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GREECE. Greece and England are, we are sorry to say, arrayed in hostile position. Instead of shaking bands, they have come to spur, and although no blows have been struck, they have assumed an attitude of combative mistrust one to the other. England has declared that she must and will blow up the forts in the island of Corfu. Greece says, we'cannot prevent your blowing up the fortifications, for which the Ionians paid at least a part, but we cannot be a consenting party. We cannot disgrace ourselves and depopuhmse King George, by becoming parties to an arrangement that gives us theisland disarmcd and mortified.

The Greeks allege that they elected their monarch on the understanding that the Ionian Islands were to be ceded to them. They could not foresee this cession accompanied by humiliating circumstances. They say they have been so far tricked, and they must take care to right themselves. They will sign no treaty by which the destruction of their forts and the neutralisation of the Islands are insisted on as conditions.

In that case, quoth England, I must keep the islands. That will only make your breach of promise more flagrant, saith the Greek. Since you won’t have the islands by the only way in which we can part with them, we are determined to keep them, quoth England, and keeping them we shall preserve the fortifications intact. The work of destruction has, therefore, not been proceeded with, and Great Britain is still saddled with the maintenance and government of a very recalcitrant and oddly placed set of subjects.

In the midst of this, a very ably drawn up not of accusation against England, for its malversation and mismanagement in the Ionian Islands, has been made by a French gentleman named Le Normant, and printed in the Revue Jcs Dena: Mondcs. In this the English are accused not merely of misrule and of abuses in their political administration, but even in their fiscal and economical management of the islands it is affirmed that they have committed worse blunders in the Ionian Islands than the most retrograde government in Europe. Our boasted improvements are declared to be more deceptious; our roads scarcely get half a mile out of the great town before they are lost in the open country. Our expert duties were as high and as barbarous as those of Greece itself, or of Turkey, and our system of taxation ground the poor and exempted the rich.

We do not credit the truth or justice of this virulent French impeachment. But some one competent to do so ought really to take the trouble to expose the fallacies and refute the errors of this calumnions accusation. In the Revue dos Deum Mom/lea it is addressed to the tribunal of Europe. There should be some one, who would take the trouble to reply.


The ground taken by the Home Office, in the first letter of reply to the remonstrance of the Derbyshire magistrates, was that Sir George Grey had no discretionary power after the receipt of the certificate of Townley’s insanity, that the Act of 1840 was obligatory, and that the Home Secretary was bound to carry it into instant effect. If this was so, there was an end to all question about the conduct of the Home Office; but in Mr Waddingtou's second reply to the magistrates’ second letter it appears far from clear that the certificate was of a force allowing of no question, and making Townley's respite and removal obligatory, for it is there stated that the opinion of the Lunacy Commissioners that Townley was not of sound mind gave additional weight to the certificate, and precluded the Secretary of State from supposing that four magistrates and two medical men had without any probable ground obstructed the course of justice. Now if the certificate was of the force first alleged it would want no additional weight, and effect must at once have been given to it according to the statute. But if, on the other hand, there was some discretionary power, Sir George Grey may have felt free to consider whether the certificate was or was not an expression of opinion entitled to implicit deference and respect. But any consideration of that sort would have been quite superfluous, and indeed impertinent, if action upon the certificate had been imperatively obligatory.

By what process Sir George Grey transferred from the report of the Lunacy Commissioners any opinion carrying weight to the account of the certificate, we are utterly at a loss to divine. The Lunacy Commissioners found no delusion in Townley’s mind, which, nevertheless, they did not think sound, but not so unsound as to make him irresponsible, and the verdict upon him erroneous, and they emphatically pronounced the conviction just. How then, in the name of wonder, could this judgment lend weight to the certificate which declared the man mad and went to the arrest of his sentence. An extreme opinion cannot be strengthened by a modified opinion. Surely the opinion that a thing comes up to a certain mark is not strengthened by the opinion that it falls short of that mark. The recruiting sergeant’s opinion that a man is six feet high is not strengthened by the evidence that he is not short, but not exceeding five feet nine.

The Lunacy Commissioners gave their standard, the definition of insanity as laid down by the judges. What the definition in the minds of the subscribers to the certificate may be we cannot pretend to divine; but this much is certain, that it is not the definition known to the law. The Act of 1840 has, however, empowered any four gentlemen, two medical and two magisterial, to set up their owa


criterion of insanity, and, in accordance with it, to exercise the intervention, and on both sides of the military line

a dispensing power over criminal justice.

The Derbyshire magistrates allege that in the present instance this was done under false pretences, the opportunity of examining the prisoner having been obtained for the professed object of further inquiry, not of a definite judgment. And this charge is not to be disposed of by Sir George Grey’s belief that four gentlemen could not be capable of duplicity or any unworthy conduct. Out of the 1mmense numbers of medical men it is not difficult to imagine some capable of sharp practice,‘ or worse, and the magistraeyl is not without its weak members who would stoop to what they might consider a pious fraud to save a forfeited. life.

If the certificate had an obligatory force, how it was‘ managed is a question which does not affect the ministerial‘ action of the Home Office; but if, as now seems admitted, it was an instrument wanting a weight to be borrowed for it from a report diametrically opposite, the conduct of the persons concerned must certainly be matter of leg1t1-, mate inquiry in order to ascertain the degree of deference‘ and respect due to their judgment; and also their fitness for their offices.

And while this controversy is raging, what is the fact.[ By this time an opinion must be formed in Bethlehem as to Townley’s state of mind, and what is it? When we ask this question we are aware of the bias, not unnatural, on the part of medical authorities in lunatic asylums; and of , the farther element of error from the prisoner’s simulation of { the state which is to save his life. But, liable to error as it may be, it would be well to have the opinion.

Stress has been laid on the fact that there is no commutation of punishment, but only a respite of execution; but to all intents and purposes Townley's life is as much spared as if he had a pardon. He cannot be remitted back to the position in which he stood when he was certified insane. Taken from the foot of the galloWs, he cannot, after a lapse of time, be brought back to the foot of the gallows. I’ublic feeling would revolt against playing fast and loose with life. It would rule that there was a time for the word death, but the time has passed, humanity forbidding the lengthening of the shadow of death. There never has been a postponed execution which has not been regarded with horror. Virtually Townley has been rescued by letter of law against j usticc.

The Act of 1840 was probably framed only for prisoners under sentence of imprisonment, and there was no hardship nor cruelty in sending back to imprisonment a convict who had been for a time under treatment for insanity. He underwent his appointed term of punishment, but not the double, the protracted terror of it. And how revolting is the idea of curing a man of madness in order to take his life. Surely it would be less unmerciful to hang him in a strait waistcoat.

THE FRENCH IN MEXICO. (firm a Correspondenf.)

Mexico, Nov. 22, 1863.

I intend in this letter to be very chary of commentary. The mere report of the events that have taken place in this country during the month of November will confirm the opinions you have expressed in regard to the political and military character of the French intervention. I need not dwell upon the spurious and irregular character of the power established here, and called “ the Regency," its absolute subordination to the chiefs of the French army, its want of principles, or better to say its disposition to abandon its own principles and adopt those of the foreign invader, and the consequent disgust among the most intolerant of the clergy party, whose only remaining duty is to execute, under the protection of the French Emperor, the instructions brought from Rome by Archbishop Labastida. We have daily quarrels between the chief of the Mexican Church and the chief of the French expedition, witnessing the impotency of Almonte and his colleagues to raise a ghost of political order. No good has come yet of their ridiculous efforts to make a false show of strength by means of monarchical ceremonies, while the true limits of their empire hardly extend now beyond the gates of the city of Mexico. A movement of the French army began on the 22nd of October, and without opposing a serious resistance, the Government of San Luis has placed its troops in such a manner that they menace at once the French army and all the places between Mexico and Vera Cruz. Juarez, instead of concentrating all his troops at San Luis, or on the road to the interior, to prevent the advance of the expeditionary column, has divided his army into several fractious, calculated to operate simultaneously on the flanks and rear of the enemy. The brave General Diaz, who acquired a great reputation at the siege of Puebla, has succeeded in making an admirable movement. He started from Queretaro at the head of a large division, and turning at a certain distance from Mexico, arrived in the State of Puebla, where he was joined by another division coming from Oafaen; so that at present he threatens with an army of ten thousand men the towns occupied by the French in the States of Puebla and Vera Cruz.

