustrated by three such men as Leech. Cruikshank, and Tennicl—whal can be more tempting 'r"—Times, Dec. 4.

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" The theme is one that will stir many a heart, young and old; and Mr Yunge has treated it in a manner that meant fail to bring him bonanr."-Atherimum.

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I,‘ Also, a Cheap and Popular Edition, without Illustrations, uniform With the Miscellanies, in crown Svo, Gs.

E N D E N N I S. Illustrated by the Author. 2 vols., Bro, cloth, 26s.

“J Also, a Cheap and Popular Edition, without Illustrations, uniform with the Miscellanics, in crown 8m, 7s.

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',' The Contents of each Volume of the Miscellanics are also published in separate Parts, at various prices, as above.

Loadom Bradbury and Evans, ll Bouveric street. EC.

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The EDINBURGH REVIEW, No CCXLIII, January, 1864. Bvo. pricc Gs.

CONTINTHZ

I. 'I'liermo-Dynamles. II. The Harlan Ciesars and the Antonlnes. III. Dangeau and Saint Slinon. IV. The Pmrus of India. V. Dean bfllinan and Dean Stanley on Jewish History, VI. Scottish Religions Houses Abroad. VII. The Negro ltuca In America. VIII. Proudo's History of England. Vols. V.—Vlll. IX. Ireland.

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ESSAYS on the ADMINISTRATION S of GREAT BRITAIN from I783 to last). By the Right Hon. Sir G. C. Laws, Bart. Edited by Sir E. lIsan. But. aw, Portrait. [Nearly ready.

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The Rev. HAROLD BROWNE'S EXPOSII‘ION of the THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, Historical and Doctnual. SisthEditiou, revised. 8m, 16s.

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16. The VINE and its FRUIT, in relation to

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London: LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, and GREEN.

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IT IS NOT CONTEMPLATED TO CALL MORE THAN £10 PER SHARE IN ALL, OR MORE THAN £5 PER

SHARE

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IIIS GRACE THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH—Pth.
THE DIRECTORS OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SOCIETY (LIMITED) ACTING AS A FINANCE COMMI'I'I‘EE.

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The Company will act as Agents between the investing Public and the Borrower They will also make advances repayable at fixed terms, or by terminable annuities, on Landed Estate, and on every charge upon Land, such as County and Parish Rates, Rates levied on Land under Public or Private Acts of Parliament, Royal Charters, Commissions of Sewers, Improvement Rent Charges on Private Estates, Town Improvement Rates, Ground Rents, Harbour Trusts, &c.

All the necessary preliminary steps have been taken for applying to Parliament in the ensuing Session for a special Act in aid of the Company's operations; and with a view mmediately to secure to the Company a field for the commencement of business, provisional

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and remunerative arrangements have been made for operations of an extensive character in connection with securities created for the Improvement of Land, under the Lands Improvements Company's Acts of Parliament, and which are preference charges on valuable private estates.

Upon the basis of the Securities thus acquired, the Company will issue Mortgage Debentures at fixed rates of interest, payable half-yearly, for shorter or longer terms, as may suit Investors; and such a system of registration will be adopted as will effectively protect the lenders from any over issue of Debentures by the Company. It is well known that very large sums of money lie comparatively idle in the Provincial Banks, and in the hands of Trustees and private individuals, which it is believed will be readily invested through those Agencies, in Mortgage Debentures founded upon real securities, and further guaranteed by a large uncalled capital, many of the securities constituting, as before mentioned, first-charges upon Land under special Acts of Parliament.

The Company, acting by their Debenture system, will be enabled to turn over their paidup capital many times in the year. It is estimated that a working fund of 200,000!., being 10!. per share, would be suflicient to conduct a business involving operations of three or four millions per annum, and a moderate commission upon that amount would produce an income, which, after making the most ample deductions for working expenses and reserve fund, will leave a sum available for Dividend sufficient to remunerate the Shareholders on an unusually high scale, as proved by the large profits made by the Lands Improvement Company in the ten years they have been in operation.