At the same time Colonel Ortega, appointed Governor and Military Commander of the State of Puebla, left San Luis with a light brigade. These troops must join those that General N igrete organised at Zacnpouibla, to the north of I’uebla, and operate in concurrence with General Diaz, manmuvring on the north of the French lines of communication. The rest of the army, under General Uraga, remains in Salamanca, and will be in the rear of the French if they intend to go beyond Queretaro. In the meantime the guerillas that swarm around the places occupied by

from Vera Cruz to Mexico, have occupied the villages in the vicinity of that capital, and are in arms between Mexico and Vera Cruz. Near Vera Cruz the Mexican guerillss operate with astonishing activity. To this state of things, perhaps, we must ascribe the fact that the expodition, whose original movement from Mexico began on the 22nd of October, has not been able to advance beyond Queretaro, although the French column has met with no resistance on the way. Its mobility may, therefore, be estimated at the rate of less than two leagues a day. The French oficers said that marching to the interior of Mexico was like stretching a ribbon till it breaks. The ribbon is broken already. The line of communication from Vera Cruz is permanently interrupted in several points, and the assaults of the guerillas often disturb its continuity.

It is curious to remark how the extent of the empire has been reduced since the French army marched to the interior. All the towns to which the intervention had been extended in the state of Puebla have been abandoned, with the sole exception of the capital. This is also the case with the towns and villages of the hot land to the south of Mexico, and with the important district of Pachuca. The Mexican troops, therefore, have re-conquered the districts of Zacapoaibla and Zacatlan, in the State of Puebla, the town of Tlalpan, nine miles from the city of Mexico, and make daily incursions through all the villages situated in this valley. At those points where small detachments have been left, the power of the intervention is nominal and precarious, as it disappears at the approach of any one of the light guerillas which cross the country in all direc~ tions. This has been the case with Iguala, Tasco, San Felipedcl Obraxe, and several other towns, which, although nominally occupied by the troops of the intervention, are a permanent source of supplies for the Mexican guerillas.

The elements seem to take part with the Mexicans, to make the communications difficult between Mexico and Vera Cruz. The road is impassable at different points, and the trains of waggous cause a delay of tWo or three days in going from Cordova to Orizaba, a distance of four or five leagues.

The F reuch army, therefore, has not secured its military line, nor the possession of the towns that are set forth as subject to the intervention. The French are incessantly alarmed by the incursions of the guerillas, and by the hatred of the native population. When the expedition to the interior began to be carried into execution, it was necessary to make large fortifications in Mexico, with the object rather of restraining the inhabitants of the capital than of resisting the attacks from the outside.

The guerillas have recently taken some mules belonging to the army that were grazing in the fields near the city. The journal of the French in Mexico called L’Estufelte itself has declared the impotency of the intervention against this kind of war, and advises, as the only remedy, the colonization of the valley of Mexico by European immigrants. It is easy to see that the remedy does not correspond to the urgency of the evil.

The sad state of the garrison of Tampico will be known in Europe through direct correspondence from that port. The yellow fever had never before made ravages like those which have now reduced the French garrison to one-half of its original number. And besides the unhealthy climate, the port is actually besieged, and the Mexican guerillas are stationed even at the city gates.

The guerillas of Vera Cruz attack all the trains that come out from that port. For one instance, the railway engineer, Mr Lyons, was mortally Wounded, and Captain Laugur and Lieutenant Crosuc were killed. T he guerillss also, after several successful attacks against Tlalpan, have taken permanent possession of that town, and the international authorities found in it were brought out by them and shot.

The States free from the invasion, that is to say, almost all those forming the Federal Republic, continue their own military organization. Chihuahua and Durango have prepared new contingents of troops. General Ortega is recruiting a new army with the utmost rapidity at Zacatecas, the nucleus of which will be the survivors of the defenders of Puebla, who have arrived in great numbers at Zacatecas, attracted by their brave and popular leader. The Government of Guanaxuato increases the number of its National Guard, and even an insurrectionary movement seems to be preparing among the Indian population. The victory of Zacapoaibla was gained by the Indians of those mountains, commanded by a kind of military prophet, whose influence among the Zscapoaibla highlandcrs has no bounds.

In speaking of the French defeats, that of Ozuloama must not pass unnoticed. You will find the official report among the enclosed documents, and by them you will see that the Mexicans took a large number of prisoners, and all the French artillery and ammunition.

The army of the interior is commanded at present by General Uraga, whose military skill contributed so much to the good organization of the Liberal troops, which finally defeated the reactionary army of Miramon.

Nothing can be more evident than the precarious situation of the Government prematurely established in Mexico, and the irregular and humbling character of its relations with the chiefs of the expedition. For example, long before General Forey returned to France, it was generally said that he had received instructions to modify the policy adopted by the French Commissioners. The first acts of General Bazaine sought from the Regency a law putting an end to the seizure of property belonging to the Liberals, and declaring the validity of all rights in the Church property sold by the Constitutional Government. The creatures of the


Regency did, therefore, humbly eat all the words they had spoken in their five years’ battle as men of the reactionary party against these very principles. The French Emperor is their master, and they must lick their dirt from off his shoes. The required law, therefore, was issued, but at the same time the Archbishop refused his signature as member of the Regency. He protested, he also devised with his colleagues 9. trick. In regard to the abandoned seizure, it was agreed to replace it with complete confiscation of the goods of all enemies of the intervention, under the pretext that they were responsible for damages caused by their resistance to Imperial authority. As for the rights based upon sale of the Church property, a secret order was given to the judges not to hear any petition founded upon right of that kind. This artifice exasperated General Bazaine, and after some bitter conferences, he obliged Almonte to make a more solemn and explicit declaration on the above-mentioned points. He also sent General Neigre to the Department of Finance, whence the law was to emanate, with orders not to leave the place until the decree was published. After its publication the Archbishop issued a vehement protest, and the question becomes more and more difficult. In short, General Bazaine has forbidden Almonte and his colleagues to issue any decree until it has been submitted for the previous approbation of the French General—in-Chief. The spectacle of such degradation gives new heart and energy to the defenders of the invaded and insulted nation. They see the party of treason prostrate, and are doubly strong.


Again, the Mexican race is insulted every day by the intervention newspapers. They have endeavoured to recommend all the advantages of the Spanish system, according to which the natives of this country were excluded from all the public offices. The French paper called L'Estafettc has published several articles upon the subject.

Among recent causes of grief to Mexico, few have produced so deep an impression as the death, I might almost say murder, of General Comonfort. He was at once Minister of War and General~in~Chief of the Army of the Interior. One of the bands commanded by Mejia attacked him when he went from San Luis to Qucretaro accompanied by a small escort, and after a struggle, in which he was overpowered by numbers, he fell covered with wounds. General Comonfort was respected, even by his political adversaries, for the magnanimity and generosity he had shown in the exercise of the supreme

ower. When all his enemies fell into his hands he left them free, and lavished upon them all kinds of favours.

But the mind of the Mexicans is yet uncrushed. Even the boys of the colleges at Queretaro have requested that the value of their annual prizes be applied to the expenses of the war. Some old men have presented themselves, accompanied by their children, asking to be sent to the army, and bringing therefore, to their country, the contingent of two generations. The women, always so ready to take part in every generous enterprise, share in the general enthusiasm. Voluntary gifts are daily multiplied, and instances are known in which those who contribute large sums have concealed their names, to show that their patriotism is entirely free from ostentation.

The clergy also are represented by some honourable exceptions in this general movement, and there are priests in Chihuahua and Zacatecas, who have made public speeches to excite the people to defend their independence, and who condemn the abuse of the name of Religion by the retrograde Church party, allied to the foreign enemy. There is no difference of classes in this general enthusiasm.

The French agents seeking to produce disunion or grow another crop of treason for their profit, flatter Doblado with the probability that France will hear his propositions in behalf of the liberal party. But he has answered by a new proclamation, in which he declares that he will resolutely support independence and constitutional government. The newspapers have lately published the note by which General Negrete answered the invitation made to him to join the intervention. They expected from him an unworthy desertion, on account of his former connection with the leaders of the reactionary party, but the result has proved that all the Mexican patriots, without difference of political opinions, are determined to fight for the independence of their country.

I receive just now a copy of the Archbishop’s protest. You will find it among the enclosed documents. I know also, by trustworthy information, that the Archbishop has resigned the oflice of Regent. The resignation has been admitted, but not one of the persons that have been invited to occupy the vacant post has accepted. The aforesaid protest can give you an idea of the symptoms of dissolution that begin to be remarked in the provisional government.