The powerful landed and financial support which the Company has already obtained, insure the two elements which are essential to a commercial success, namely a steady and constant demand and supply.

Applications for Shares must he made to the ImauArIorsAI. FINANCIAL Soom'rr (Limited), at their temporary Offices, 54 Old Broad street, E.C.

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Name in full

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Address in full
Reference
Date

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_ ‘ ting-adios, Number 16 Little Pulteney street, in the Parish of St James, Westminster, in the County of Middlesex, and ten street, In the Strand, In the aforesaid County of Middlesex, at Number 9 Wellington street aforesaid—Saturday, January 16, 186*.

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THE POLITICAL EXAMINER.

If I might give a short hint to an im artial writer it would be to tell him his fate. If be resolved to venture upon tic darzlg rous precipice of telling unhiassed truth let him proclaim war with mankin —ueitln:r to give nor to take quarter. If he tells the crimes of great men they fall upon him with the iron hands of the law; if he tells them of virtues, when they have any, then the mob attach him With slander. llut if he regards truth, let him expect martyrdom on both Bites}, and then he may go on fearless; and this is the course 1 take myself.—

a 'or.

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If anything could redeem the political coup d’état of the French Emperor it would be his commercial coup (l‘e'lat, without which it is too clear that the trade of France would have remained in the bondage of the prohibitive system for years. By the treaty the Gordian knot was cut, but the lamentations raised show how irresistible would have been the opposition in the field of ordinary legislation. Indeed, the ablcst and most zealous expounders of free trade, when they speak on the behalf of the Government, seem constrained to adopt an apologetic tone which ill becomes their cause, but is doubtless a concession to powerful prejudices. Certain we are, however, that it is an unwise concession, and that a holder course would be more successful. Throw the stone, and the giant dies. We know the bugaboo well, and that nothing is gained by humouring the fears of it. Frederick Bastiat never spared error, never showed quarter, demolished fallacy, and set up the opposite truth in its place. It would

have grieved his uncompromising, courageous spirit to hear his disciple, M. M. Chevalier, making out an excess of exports over imports as something satisfactory, in answer to the complaints of the Protectiouists. And M. Chevalier, in doing this, knew that he was doing homage to error, for he had alluded to the exploded fallacy of the balance of trade. Why not declare at once that it matters not a rush on which side the balance lies if trade is, on the whole, prosperous?

With us the imports always exceed the exports, and knowing that we are doing well, we rejoice in the steadily increasing magnitude of both operations. When we see our experts increasing we know that the imports are keeping pace with them. But, as M. Forcadc La Roquette observes, “ some economists say that it is most profitable to sell as “ much and buy as little as possible." But what would be thought of the proposition to sell as much and get paid for as little as possible? A large portion of the imports are in the nature of payments for exports—merchandize had in exchange. Yet there may be a portion for which the exchange is made not in goods but in the precious metals, and this it is that scores Protectionists. But what does it show? That some commodity is wanted more than the precious metals. The gold therefore goes out, but it returns again, as surely as the tide, when the gold in its turn is in excess in one place and has its office to perform in another. No Protectionist takes fright at an excess in the import of the precious metals over the export, and no sound economist rejoices at it, or regards it as other than one of the fluxes which must be followed by reflux. Man cannot live on bread alone, nor commerce on gold alone. If our imports were only the gold for our experts we should be in a very bad way.

Bastiat pushes the argument ad absurdum. in asking whether the loss at sea of all ships bound to France would oonduce to the national wealth, as it must do if it be true that trade is prosperous in proportion to the excess of exports over imports. No im rts would then be the summum bonum. But Bastiat’s disciples hardly dare to broach Bastiat's arguments, thinking the strong meats unsuited to the babes of the Legislative Assembly. And well said M. Curé:

Those who talk to us about free trade should understand that we have not yet got it; we are still under the re'girnc of protection, and those who complain of the treaty of commerce would be glad to take us back to prohibition.