A rniourrci. DEATH nx rims occurred last week. At a late hour on Thursday night Conductor Tapsell of the London Fire-escape Brigade, and who is stationed near St Clement’s Church, Strand, received information that his services were required at a house in Heinlock court, near Lincoln’s-inn fields. On arriving at the premises Tnpsell found that a fire was smouldering in a room on the third floor, which was occupied by a widow named Hannah Smith. In consequence of the confined nature of the locality it was impossible to use the tire-escape, and as the door of the room was fastened, T apsell mounted a table in a room underneath, and proceeded with his axe to cut away the flooring of the room, which was evidently on fire. A portion of this flooring was burning, and an opening was soon made, when to the horror of Tapsell, who was still using his axe, the dead body of the woman Smith, friglitfully burned and blackened, fell through the orifice on to his shoulders. The room which she occupied was wholly destitute of furniture, and it is presumed that the deceased, who had been drinking during the day, after the funeral of her only child, by some means set her clothing on fire, and was incapable of giving an alarm. .



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Sir,—The pretensions of Bishop Gre raise an issue of vast importance to En lishmen genera ly, quite apart from any consideration of t e case of Bishop Colenso. The Guardian, with some little indiscreetness, has hastened to assert, that, although an appeal may lie on the mere question of jurisdiction, yet if this jurisdiction be affirmed, Bishop Grey may deal finally with the case on its merits. In other words, he may depose the Bishop of Natal and declare his see vacant. e seeks only the confirmation of his authority as Metropolitan, and then we shall see at the Southern extremity of Africa an ecclesiastical ower as irresponsible as that of the Pope. Bishop Grey will then be a judge, them whose decisions in causes ecclesiastical there will be no appeal ; and the same power will at once be wielded by all other Colonial Metr0politans. While the ArchbishOp of Canterbury must submit in England to be excommunicated by the Bishop of Exeter, Bishop Cotton at Calcutta may summarily deprive the Bishop of Madras or Bombay, and may, it would seem, issuo his mandamus to the Crown to nominate a saccessor. The very notion of such a power, exercised by Colonial Bishops but not by the Primate of England, seems utterly preposterous. Yet this is the power which Bishop Grc is stretching forth his hand to grasp, and which Bishop Wil erforce is straining every nerve to secure for him.

Meanwhile the Court, which professes to be trying the Bishop of N atal, is giving ample evidence of the peculiar way in which ecclesiastics administer 'ustiee. The questions put to Dr Bleek, who appeared simp y to den the jurisdiction of the Court, are worthy of the priests w o presided at the Congregation of the Index. Dean Douglas and Archdeacon Bednall quietly insinuate that Dr Blcck must be worse than an infidel, while they rofess utter ignorance of a man who has been for years the fi'iend of Sir George Grcv, and employed by him in the library at Cape Town. Nor is the constitution of the Court less strange than their method of proceeding. Bishop Grey, as holding the Queen's patent, sits in jud ment on another Bishop who also holds the Queen’s patent,—t e patent being the indispensable condition for the exercise of such power. Yet he summonses to his aid not merely the Bishop of Graham's Town, but Bishop Tozer (who could not come), and Bishop Twells. the two latter being mere Bishops in parlibus, without patents, and appointed in the avowed interest of Bishop Grey, with whose theological and ecclesiastical views they were known entirely to agree. Unless their sitting as assessors is held to be a mere matter of form, their presence as judges would probably suflice at once to vitiate the whole proceeding. But the legal aspects of the case are of inferior moment in the eyes of Bishop Grey and his assistant prosecutors. The Queen's patent makes him Metropolitan of Cape Town; Bishop Grey loves to speak of the Church of South Africa, of which the Queen's patent knows nothing, and which the Court of Arches cannot recognise. This, however, is but a small hindrance. Dr Lushington has ruled that clergymen may hold, if they p)lease, that it is possible for heathcns to be saved. Dean

ouglas will not abide this decision. He “ pretends to little knowledge of law,” but with all respect for that reputable judge he must maintain that “if his dictum is law, it is not theology." In the same spirit Dean Douglas maintains, in the teeth of Dr Lushington's repeated assertions to the contrary, that “ no error of any kind can find a. place within the Book of God,” and that “ every charge of error in history, or in any other matter, is a libel against that holy book." In other words, the extravagant sayings of the Bishop of Manchester, Mr Burgon, and Dr Baylee are to be converted into Church Law at Ca e Town, when the have been openly dis~ avowed by the Ju go of the Arches ourt in England.

With such a system of procedure we cannot be surprised at finding that the prosecutors have striven with fair success to misrepresent those passages in Bishop Colenso’s writings on which they lay most stress. But when Dean Douglas imputes to the Bishop the opinion that God is absolute love, he imputes to him a faith which apparently was shared by St John :----when he goes on to affirm that Bishop Colenso represents God as indifferent to evil, he asserts what any reader‘ of his Commentary on the Romans will see at once to be false. I am well aware that this is not the place for theological discussion; but, on the mere uestiou of fact, I am anxious to call attention to this studio garbling of passages which maintain just the contrary of that which they are aflirmed to mean.

Having some knowledge of the Cape and its affairs, I could not but feel some suspicion of the evidence adduced by the Court, as well as of its system of procedure. I could see that justice was not done to the extracts made from Bishop Colenso’s published works; and the report of the proceedings in the Cape Argus led me further to doubt whether the evidence of his written letters was honestly come by. My suspicions have been fully realised. The Bishop of Natal has told me that every one of the letters cited were strict] private and confidential letters, beginning with “My dear Brother," in place of the formal address, “My Lord." To attain his own ends, the Bishop of Cape Town has not scrupled to break a confidence which lay morality, at least, regards as sacred; and it is impossible for us to know whether the meaning of the letters is more fairly given than that of the printed books. I will not add another word of comment on conduct such as this; and, with an apology for the length at which I have been obliged to write,

I am, &c., Passnrrna Anomcsnvs.

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when ordered into close confinement he was otherwise than in erfect health. For thirty days and thirty nights was Lilley confined in a place that had been a stable, and the poor man died in a den of very limited unventilated space, in the hottest season of the year, when not a breath of wind was stirring. Mrs Lilley was in the last stage of consumption, and also laboured under diarrhoea. It was the atmos here that killed the man, that forced him to drink the bran y b which his life was more probably prolonged than shortenedy. The unwholesome condition in which he was kept under the eye of a sentinel forced Lilley to obe the natural instinct of self-preservation. Dr Reid has tol us (at page 38 of his book) that “ Defective ventilation, reducing the power of oxygenating the blood and of sustaining temperature, produces a morbid condition which diminishes the relish and power of digesting lain and wholesome food. Unnatural stimuli, such as or eat spirits and opium, are required to excite the lan id circulation, and make it feel, though only temporarily, t at vigour of circulation which 'ves animation and vivacity to the intellect as well as strengt to the body." Again, at page 13, he says: “When the air is of inferior quality, the respiration becomes uncomfortable, and oftentimes anxious or oppressive, the strength begins to fail, the general tone of the system is depressed, the power of bodily or mental exertion becomes impaired, the sleep anxious and uncertain, and in extreme cases, when the air has been vitiated to a cat extent, death rapidly ensues.“ LiEZy did not die a natural death, and it was not until some time after the man had been buried, without an inquest on his body, that the lucky sug estion of drink as a cause of death was impudeutly set fort to add insult to the injury that had been done to a man of known sobriety and honesty of character. Englishmen will be called upon to pay the expenses of the farce at Aldershott, and I, for one, think that the Legislature will do well by their constituents to refuse to sanction payment of the bill until even the inquiry into the cause of Lilley’s death shall have been brought by a civil charge of improper imprisonment before an English jury. Hyde-park terrace. V.