The trade of France is only semi, or demi-semi emancipated, and its broken fetters hang upon it still. The principle of free trade not being developed and in complete operation, there is a want of harmony in the working of commerce, and hence resort must be had to excuses and apologies for what may appear amiss here and there. There is great improvement from the advance, or perhaps we should rather say, escape made from the vicious system, but it argues the more that remains to be done by a multitude of indications. Free Trade must, indeed, be taken for better for worse, and all its consequences accepted in implicit faith. This is what is wanting on the part of the advocates of the improved commercial policy in the Legislative Assembly, and well observes the Times :

In his anxiety, we presume, to find some common ground, the Freetrsder is apt to abandon the strength of his position, sndto narrow the controversy to the interests of the producer, or, still worse, to tables of experts and imports, of shipping inwards or ship

Simon, 'JAlflUARY 5.9;; 1864.

demonstrably sound principles of commercial legislation had dimin- ‘ ished production, or reduced shipping, what would be the logicall, inference? Not, we apprehend, that the principles were bad, but. that the state of things to which they were applied amounted to a, gross and crying injustice; that the people had been heavily taxedl to support artificial trades; and that they were now relieved by tho , full extent of the difference between the price under Protection and l the price under Free Trade,—a difference which had been enough

to restrict the production that was before unduly stimulated.

PEACE OR WAR P

During the first ten days of the new year diplomacylooked , very pale, and the Stock Exchange could hardly keep its teeth from chattering. German and Danish soldiers, full; of mutual rage, had come into presence of one another on I the banks of the Eider. On every conceivable point their commanders ditfered fiercely; no hope of compromise remained, and nothing withheld them from deadly conflict but the exceedingly hard frost. According to the weather prophets, the frost was likely to lost many weeks, and thence alone speculators and secretaries of legation sipped a cup of cold comfort. But whether there be prophesies, they shall fail; and whether there be frost, it shall cease. The ice and the east wind are gone, and the ford, able Eider still rolls unsullied to the sea. If it was not for something, the heroes with “an unrestrainable im“ pulse” would ere this have struck Denmark to the heart. Happily for humanity and the peace of the world, HomeOflice ethics are not yet acknowledged in foreign affairs, and deliberate murder is not yet permissible or safe, according to international law, if cutthroats have only played the fool or talked a certain amount of nonsense beforehand. The Federal Diet having sent its bravoes swaggering and shouting up to the very threshold of burglary during the night, have been overtaken by a fit of circumspection, as day begins to break upon their unaccomplished crime. They don’t understand exactly why the bigger bullies should not make common cause with them, considering how they took part in encouraging the weaker fellows to begin, and uttered not a word of dissuasion, until several large and ugly constables of the peace, unarmcd indeed, but looking dangerous to thieves, appeared in sight. 'Their commissioflfis in Holstein, leftwithout definite instructions, have evidently been mightily afraid of committing their masters or themselves, or the irresistiblc contingent under their direction on the banks of the Eider. They have issued orders that the customs shall be collected, and the police administered by the Ducal government, but they carefully abstain from saying who is lawful Duke:

“ For which is the Pretender, which the King '1'—
God bless us all that’s quite another thing."

By recent accounts the Danish cockade is forbidden to be worn by employés in Holstein; but the Danish button, with the crown and arms of the monarchy, is retained, and kept in high polish. Nor are we at any loss to account for this characteristic fit of irresolution. The Courts of Vienna and Berlin, when their half-and-half proposal was rejected by eleven votes to five, gavc notice that if any further attempt were made by the Diet to assert the pretensions of the Duke of Augustcnburg, they would take the matter into their own hands without further consulting their crazy accomplices. So they seem now to have done.

And what has wrought the change, by some so unexpected, in the counsels of Berlin and Vienna? The explanation is not far to seek. On the 17th ult. Lord Russell addressed a dcspatch, one of the wisest and best he has ever written, to the British Minister at Dresden, a copy of which he was instructed to leave with Herr von Beast, and the contents of which were no doubt communicated to the Prussian and Austrian Governments. In that sententious epistlc the European bearings of the question are epitomized in a manner not to be mistaken. The Powers which signed the Treaty of 1852, England holds bound to her, whatever the undeclared motives may have been that weighed with any of them in becoming parties to it. The failure of Denmark to keep certain promises, said to have been made by her in 1851, assuming for the moment that the failure or shortcoming has not been wilfully forced upon Denmark by German obstructive policy,—-may be a plansible ground of complaint by the Germanic States, but cannot furnish a shade of justification for their breaking the Treaty with England.

The entire basis of treaty arrangements in Europe would be overthrown if such an excuse for the breach of a clear and simple treaty could be admitted. Any Sovereign when called upon to fulfil his engagements might say—“My reason for withdrawal from such a treaty was that I had made another agreement with one of the parties thereto. This other agreement has been violated; my treaty with you is therefore null and void." The Court of Dresden will understand, that if such a line of argument were admitted asvalid every existing treaty would become waste paper.

The Government of Saxony lost no time in clearing

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itself of the imputation; and on the last day of the year

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ping outwards. Supposing that it could be shown that a return to : gone by, Lord Russell addressed another despatch to the were there no rising discontents in that country to belmust be taken into account to settle the adaptation on diverted and distracted ; and were there not at its head av principle. It is probable that the adjustment of power is moody and taciturn man of dreams, whose whole life has better in the Merchant than in the Royal Navy, because been spent in rejecting the actual as intolerable, and in the interests of owners are against any excess, all power more or less successful attempts to show that the impossible! not absolutely necessary and productive being so much may be accomplished,—thesc difficulties of the great‘money thrown away, and so much bulk for carriage or German Powers might seem less formidable. But nobody cargo diminished. “ How little will do P" is the question pretends to believe that Napoleon III. has ceased to plot or of the thrifty owner; “ How much P” is the question in to aspire. All his success has been achieved in climbing; the service, regardless of expense. Hence in the Merchant and he must climb on. He has never concealed his ‘ Navy we seldom or never hear of a case of excess of steam ambition to recover what his uncle lost to France in the power, but sometimes the reverse; not often, however, for campaigns of 1813 and 1814. Hitherto he has not had there seems to be much less danger of error on the one a decent excuse or a safe opportunity for attempting to side than on the other, and if there be error, the remedy is rectify the frontier of the Rhine. Let the Treaty of easicrtosupply whatiswanting thantoreducealumbering