Sir,—The admirable letter in last week’s Examiner by a non-commissioned oflicer, under the signature of “ Chevron," nearly exhausts the argument on the above-named scandal, and certainly disposes most effectually of its iniquities. It is no disparagement of the able treatment the subject has from time to time received in your columns to aflirm that it has never yet been handled in a more lucid and masterly manner than by your correspondent. But the question arises, after the astonishing award or fist of the Commander-in-Chief, is the matter to remain where he has placed it P I think it not inappropriate, in reference to that question, to exclaim, “thank God we have a House of Commons.” where it may, and it is to be hoped will, be asked with some considerable degree of emphasis, for it is one which nearly concerns the res publica in a very ticklish yet paramount department of its interests. \ I fear that all the military authorities, both in England and in India, concerned in getting up the late solemn farce at Aldershott, were and continue to be forgetful or indifferent to the fact of our army being a volunteer force, and that being such, the history of the Crawlcy case, from its addled egg at Mhow to its rotten apple at Aldershott, is by no means of a nature to attract recruits. Is it sup oeed by these magnates that the treatment and fate of poor ille do not and, if justice to his memory be not vindicated, wil not for long remain a standing topic of adverse commentary on the chances of the common soldier in those resorts where the raw materials of our army are chiefly “ prospected" for by the recruiting sergeant? For it were to deceive themselves to suppose that the classes in question will not argue from the articular to the general in this affair, and realise the cone usiou that as was the result in the Crawley case, similar has been and will he that in every other instance where the rights of the common soldier or non-commissioned oflicer have been or shall be in one scale and the interests of his commanders in the other; the only thing to distin uish the actual instance being the accident of its ublicity. t is not too late to repair the mischief of such a. amaging Opinion by removing the grounds on which, in this transaction at least, it rests. But no time should be lost in doin so. If at all it must be done both quickly and resolute y, without any squeamish delicacy towards the sensitiveness of persons in high places. We do not want the fierce invective of Burke as an aid to justice in the business, but some of his courage and inflexibility will be required. The tricks and subterfuges of “ofiice " are sometimes as detrimental to the public service as its “ insolence,” and are not yet exhausted ad 1:00; to emplo a detestable phrase of the diplomatists.

Woul it be uncharitable to surmise that there is just the faintest possibility of a little resentment at civilian interference in this case underlying the tactics of the Horse Guards in connexion with it? (Pedant arma toga is probably a maxim of very doubtful authority in that quarter, and 11 severe censor might not find it difiicult to detect its oppost principle practically animating the conduct, and notably the judicial conduct, of our military potentates at Whitehall whenever the la community becomes curious about the mysteries of their epartment. The moment is, I presume to think, opportune for applying a correction to this amiablfi professional weakness, if it exists, by " reforming altogether the preposterous anomalies of our military system in respect of its judicial attributes. However shocking to PPOfGSISlOllill prejudices the declaration may be, civil legislation is (in this country at least), I believe, both organically, morally, and intellectually efficient for the purpoae. If the Aldersholili hoax does not abundantly demonstrate the necessity of £1118 reform, then here is an end of all proof and conviction.' IN the truth be told, for in a matter of such moment it is the worst of policy to shirk it; the moment public indignahon is roused against any flagrant abuse of high mihtary_autl1°' rity to the extent of demanding redress, or the investigation which must precede it, the instincts of jealousy and resentment are immediately in the ascendant at head-quarters, the spirit of obstruction is invoked, and the utmost conceflfllon to the claims of justice that can be extorted from the depal'i' ment is a sham ; paltering in a double sense With the nail“? and nature of a “ trial” by excluding or eluding the gravamen of the charge. If Sergeant Lilley had been guilty of a real military offence, is any be or girl of those contributing w


the Crawley Indemnity and (why does not the Color!01


exchange to a Regiment of Foot to signalize and requite such potent obligations to the Infant 7), so utter a baby as to suppose he would have escape the pinch of the matter againstliim, as by the complacent and politic arrangements of the Aldershott Court-Martial his commanding ofIiecrdid. Without a doubt the administration of justice in the British army is unequal. Of course “discipline must be observed," and authority, when duly exercised, sugported. But discipline is not promoted but impaired, an sometimes utterly destroyed by the abuse of that authority which is requisite to uphold it, and ought to be delegated for that end only. For an example of this disorganizing tendency of regimental despotism we need go no farther, I think, than the recent records of the Inniskilling Dragoons. A system under which such a series of barefaced but apparently privileged outrages on justice and common sense as this for-ovcr-notorious Crowley case has disclosed, is simply a mischievous tyranny, not a wise and salutary organization of the military magistracy. _

If anything, in addition to the self-stultification of the military hierarchy in the ease of Captain Smales, the wrongs, as not stoned for, of Sergeant Lille and the fiasco of the Crawley CourhMartial, were require to complete the condemnation of these arbitrary and clumsy tribunals, it is_at hand in the extra-judicial sentence on Messrs Swindley, Fitz Simon, and Turnbull, on account of the manner of their testimony to the conscript judicial dummies at Aldershott. That is the capital of the comely column. Well may you say that such a sentence is “a violation (a very gross violation) of the first principles of justice." Thus “had begins, and worse remains behind," and injustice, like its twin-brother falsehood, has to be sustained by its own progeny, until 'iistice or truth “ uts its feet on " and makes an end of the lirood. “’liat su altern, after such an example, will now feel himself safe in giving evidence against his superior officer? Nay, he may well feel that his impunity for doing so is quite hopeless, seeing that he can only expect the very hesitation that springs from his inevitable reluctance to be eonstruedto his ruin or disgrace. Fouquier Tinville never contrived such a trap for his victims as this. Granted (but only for the argument) that the three officers in question gave disereditable evidence; the analogy of practice in the Civil Courts tells us that when a witness conducts himself discreditabl in the box (the effect on the (jury apart) the judge punis es the offender with a repriman , not with fine or imprisonment; or if there be cause to presume 12613!er against him, directs aprosecution for that crime, but oes not, and cannot, pass sentence for it without a trial; and he does in either case no more and no less than justice requires. The dismissal, on the contrary, of the three ofiicers from their regiment for the sin of giving unsatisfactory evidence— evidenee, I an pose, not so direct, unhesitating, and unquestionably truth ul as that of the respectable witness Millsgoes far be and censure, and is a sentence of forfeiture without tria for any offence. They are removed from the Inniskillings to be placed—where? On half- ay, I resume, for the rest of their lives ; for, after so discredJitmg t cm, the Horse Guards will scarcely have the assurance to fob them ed in any other regiment, “most marvellous” as is the “face” of that department. To be consistent, it must continue to be unjust. Quousque tandem 7 Of course I assume throughout that, in suspending these officers without bringing them to trial, the letter of the supreme military authority was not transgressed; but 'I submit that the possession of such an arbitrary irresponsible power is uite alien to the s irit of our institutions, and has a magni cent tendency to egenerate into oppression.

As the matter of poor Lilley’s treatment under arrest is quite subordinate in judicial importance to that of the justice of his colonel placing him in that situation, and keeping him there without trial far beyond the legal term, I think that those who sym athise with the persecuted sergeant would do well to drop 518 inferior branch of the controversy; not because their view of it cannot be sustained, but because it affords their op nents a means of what the law ers call “avvidence.” ark the impetuosity of “Verax, ' in the Times, to pounce u n “ J. O." and fasten a quarrel with him on this issue—a fa so one on the original and vital merits of the case. and therefore eagerly seized by the veracious abettors of injustice in order to mislead public attention from the real question; to which “Verax” gives so very wide an oiling in his cantankerous rejoinder that it is quite invisible there. I am, &c., P. W. F. January 19, 1864.

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Suaoaox Tunsncai. no 'rna meaar COURT-bIARTIAL-—In his order dated from the Horse Guards, January 14th, the Commanderin-Chief remarked upon the proceedings of the Crawley Court-martial, and commented in severe terms upon the conduct of several of the officers oftho lnniskilling Dragoons. Amongst others referred to was Surgeon Turnbull, who was the subject of the following paragraph : “ Surgeon Turnbull, in like manner, has laid himself open to the gravest censure. His conduct with reference to the entries in the hospital records will become the subject of further inquiry, and, should his explanations not prove satisfactory, most serious notice must. necessarily be taken of his proceedings; but, at all events, his continuance in the Inniskilling Dragoons has become impossible." A Committee of Inquiry has assembled at Chatham to examine into the alleged erasures and alterations in the case books kept by Dr Turnbull. The committee consisted of General Eyre, commandant at Chatham, as President; Inspector-general Dr Logan, of Whitehall yard, and Ins actor-general Dr Anderson, of Nelley, as members. The report ma s by the committee has not transpired, but it is known that Dr Turnbull was exonerated by the committee from all blame in reference to the matters under examination. The case books were found to have been unusually well kept as professional records. The Court of Inquiry was ordered to assemble again, and the second inquiry has terminated with a result similar to that of the first.

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Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII. Edited by James Gairduer. Vol. II. Published by the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury, under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls. Longmaus.