British Envoy at Frankfort, for the information of the President of the Diet. Far from espousing the side of Denmark as a partisan, the English Government differs from the English people in so far yielding to the sinister importunities of Germany as to repudiate the policy of the Cabinet of Copenhagen in insisting upon a retention of the common Constitution for Slesvig and Jutland. On the other hand, it does full justice to the common-sense question of the Danish Government, which, after advising the withdrawal of the Danish forces from Holstein, and of the patent for the union of that province with the rest of the monarchy, refuses to recommend any similar concession with regard to Slesvig, and asks where are concessions by Denmark to stop, or what is to be the consideration for making them? Austria and Prussia, while refusing to acknowledge the Pretendership of the Duke of Augustenburg, declare that the title of King Christian to the Duchics would depend upon the fulfilment of certain engagements regarding them by his Government. For the people of Slesvig and of Holstein, this would be an incontrovertible doctrine; and if the question lay between them and him, England would certainly not interfere. But the case is wholly different when Count Rechberg and Baron von Bismark show a disposition to juggle with the engagements entered into by their respective Governments in the form of a solemn treaty made twelve years ago, and acquiesced in ever since by all the parties concerned. The present King of Denmark, upon his accession, was acknowledged peaceably, and all but unanimously, by the inhabitants of both the Duchies. By the Treaty of 1852, his right was solemnly recognised by all the great Powers of Europe; and Prussia and Austria are civilly but significantly given to understand by England, that they must keep their solemn agreement with her, or prepare to abide the consequence. The meaning and the moral of this timely warning is plain. England is the only great ally to whom either of them could look in the hour of danger. Traditional hatred and territorial jealousy have long embittered Sweden against Prussia, and Italy against Austria. Posen and Hungary are seething with disafi'ecticn, and in other provinces there smouldcr the unquenehed embers of 1848, and all the hopes and ambitions which those embers, if fanned, would firs. thnce could either capecfifrisndly i ‘ ' -i ‘ to-morrow, were England justly alienated? And what signify in comparison with this consideration, votes of confidence by the nominee diet of Frankfort, or tremendous cheering by the self-appointed or club-chosen delegates of the National Verein? A Frankfort parliament, not very long ago undertook to confer the Imperial crown on the head of the House of Brandenburg, and the late crazy King Frederick William accepted the gift, and assumed the title. Yet within three months he was glad enough to put off his paper diadem, and his family would give a good deal to tear the ridiculous page out of the history of their race. The present King has never been susceptible to popular allurcments or applause; and his son, however anxious he may be to win him back to constitutional courses in domestic affairs, can hardly be suspected of indifference to the friendship of this country. The majority of the Chamber of Representatives, and a large portion of the Prussian press, appear to be indeed opposed to every measure of caution or of compromise. We own the fact, and we do so with unaffected sorrow. Our good wishes and our sympathies have until lately gone with them undividedly, and we take part against them now with unconcealed regret. But so long as right is right and wrong is wrong, the people and the press of England cannot waver as to the side which they espouse. It is not our fault if we find ourselves driven to admit that we have more hope from the time-serving prudence of tho unpopular ministers of Prussia than from the lawless and fantastic ambition of her House of Representatives. Meanwhile they have themselves, iu their blind fury, contributed most essentially to the preservation of peace, by refusing to sanction the loan requisite to provide adequately for the contingency of war.

Austria’s position, though ostensibly less embarrassing, is really not less precarious. The accounts from Hungary are conflicting as to the reception which M. Kossuth’s proclamation has met with; and it is possible that, should another spring and summer pass without any movement in Italy, the Magyars Would maintain their attitude of mute and passive resistance, for which the Court of Vienna has long shown that it does not care. But an oppressed people never know themselves very long beforehand what unforeseen casualty may awakcn dormant passions and longsmothered resentments amongst them. They are not always the schemes of insurrection longest prepared that prove the most formidable; and he must be indeed a confident man who would undertake to say how many days or weeks a people misrulcd like the Hungarians would remain tranquil, after the tidings had spread that the Italians Were again in arms against the common foe. Were there no second empire in France ready to go to war for an idea; THE NEW ROYAL YACHT.

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London be wilfully broken by Germany, and he will have both. This is what Lord Russell’s despatch calls up palpably to the eyes of all who can see, by no occult’ witchery or power of incantation, but by invoking' earnestly the spirit of justice and good faith. The Foreign Secretary’s dcspatch contains no threat; but it says as' plainly as if the words were written there,—if the Govern-l ments of Germany will not keep their engagements with us, i our alliances with them are at an end. Hence it is that we look with less anxiety than others seem to do on thel immediate future; that we still believe there may be peace, ' in spite of the apparent imminence of war.

Since the foregoing was written, intelligence has reached? as that the_Czar has declared that if any step be taken‘ towards the dismemberment of Denmark, he will consider himself released from the obligations of the Treaty of l 1852; and that he will consider himself free to reasscrti the rights of his House to the Gottorp portion of the Duchics. If this be true it will go far to compel a pacific settlement of the question.