To Mr Bergenroth and Mr Gairduer students of English history are much indebted. The diplomatic relations of England under Henry the Seventh, and so much of its domestic history as could be seen and understood by the shrewd ambassadors of Ferdinand and Isabella, were admirably illustrated in Mr Bergenroth’s first Calendar of Simancas Archives, published a year ago; while Mr Gairduer has already, in the two volumes to which the one before usis a welcome sequel, gathered a mass of interesting material to help in restoring to us the life of the same period. And few periods of our national life are in more need of a fresh elucidation. The rough centuries of Plantagenet rule, full of hard fighting for fame or liberty, full of oppression and retaliation, are doubtless fairly, and almost adequately, represented to us in the meagre monkish chronicles that are our only sources of information. All the fresh knowledge that can be gleaned on _these subjects, and not a little of it has been set forth in the series of publications of which this is the last, is well worth having. But it is very much more desirable that we should have sound and minute information about the political and social changes which, beginning with the accession of the House of Tudor, were nearly at the source of modern English history, and in proportion to the scantiness of our former information is the value of such new matter as Mr Gairduer brings to light.

At beat our knowledge is but slight. “After all that I “ have been able to collect,” says Mr Gairduer, “ I must “still own that the letters of Henry VII's reign are ex“tremely scanty. The first ten years are almost an “ absolute blank; the remaining fourteen only a slight "degree more atisfactory. Of Henry himself or his “ministers there is hardly a state paper in England, to “ tell us what was done or thought advisable at any “ juncture of this chequered reign." Private records do tell us something; enough to show incidentally the nature of the national growth at this period, and the wisdom with which Henry encouraged it to the utmost. With these stray lights we are just able to pick our way over the whole ground, and get what we must hope to be a right view of the subject.

England was heartily sick of the Plantagenets before the first Tudor came to the throne. Richard the Third, whose career is summed up by Sir Thomas More when he says that “ with large gifts he got him unsteadfast friend"ship, for which he was fain to pill and spoil in other “ places and get him steadfast hatred,” only provoked to the utmost a spirit of discontent that had been latent in many minds under the noblest of his forerunners, and that had grown strong during the miserable years of civil war in which he had learnt evil. It was no easy task, however, for Henry to win favour with the nation, and the way in which he did it entitles him to all and more than all the honour that posterity accords to him.

A large share of that honour is due, in the first instance, to his mother. A widow and a parent, if we may credit the statement of two witnesses, before she was fourteen, Margaret, Countess of Richmond, was one of the noblest of noble English women. In making the first Tudor a worthy king, she helped much to make of England a great nation. Praised by Fisher for her zeal in religious exercises, for the abstemiousncss of her diet and the roughness of her hair shirts, and for the piety which led her to forsake her third husband to enter a state of religion, she is more highly to be esteemed for the good sense, right feeling, and sound wisdom shown by her in worldly affairs. “She was a patroness of William Caxton," says Mr Gairduer. “ She translated from the French various books “of piety and devotion. She was the first patroness of “the martyred Bishop Fisher, who was her confessor; “and she endowed colleges and professorships, both at " Oxford and Cambridge, where her name will not readily “be forgotten. A faculty of planning and arranging, “which she had in no small degree, became, when the “ occasion required it, high diplomacy and statesmanship, “yet it was called forth by maternal anxiety alone. “ When the battle had been won, and Henry from an “exile had become a King, her particular talent found “ employment in the ordering of his household, making “arrangements for the Queen’s lying-in, and for the “ christening of the Royal children.” These things, great and little, we know. We also know enough of her kindliness, cheerfulness, and other womanly virtues, to see in her the chief encourager of all that was best in Henry’s character. “Unkind she would “ not be unto no creature,” preached Fisher in her funeral sermon, “ nor forgetful of any kindness or service “ done to her before, which is no little part of very noble“ ness. She was not vengeable nor cruel.” And as far as the rough necessities and the corrupting influences of the time permitted it, Henry seems to have been like her. By nature he was merry and kind, a “ sweet and well-savoured “ face ” giving evidence of the generous feelings that gave light to it; and to the last his dealings with the troubled nation over which he came to rule were, for the age, notably merciful. His faults, most of all those of his home life, were faults of his time. The fresh discussion of old topics which Mr Froude’s new volumes upon


Queen Elizabeth have provoked, gives further interest to

' “ indulging human weakness.


Mr Gairduer’s brief strictures on the conjugal relations of Elizabeth’s father and grandfather. “ The whole social “ fabric of our own times is built upon domestic ties, and “ love is honoured as the foundation of all. But it was “ not so then, and could not be, so long as celibacy was “ thought specially pleasing to God. Love was then “ nothing but a passion; marriage only a lawful mode of And nowhere was the “ sacred institution more perverted than in England, where, “ by the operation of feudal wardships, only men of humble “ birth were at liberty to choose their own wives.” We must not greatly blame kings and.qneens for being no more refined than most of their subjects, or for violating social laws at that time hiirdly enacted. “Although their dis"positious are somewhat liccutious," writes aVenetian visitor in England, “ I have never noticed any one, either “ at court or amongst the lower orders, to be in love; “whereat one must necessarily conclude, either that the “ English are the most discreet lovers in the world, or that “ they are incapable of love. I say this of the men, for I “ understand it is quite the contrary with the women, who " are very violent in their passions. Howbeit, the English “ keep a very jealous guard over their wives, though any“ thing may be compensated in the end by the power of “ money.”

Henry the Seventh, therefore, as regards his domestic history, was no worse than all but the noblest of his own generation and those immediately following it. In other respects he was very much superior to the majority. Mr Gairduer does not over-praise him one whit in saying that “ he was the very King of whom England then appeared “ to stand in need; pro-eminently fitted to command the “ respect, if not the affections, of his subjects. Trained in “ the school of adversity, he was not rash and violent, like “ the Kings who preceded him, but prudent in his counsels “and moderate in his dealings. As far as possible, he “ allowed the evils of an unquiet age peacefully to settle “themselves; yet one means he employed against them, “ no less merciful than effective. Rebellion was expiated, “ for the most part, not with bloodshed, but with money; " offences were dealt with as debts to the Crown. By this “ means the King’s treasure was augmented, and the royal “ authority was strengthened.” The economy of Henry the Seventh, condemned as parsimony by many, and certainly leading in later years to some miserly conduct, was the salvation of England. For generations the wealth of the nation,—its physical strength and mental energy, much more than its more gold,—had been squandered in useless strife; and all the prudence of the English Solomon, as Bacon called him, was needed for staunching the national wounds and quickening the body politic. It seems as if twenty-four more years of fighting would have altogether ruined the country. Luckily Henry attained the sovereignty, and the twenty-four years of his reign were occupied with wise and, in truth, liberal measures for establishing peace and restoring healthy relations among all classes of society. The lawless spirit of the barons was checked, and they were encouraged to use their powers for the benefit instead of the destruction of others. The clergy, from being ringleaders in party contests, were employed as peacemakers. Learning and literature were encouraged. Trade was protected and promoted with as much tact and liberality of sentiment as could be expected of fifteenth-century economists. Mr Gairduer'slast volume contains several illustrations of the care shown in maintaining the rights of English merchants visiting foreign lands, and in resisting the exorbitant taxes levied on English goods in the countries that exported them.

England was still, however, in a lawless state. One of the most interesting of the papers brought to light by Mr Gairduer is along exposure of the extortions and frauds practised by two of the King’s officers, named Uvedale and Rawlyns, for three years previous to 1497. It is shown, among much else, how they had defrauded a parson of twenty-six sheep; how one of their favourites, from being not worth a great, had quickly, and through no merit of his own, come to be “as well appointed in his “ house and as cleanly apparelled as any man of his degree ;” how, while levying excessive taxes upon others, they smuggled their own wools across the sea without paying any duty at all. “ There was a ship of Flanders upon the “ sands in a great tempest, and four of the mariners came “ to land, and desired succour and help to save their goods. “Harry Uvedale with his servants came thither, and “ would suffer few or none to help them but; such as “ pleased him; and so he saved the goods to his own use, “for the most part merchandize to the value of twenty “pounds and above, as men said; and the four poor men “departed with little or nothing about their bodies.” “Also, there was one John Hill, a labourer, taken up on “ suspicion of felony, and Was sent to the gaol of Dor“chester, and there fell sick and died. Harry Uvedale “took from his wife two kine with their calves, and a “ mare, and twenty sheep.”

About the more notable political frauds of these times Mr Gairduer's volume gives probably nearly all the fresh information that we can ever hope to have. As to the Irish rebellion and Perkin Warbeck’s Work it is especially full. There is much also about Henry’s projected Crusade to the Holy Land, considered by Mr Gairduer to be a genuine outburst of religious feeling, honestly entertained “ as a means of making some amends for the sins “ of statesmanship,” and we have nearly a hundred pages of valuable illustration of the state of things in Scotland under the contemporary reign of James the Fourth. The whole collection forms as interesting and important a conj

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In commencing operations with the soldier’s rifle in the new gallery, Mr Whitworth found himself subject to a conventional limitation as to the range of his experiments, imposed by the special nature of their object. That object being ostensibly to discover the true principle for the construction of a fire-arm for infantry—and Government having previously fixed the weight of the musket, including its charge, and its projectile, which (together with the usual number of rounds of ammunition) a soldier could carry with ease, and discharge without sufl'ering from the recoil—it was to the discovery of improvement within these conditions that he was first to direct his attention.

Mr Whitworth began with a search for the best form of projectile. The conical had already been proved better than the spherical ball, but if the conical ball was lengthened it turned over on leaving the muzzle of the gun. This he at last considered to be attributable to the inadequate rotation incident to the system of slow rifling then adopted. In the Enficld musket the spiral rifling curve takes but one turn in seventy-eight inches round the interior of the barrel. Experiment showed him that a turn in twenty inches prevented the ball from capsizing, and gave it the required steadiness of flight.

Such confidence did he feel in the soundness of the principle thus successfully cheloped, that in his report of progress made to the Secretary for \Var in 1857, he declared his ascertained ability, by means of a system of polygonal rilling with a quick turn (which will presently be advortcd to) to communicate with such velocity of rotation as effectually to control the tendency to “ turn over" in projectiles of any length that might be required.

For ordinary service, however, the projectile which he has adopted, as most suitable for small arms, is a ball of a cylindro-conoidal form or shaped hexagonally, with rounded corners to fit the angles of the bore, with a conical front, and a length of three, orthree andahal/

exhibit the correctness of the

times its own diameter.

No demonstration could more clearly theory on which all rifling depends. 1‘0 use a familiar illustration, :1 top, when spun, maintains its Vertical position in defiance of the laws of gravity; because the velocity of its revolutions suffices to counteract the disturbing effect of inequality in its various particles and proportions, and to bring all into practical equilibrium. In like manner a bullet discharged from a rifle, provided it be endued with suflicient velocity of rotation, has all its inequalities so equally distributed around its axis as to enable it to pursue an even flight in the direction in which it is fired.

But in the effort to maintain this steady advance, a ball when discharged has to contend with other difficulties besides those occasioned by its own inequalities, either of consistency or of configuration. Were it possible in practice, as it is imaginable in theory, to cast a spherical bullet so perfect in form that all points of its circumference Would be equal radii from its centre, and so uniform in density that no one particle should exceed the gravity of any other; still the probability is that it would exhibit an irregular flight, either from the influence of windage in the gun, the want of true lines in the barrel, or even the possibly unequal action of the forces engendered by the explosion of the powder.

To subdue and equalisc these disturbing influences, resort is bad to the rotation communicated by rifling; and this is capable of being raised to a degree equalling and even exceeding the forward Velocity of the bullet. “In some projectiles which I employ,” says Mr Whitwortb, “ the rotations are 60,000 a minute. In the motion of machinery 8,000 revolutions in a minute is extremely high; and considering the via cit-a imparted to a projectile as represented by a Velocity of rotation of 60,000 revolutions, and the velocity of progress of 60,000 feet per minute, the mind will be prepared to understand how the resistance of thick armour plates of iron is overcome, when such enormous velocities are brought to a sudden stand still I "

The upshot of Mr Whitworth’s experiments was, in the first place, an improved system of rifling by converting the entire inner surface of the barrel into something like a hexagon, leaving in the middle of each division of the plane , surface a small curved portion coincident with the original' circular bore of the gun, and rounding the angles, to contribute to the strength of the barrel. Besides this, the turn in the spiral was four times greater than in .the Enfield rifle; the here was one-fifth less in diameter, the projectile was elongated and capable of a mechanical fit, and to the whole there was applied a more refined process of manufacture.

Like many other theories which mechanical skill has reduced to practical realities, the idea of reduced bore and increased twist had occurred to one other experimenter at least, before it was Worked out and adopted by Mr Whitworth. Both were recommended some years before by General Jacob of Indian service; who, when in command of the Scinde Irregular Horse, conducted, at his own expense, a series of experiments on the rifle such as haVc seldom been undertaken even by the most enlightened governments. All suggested improvements were tested by him under every conceivable shape, and hundreds of thousands of experiments recorded and classified.

It should be added that Mr Whitworth introduced a lubricating wad of tallow and wax between the powder and the ball which, spread by the force and heat of the explosion over the interior of the bore, made the fouling residuum so loose as to be driven out by the next discharge.

The principle thus laid down is said to be applicable to ordnance of all sizes; it was said, indeed, by Mr Whitworth that “ the advantages to be secured appear to increase “ with the increased proportions of the gun.”

The Whitworth rifle was first formally tried in competition with the host Enficld muskets at Hythc, in April 1857, in the prcsrncc of the Minister of War, and a large assemblage of the most experienced ofiiccrs, including amongst others the Superintendent of the Enfield factory, and General IIay, the chief of the School of Muskeiry for the Army. The success was surprising; in range and precision it excelled the Government musket three to one. Up to that time

twenty-seven; that is to say, the best shooting had given an average
of shots within a circle of twenty-seven inches moan radius, at 500

altogether, whilst the Whitworth continued to exhibitita accuracy as

It was also specially dwelt upon in 1860 by General
Hay, the Chief of the Government School of Musketry at
Hythe, that

which no other similar arms have yet exhibited ; they not only give
yraaler accuracy ijlriny but triplcpoumr of penetration. For special
purposes any description of bullet can be used in them, from lead to
steel. The Whitworth rifle, with a bullet composed of one tenth of
tin, penetrated through thirty-five planks, whereas the Enfield rifle
(with which a soft bullet is necessary) only penetrated twelve. He
(General Hay) had found that “ at a range of 800 yards, the velocity
added to the hardness of the bullet gave a power of penetration, in
the proportion of seventeen to four in favour of the \Vhitworth rifle.
Velocity might be taken as a certain test, ‘ czcteris paribus,’ of
penetration. The penetration of the \Vhitworth rifle was enormous,
and this in a military weapon was of the highest importance in
firing through sand-bags, gabions, &c. The \Vliitworth projectile
would penetrate a sandbag and a half: the Enflcld only through one
bag; the Whitworth projectile would go throuyh a three feet gabion:
the other would only reach the middle of it. He thought the merits
of the ‘small bore ' had never been sufficiently understood. He
was quite aware that ‘ small borea’ had been made; and it had been
stated recently, that the small bore Enfii-ld had beaten the small bore
Whitworth; but nothing of the kind had ever taken place. llitlic-rto
the subject, he did not hesitate to any, had been entirely misunder-
stood, and it was only by such discussions as these that the public
could learn the real facts of the case. It was proper also to state,
that the exact bore of the )Vhitworth rifle had been adopted at
Euficld, without acknowledgment, that even the same twist had been
given to the rifling—one turn in twenty inches—and therefore it
would not be very remarkable if the same accuracy of fire was
obtained. But he had shown that there were other things to be
considered besides accuracy. Supposing, for instance, that the same
accuracy of fire was obtained with the small bore Enficld as with
the \Vhitworth rifle, there was still the fact of the penetration of the
latter being two-thirds more than that of the former. Mr Whitwoi'th
had solved the problem he undertook ; namely, how to project, to the
best advantage, is given quantity of lead with a given quantity of
gunpowder, and there was no you in England, at this moment, which
would fulfil that condition to the same ea:th as the W hilworth rifle."

At Wimbledon, in 1860, the Queen fired the first shot
from a Whitwortb rifle, striking the bull's-eye only an
inch and a half from the centre, at a distance of 400 yards,
“ a shot," says Sir Emerson Tennent, “ which, considering
“ that it was in the open air, is probably the most mar-
“ vellous ever fired from a rifle.” The Swiss riflemen laid
aside their own rifles to use \Vhitworth’s. But the War
Office has not yet adopted an arm expressly designed for
the public service. Upon this last subject Sir Emerson
Tennent represents so fairly and completely the official
pros and cons, and it is of such vital importance that the
public should be thoroughly informed upon all sides of such
a question, that, long as it is, we quote the whole sketch of
the grounds of hesitation in the War Office :

Of this, one explanation centres on the outlay already incui'red in arming the forces with the Enfleld musket, and the inconvenience apprehended during the period of transition, pending its superceasinn by any other. As to the cost for alteringthe machinery at Enfirld, so as to adapt it for the production of the Vhitwortb, it appears that this can be done for a comparativel small sum; and that this once effected, “the service muskets ri ed on the Whitworth principle could be manufactured at the same cost as the Enfield, the present quality of material and workmanship being the same."