A new yacht has been built for her Majesty's use inside the Isle of Wight, and of course it must be supposed that the best skill of the Admiralty“ has been employed in the construction. The requirements were not extraordinary, for a fine and fast sea-boat was not wanted, but a vessel of small draught of water for the smooth passage between Osborne, Portsmouth, and Southampton. The Fairy had been found too small, and something between her and the Royal yacht was the thing desired. Well, what has been supplied? The trials must answer. Upon the first experiment the Alberta. (for that is her name) broke her paddle-wheel. Upon the second her average speed was about fifteen knots, but this rate was due altogether to the power of the engines, and a surf at the bow and under the quarter unequivocally accused the form of the vessel of some great fault. The report of the second trial in the Times is as follows :

Yesterday was a day of smooth water and very little wind, but the sea curled up under the Alberta’s bows, when at the measured mils, nearly level with her upper deck, while at the same time a sea followed on each quarter almost saws-ind to break over the ship, and under full speed the sfterdcck is continually swamped with the sea flung on board. The Alberta, in fact, is nothing more than a thing without form, driven through the water by tremendous engine power, but not worthy the position of a yacht for her Majesty's private service.

The third trial, on Tuesday, was little more satisfactory. She was relieved forward of the weight of anchors, and moveable fittings, and of a great part of her fuel, and she was trimmed on an even keel, and her draught reduced by two inches. All this gave some improvement, but still she carried with her that tell-tale surf at how and quarter which the correspondent of the Times describes as a perfect tempest of a sea when the water clear of her is as smooth as a. mill-pond. The vessel, however, did better with reduced power, and the Portsmouth correspondent of the Times observes :

The difference in the gain in speed between the full and half power runs is a sufficient prool that the vessel is overweighted, or perhaps, speaking with a more correct definition, that the engines and hull are out of proportion to each other.

This is a very important observation. After all, the fault may not be so much with the model of the vessel as it appears to be. It is possible that she may be overpowered, over-done with engines, and their force, and this is said to be a common fault in the navy, whether truly or not we are not prepared to say, but it deserves inquiry.

On the Thames are seen fast steamers which fly through the water with the smallest ripple at the bows, and none perceptible at the quarter. If the weight and power of the engines were doubled, the speed of these vessels would actually be diminished, and they would carry a great surge with them. The immersion would be changed, lines would be brought under water never intended for the water, and added to this cause of obstruction, the increased power of the engines would drive their heads down into the water instead of driving them liftineg through the water. To try the experiment in the simplest way, take a fast four-cared boat, man it with twice the right number, and double bank it with eight instead of four cars, and see what way will be got out of this apparently increased, but really diminished power. The boat will be all by the head, and steer badly, her free board will be diminished, lines never designed for the water will be in the water, the flotation all changed, and she will be a thoroughly clumsy concern, literally overpowered. More powder more kill is a barbarous maxim,

as false in mechanics as in gunnery. The adjustment of steam power to the hull of a vessel should be determined upon principles, but it is probably quite empirical both in the Royal Navy and the Commercial. So many horsepower may be alloted to so many tons of measurement,

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Paris, in its present mood, is particularly hard to please. The romance of the Empire is out of fashion; and political criticism, of the most matter-of-fact kind, exclusively occupies the public mind. Semi-official announcements of probable glory to come, or of imminent dangers that may possibly arise should the sun not happen to get up to-morrow in the diplomatic firmament, no longer engage attention. Telegraphic tidings of expeditions afar off, or of dynastic bewilderments nearer home, are read with less emotion than those which convey the result of a provincial election, or the fluctuations in the price of gold in London or Hamburg. Even the discovery of an assassination plot, on which Louis Philippe said he could always reckon for, a temporary renewal of his engagement as Grand Wizard, ' now fails in its purpose. The Imperial matches are damp, and neither sympathy nor terror will take fire. Nobody believes that anybody else has the slightest notion of putting his neck in a halter for the sake of having a shot at the ruler of France. Fanatics there may still be, or there may not; but the atmosphere is breezy and gusty at present, not electric; and the police cannot get anybody even to pretend to believe that fanaticism is about to raise its arm against the life of a man who has spent the last three years in dosing it with well-sugared narcotics. The crazy-brained among the priests have had their apprehensions about Rome lulled fast asleep; and the most impatient of the Italian party of action understand that France has withdrawn her veto on their projects regarding Vcnetia. The rescue of that great province of the peninsula from the withering grasp of the stranger now engrosses every patriotic thought beyond the Alps. Even Garibaldi has been brought at last to see that the deliverance of Rome is a subsequent question, and that to attempt it at the hazard of provoking the enmity of both France and Austria would be a crime, because a blunder. To do Mazzini justice, he has always said this. The unhappy enterprise which ended at Aspromonte was notoriously not of his instigating, and there is depth and foresight in the counsel which bids the Italians attack Austria on the one side, while their brethren in Hungary and Poland distract her reources on the other,—-France standing by with folded arms and a cynical expression of the lip, that significantly asks, “Might not a Congress “ have been better after all P"