It, however, admits of little doubt that eventually these obstacles will be overcorue, and that are long the British soldier will be animated by the consciousness of possessing an arm, the most perfect that the science of his own country, combined with high mechanical abilit , can produce. Already the, military advisers of the Minister of or, in a Report of the Committee on mall-bars raj/ks, presented to Parliament in 1863, have intimated their conviction that as the tendency of the present system of musketry instruction is calculated to produce ere long a very high standard of shooting throughout the army, the introduction of a weapon of long range and great precision will naturally increase the general efliciency of infantry, and place it in a position to keep down the fire of the new rifled artillery, which is one of the creations of our own day.

On the other hand, considerations which retard the adoption of a small-bore rifle are set out in the Report of the Ordnance Select Commillee on systems of sifting for small arms, presented to Parliament in March 1803. These turn chiefly on the wear that takes place in consequence of the percussioning hammers being liable to break, and the nipples to be damaged by the force of the escaping gas. “ The wear in the latter may, however, be prevented to a certain extent, by bouching the nipple with platinum or copper, and by a very careful fitment of the nipple into its bed; but the Committee are satisfied, from the experience they have had, that no amount of precaution is likely to be effectual in preventing the very rapid wearing out of tho small-bore rifle in this respect.”

It appears, however, that the pieces tried on this occasion as Whitworth rifles were, in reality, made at Enfleld, with the Whitworth bore and rifling; and the evidences of premature wear were ascribuble not to the construction of the musket, but to the softness of the material, a defect which would be obviated by the use of homogeneous iron. with platina benching for the nipples; the extra cost of which would be far more than repaid by the extra duration of the rifle. The Enfleld with the \Vhitworth improvements is said to be unserviceable after 1,500 rounds, but a rifle made by Mr \Vhitworth, and used for deer-stalking by Mr Horatio Ross, showed no signs of decay after firing 7,000 rounds.

Another exception taken by the Commissioners in this Report has
reference to the shape of the cartridge in use for the Whitworth rifle,
the increased length of which "Would render it liable to break in
the soldier’s pouch, and it would be inconvenient to load with." The
objection to the cartridge has since been removed, whilst the other
difficulty alleged, relative to the cost of the Whitwnrth rifle, which
the Committee have been given to understand would exceed that of
the Euficld service musket by aboutjifteen shillings, is met by the
counter-statement of Mr \Vhitworih before alluded to. For these
reasons the Committee did not feel warranted in recommending “ the

introduction of a rifle of so small a bore as 0'451 inch. for the entire
army; but they think that a partial issue of arms having such
superior precision would be attended with advantage; whether to be
allotted to special regiments, or distributed among marksman of
known skill and coolness, being a question for higher authorities to

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yards distance; but the Whitworth lodged an average of shots pattern arm has shown from experiment any superiority, or whether within a mean radius of four inch" and ahalf from the same distance ; l the gun-trade should be inyited to compete for tho production of the thus obtaining a figure of merit of 45. At 800 yards its superiority ‘ best weapon P .iZlIO Committee record their opinion that “ although was as 1 to 4. a proportion which it maintained at 1,000 yards and they have assigned the reasons above for _not recommending the upwards. At 1,400 yards the Enfleld shot so wildly that the record general adoption of a rifle of the reduced calibre of 0-451, they think ceased to be kept; and at 1,800 yards the trials with it ceased } it only just to Mr Whitworth to acknowledge the relative Superiority

levery small-bore rifle having any pretension to special accuracy,

There is a peculiarity about the Whitworth small bore rifles, l t


Finally, in reply to the inquiry whether (assuming that a rifle of smaller here than that now used should be adopted) any particular

of his small-bore rifle sum as a military weapon over all the other dflljs of similar calibre that have been under trial. And as the makers of

have copied to the letter the three main elements of success adopted by Mr W hitworlh, vim, diameter quore, degree of spiral, and large proportion qfri/liny surfizce, it is not probable that any further modifications or quasi improvements, that might result from the question being new hrown open to the gun-trade, would be attended with any practical advantage.”

The Committee conclude their Report by declaring that “ with the exception of the defect already noticed as to wear, and the difficulty of obtaining ammunition suitable for the rifle as well as the service, the Committee are of opinion that the ll'hitwnrth rifle, taking all other points into consideration, is superior to all other arms as gel 0duced, and that this superiority would be retained if Mr hitworth could ensure all the arms being made with equal mechanical perfection."

With regard to the last condition, it is only necessary to state that, with the machinery used by Mr Whitwortb, the riflo may be reproduced to any imaginable extent, with an accuracy as undeviating as that with which the gold coinage of the kingdom is multiplied by the dies of the Mint.

The italics are the author’s. Side by side, with efforts for the improvement of the rifle, proceeded efl'orts also for the improvement of field guns. If they remained unimproved, the long rango and accuracy of the small arms would almost destroy the use of large artillery. The rifled guns of Lancaster and others were produced therefore in England, and in France the canons myécs, which first proved their efficiency at Magenta and Solferino.

The idea of riding artillery was far from being new; it had been tried in Germany more than a century before our time, and Robins, the accomplished inventor of the “ballistic pendulum” for determining the relative velocity of projectiles, experimented on ritlt-d field-pieces in England so far back as 1745. M. Ponchara at Paris

'in 1819, and Montigny at Brussels in 1836, and again at St Peters

burgh in 1836, had in succession renewed the attempt. Colonel Cavalli in Sardinia, and Baron Wahrendorf in Sweden, cach carried on experiments in rifling, and combined with it inventions for breechlosding; but the measure of their success was not attested by the practical adoption of anv of their plans.

Colonel Treuille de Beaulieu made more than one effort between 1840 and 1852 to revive the subject in France, and at length, in 1854, Napoleon 11L, himself an authority on artillery, convinced by the protraction of the operations before Sebastopol of the insufficiency of smooth-bore siege grins to meet the requirements of modern warfare, directed the resumption of experiments on rifled cannon. Uniting in one piece various suggestions of previous inventors, amongst others of Baron \Vahrcndorf and Lieutenant Engstroem, some brass guns were grooved under the direction of Colonel Treuille de Beaulieu, and sent for immediate service to Algeria. With further improvements, suggested by their trial there, and afterwards in Cochin China, France was the first to possess herself of rifled field-guns, and the earliest opportunit for the display of their destructive forces was afforded by the Italian campaign of 1856. The guns there employed were rifled with six rounded grooves, and being capable of firing ordinary ammunition as well as elongated projectiles from long distances, they scattered the reserves of the Austrians, rolled back the charges of cavalry, and ploughed through squadrons at close quarters with case-shot and canister.

This result was the signal for a reconstruction of all the artillery of Europe. Impressed with its importance, England was the first of the great powers to follow the lead of France, and so rapid was her advance upon it, that specimens of her newly developed skill in the manufactory of rifled cannon, displayed at the Great Exhibition in London in 1862, called forth the unrestrained admiration of M. 'l‘reuille de Beaulieu, who acted as the commissioner of France. Fascinated by the beauty of the English guns, and passing the most cordial eulog'ium on the surpassing quality and splendour of their workmanship, “an luxe et une puissance d'outillage merveilleux," be accompanied his phrase by the consoling reflection that although no examples of French artillery were exhibited in competition with those of Armstrong and Whitwortb, still its paramount influence was apparent, in these magnificent productions of its rivals.

The remark, however true, embodied only a part of the truth; for England, though thus suddenly stimulated to exertion, was impelled less by the performance of the "caucus rsyéea" of France than by the recently developed powers of the rifle. The co-operation of artillery with infantry in the field rendered each a constituent element in our system of tactics; and the alteration which raised the qualities of the one necessitated a corresponding change in the other.