The fact is that there has not for a long while been a season at which the imputation of a mad and wicked design to put to death Napoleon III. by assassination is so incredible. By parties at home and parties abroad his power of mischief was never deemed less formidable. He stands at present in nobody’s light but his own. Temporising with every principle, and intriguing by turns with every ambitious I’ower, he has had the mortification to be by each and all of them repelled. He has sought in vain to concert schemes of joint aggrandisement with Russia, with Austria, and with Prussia; and, if rumour does not greatly err, he did not want encouragement upon his first advances from the Sovereigns of any of those States. Their ministers alone restrained them from accepting his seductive offers, and plunging with him into territorial brigandage. Now, in a sulky fit, he looks on with sinister expression at the troubles that are begun in Germany and that are impending elsewhere, but for the present he certainly stands in nobody’s way. Who, then, would hire a gang of miscreants to kill him? It is but another evidence of the want of the old vigour of invention in the Imperial Government, that it should have either been imposed upon so readily by a set of needy sehemers like Greco, Trabucco, and Imperatori, or that it should have hoped, by the misuse and mystification of odds and ends of letters rummaged out of their pockets, to get up a sensation respecting the Emperor’s personal safety. He will be a lucky man if he is never in more danger than he has been of late from the evil that walketh in darkness and the bolt that flycth at noon day. Meantime it is an excellent sign of the improved temper of our good neighbours in Paris, that hardly any can be fooled into listening to the mysteriously muttered revelations regarding the pretended plot. Even in the Selle dea Pas l’t'rtlus (says the correspondent of the Globe), where the gossips congregate from morn to eve in the hope of hearing some new thing, and where every sort of rumour is ordinarily devoured, every attempt to circulate some new shred of worthlessdetail about the so-called conspiracy proves utterly abortive. Suspicion won’t light, and the effort to make it only adds to the unpleasant savour wherewith the air is filled. The disclaimer of all connection with, or knowledge of,. the alleged design by the illustrious author of Italian unity will be read with satisfaction wherever intrepidity and constancy are honoured, and the sacredness of a great

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but without regard to the peculiar form of the hull, which

cause is revered.

LAW OF DIVORCE.

The Times has drawn attention to defects in the law of Divorce generally bearing hardly on wives, but not more than in the proportion of the advantage man has over woman; and, if the balance could be fairl struck, we believe that it would be found pretty equa ,—-husbands having the worst in some respects, and wives in others. A worthless husband may drive his wife to misconduct, take advantage of the wrong, divorce her, and leave her to starve; and a bad wife may fight her husband with his own purse, beggar and throw him into jail, while she is publicly carrying on her intrigues. Here is an example quoted by a Barrister in the Times:

From the evidence given in a suit between Mr and Mrs A. it appeared that Mr A. had been frequently committing adultery with their friend Mrs 13.; whereupon Mrs B. boldly anticipates her husband by forthwith prescnting a petition for a divorce, on the ground of alleged cruelty and adultery on his part. Mr 13., of course, pleads, denying the charges and alleging Mrs B.’s adultery with Mr. A. He also presents a petition for a divorce, to which Mrs B. pleads, denying the charge and reiterating the charges of cruelty and adultery. The suits proceed, and are both set down for hesring,--the husband’s suit having obtained precedence in the list. Hereupon Mrs B. obtains an order that Mr B. shall forthwith pay into the Registry the sum of 4001. to meet her expenses in the one suit, and 8001. to meet her ex

penses in the other, and that proceedings in Mr Ala suit he stayed

until he has paid the money or found security for the payment. Mr B. being a surgeon with a moderate practice in a provincial town, was unable either to pay the money or find the security. Mrs B. applied for an attachment, which Sir C. Cresswell felt himself compelled to grant, notwithstanding that Mr B. made an affidavit setting forth his circumstances, and showing his utter inability to comply with the order of the Court, and filed affidavits of three other persons to the effect that, since the commencement of the suits they had, from information received, traced Mrs B. to a house in Pimlieo, and there found her in a bedroom with her alleged paramour, Mr A. Mr B. was attached and sent to prison; and the two suits have been standing in stalu quo for the last two years.

There is another example now before the Justices of Appeal in Chancery. A Mrs H. had a peculiar wholesale jealousy. She was jealous of awhole neighbourhood, jealous of a village, jealous of a town, jealous of a street, a parish, jealous of one and all the women therein. \Vhercver she went her jealousies went with her, and in foreign travel she was not only jealous of all the women she met with there, but to boot thought the whole female population of Acton was pursuing her husband. The unhappy husband had thoughts of putting his wife under restraint for this vexaticus and injurious delusion, but before he could resort to this stop an attorney had advised the lady to strike the first blow, and leave him, and commence proceedings in the Divorce Court. From this and other plagues the poor man escaped by death, and his widow‘s attorney sues the executors for his bill of costs in the Divorce Court, amounting to 630l. When the proceedings were commenced the Divorce Court had required Mr H. to deposit 2501. as security for the costs, which, as taxed, would amount to l7l. more than that amount. The attorney’s claim is for necessaries supplied to the wife in the husband’s life—time, the said necessaries having been proceedings against him founded upon the most preposterous jealousies. The case stands for judgment this day, when it will appear, as the counsel for the executors observed, whether the Court of Appeal will aid the Divorce Court “ in its practice of “ plundering husbands with impunity."

Such a case as this could not have occurred if the Legislature had been a tenth part as careful to guard parties against groundless proceedings as the Divorce Court is to secure costs. As it is, there is no security whatever against proceedings frivolous and vexatious or trumped up for the purpose of extortion. When the Bill was passing through the House of Lords the want of any safeguard was pointed out, and it was suggested that petitions should be signed by counsel, but the law lords overruled the proposal, as it would make an obstacle to the desired remedy. It would be an obstacle only to such proceedings as, on the face of them, were more than suspicious. No decently presentable case would fall to the ground for want of the signature of two advocates, while for want of so small a check it is notorious that proceedings are taken for which there are no grounds, and some for no purpose but extortion. Who is safe? Who may not be made a co-respondent? The Lord Chancellor, keeper of the Queen’s conscience, may figure to-morrow in the list of petitiOns as a co-respondent charged with adultery. The Archbishop of Canterbury has no security against this sort of practical defamation. The higher the man the more probable the aim at him of some jealous fool or knave. And the matter may not be brought to proof after all. The petition conveying the worst imputation is lodged, and before the year or so elapses before which it cannot come on for trial it is withdrawn, or the party has disappeared. There are names which may undergo this ordeal without detriment, but there are others not less innocent to which it may be a cruel damage; and it seems to us monstrous that the opportunity of such 8 wrong should he suffered to exist. A young curate, 01‘ medical man, might be utterly ruined while under a cloud, as the world in its most charitable mood would call it. We may be told that the danger is no new one, and that it Was always open to any one to bring an action for crim. con. against anybody, and we remember an occasion when we had to advert to the malignant party uses made of a groundless proceeding; but for one action of old there are now a score of petitions or more, and if a check can easily be provided against proceedings to which no two respectable lawyers would give the sanction of their names, we see not the sense of refusing so moderate a degree of protection t0

character, W

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