The large guns of which the manufacture had been left in the hands of military men remained, according to the oldest precedents, rudely constructed, short in their range, and uncertain of aim. They improved rapidly when the mechanical appliances of the day were at last brought to bear upon their manufacture. The large rifled gun patented by Mr Lancaster in 1850, with an oval or slightly elliptical bore, and increased rapidity in the twist of the spiral as it approached the muzzle, was used in the Crimea. The first projectiles used were of wrought iron without external fitting, and they were liable, since they could not accommodate themselves to the increasing twist, to burst the barrel. Having cited the different inventions submitted to the Committee of 1858 on rifled cannon, and accepted for the present the narrowing of the issue to 8 question between the artillery of Sir W. Armstrong and of Mr Whitwortli, the author discusses next the subject of material. How is the gunner to be furnished with a gun which cannot burst? The old smooth-bore guns were of cast-iron, or of the bronze called gun-metal, which 15 more uniformly strong, but not so hard. But cast and unhammered iron is always more or loss, through uneqm}1 cooling, unequally porous. A cast-iron 32-poundcl‘ 15 known to have fired 3,000 rounds at Sebastopol, the bow remaining sound and smooth. But as a rule, large rifled guns of cast-iron want strength and durability, and PW lessor Treadwell of Harvard University, has shown that they cannot be adequately strengthened by addition to their thickness. Professor Treadwell advised hoops. 9“ in 1855 Captain Blaker took out a patent for a methld of forming guns with an internal tube of cast-iron or steel.


in a case of wrought-iron or steel, and shrunk upon 01°

cylinder. The first gun produced by him in 1854 stood 8,889 shots, a cast-iron one giving way after 351 rounds, a brass one after 479. The great Horsfall gun made by the Mersey Company at Liverpool weighs more than twentyfour tons, and has a smooth bore thirteen inches in diameter, that at a range of 200 yards sent a spherical ball of 280

ounds weight crashing through five and a half inches of iron, and eighteen inches of teak, in the central plate of the Warrior target. The gun worked none the less for flaws, one of them thirteen inches long.

The narrative now reaches the story of the Armstrong gun. Its inventor practised as a lawyer till the age of 37, but his taste was for mechanics, and the success of his hydraulic crane caused him to relinquish his profession of the law, and to found, in conjunction with a few friends, the Elswick Engine Works. His earliest design for the use of forged-iron rifled field-guns was submitted to the Secretary for War in December 1854 :

01' six guns which he was authorised by the Minister for War to construct, the first, a 3-pounder, was reported on in November 1865 by the War Office Select Committee, who recommended further experiments on a larger scale. It was re-bored up to a 5-poundcr, and fired at Shoeburyness with marked success both in accuracy and range. A second, an 18-pounder, was submitted for trial in 1858, and the results were so unexpected that Colonel Mitchtll of the Royal Artille , in a special report, notwithstanding his scruples as to hrcech- osding, stated that this gun “appeared to afford a reasonable expectation that artillery might not only regain that influence in the field, of which to a certain extent the recent improvement in small arms had deprived it, but that thatinfiuence might be materially increased." Lord l’anmure, then at the head of the War Department, regarded the new piece as “ a most valuable contribution to our army, and the experiments being conclusive as to the flight and accuracy of the projectiles," he gave orders that three more guns should be prepared, a 12poundcr and two ld-pounders, together with the necessary projectile-g “ to be handed over to the artillery to knock about, and be reported upon as to their endurance of work, in comparison with our service guns." With these, and with a 32-pounder and others of the same construction, trials were made, which towards the close of 1858 led to the adoption of the Armstrong gun for special service in the field.

The Armstrong gun itself is thus described :

The earliest aim of its inventor was the production of a field-piece, constructed for loading at the breech, with mechanical appliances to facilitate the painting of the gun and counteract the recoil. His first conception was to have elongated projectiles of lead, or lead hardened by an admixture of antimony or tin ; but discovering their liability to distortion, he finally adopted a projectile of iron coated with lead, to which rotation is imparted by its being forcibly driven during the explosion into the numerous grooves with which the bore is rifled.

But as the substitution of a cylindrical bolt for a spherical ball, and the force required to pro'eot it through a barrel slightly contracted towards the muzzle, invo ved the necessity of strengthening the gun to enable it to resist the increased s sin and impart the required velocity—the attention of Sir William Armstrong was early directed to the selection of a metal possessed of greater tenacity than that of cast or ordinary wrought iron. Steel has nearly double the tensile strength of the latter, and more than seven times that of cast iron; but in the statoof the manufacture as it then existed, it was considcrcd to be unreliable in a mass of sufficient size for large guns. Besides, both in it and in shear-steel, Sir \Villiam Armstrong was of opinion that the tenacity was always less in a lateral than in the longitudinal direction; whereas lateral strength was the high essential of a cannon. Reverting therefore to the practice adopted in making musket barrels of twisting bars of iron into spiral tubes and forging them, Sir \Villiam resorted to a similar process, but on a great] enlarged scale. In malleable iron when drawn into bars, the particles assume a fibrous form, somewhat resembling a bundle of threads strongly adhering to each other and possessing their chief tenacity in the direction of their length. Availing himself of this well-known property, he proceeded to coil iron barsof sufficient thickness into cylinders, which he afterwards welded into solid hoops, by which “means the longitudinal strain of the sli becomes opposed to the ex losive force of the powder; and the we] ings being transverse with a here, have no important influence in lessening the strength of the barrel."

Steel being a harder substance than iron, and therefore more adapted to form the surface of the bore and receive the rifling, he at first applied it in the form of a tube for the inner lining; obtaining the necessary strength by encircling it with welded hoops shrunk on with initial tension on the principle laid down by Trcadwell, and ldopted with more or less variation by others. He afterwards made the inner tube, as well as the external hoops, of coiled iron; but mature ex erience has demonstrated the superiority of steel.

In Sir illiam Armstrong’s case, breech-loading instendof a matter of choice became a matter of necessity as soon as he had decided on rifling a lead-coated projectile by forcing it by a pressure equal to achral tons into the grooves of the barrel, since in order to ensure its filling the here it was indispensable to make the projectile of a greater diameter than would enter the muzzle. The plan which he adopted was the attachment at the rear of the gun of a powerful screw, which, having a hole through the centre so as to render it a prolongation of the bore, admits the introduction of the projectile with a cartridge and greased wad; and these being deposited within, a vent-piece with a mitred face, fitting a corresponding mitrs at the end of the here, is dropped into a recess, against which the great screw exerts its pressure, and closes the breech.

In the earlier Armstrong guns it was necessary that the portion of: charge of the practical department at woolwich

the bore which was occupied by the projectile should be perfectly

clean, otherwise the shot would not enter freely, and water had to be 1 Knighthood and the Companionship of the Bath), were defined in In , r 'oflicial minute, by which he undertook to give his best attention to

freely used in consequence; but in the guns now issued for service, a slight alteration 'in the bore has enabled the greased wad to be applied with perfect effect, in substitution for sponging—an expedient first adopted b Mr Whitworth, when trying his rifled brass guns at Bhoeburyness in 1859.

With respect to the vent-piece, Sir William Armstrong intimated at an early period, that it is not expected to have the same durability as the gun; besides it obtains its name from its being made to contain the touch-hole, which being the most perishable part of all ordnance, it is better, rather than insert it in the body of the gun itself, to place it where it can easily be renewed. Two vent-pieces are attached to each gun, so that if one of them be disabled, the other is ready to replace it.

The filing of the Armstrong service gun consists of spiral grooves forming what is termed a “fluted bore." The number of grooves he has varied from eight in the first 8-pounder to thirty-eight in the 9-ponnder field-gun, and seventy-six in the seven-inch bore, called a 100-ponnder.

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him from the Royal factory, 0, 9, and 12-pounders, which, at the request of the Government he rifled polygonally. These guns having been tried in succession by the military authorities at Shoeburyness, were each and all reported on favourably; and when Lord Hardinge, accompanied by General Hay, the chief of the School of llluaketry at H the, visited Manchester in the spring of 1856, to be present at Mr hitworth’s trials with the new rifled musket, he was so struck by its extraordinary performance that he expressed his wish that Mr \Vhitworth should proceed to apply to [many ordnance the same system of riding which had proved so singularly successful in small arms. . . . .

In the course of two years Mr Whitworth, at the request of the Government, rifled in all seven brass guns of different calibrcs; the blocks in every instance being provided for him from the Royal founderies. In each of these instances the system applied was the same in 1856 and 1857 as that used by his firm at the present day; the rifling and its pitch were almost alike, and the projectile was the same, with the exception that the rear has since been tapered in order to increase the range and steadiness of flight ; whereas at first it was carried parallel throughout. The gun was a muzzle-loader; and its excellence was the result of the same combination of (-ondi‘ tions which had already imparted surpassing excellence to the Whitworth rifle.

Hitherto he had acted in friendly concert with successive Secretaries of State, and in cordial co-operation with the War Department, but in the year 1858 a conjuncture arrived, the consequences of which were calculated to change that confidential relation.

Threatening outcry across the Channel and a sense of the unarmed state of" the country, hurried Government into action for an increased national armament. What were to be the gunsP, Colonel Lefroy, upon questions of artillery the confidential scientific adviser of the Secretary of State, recommended the appointment of a special Committee on rifled guns, and this was appointed by General Peel, in August, 1858, to ascertain the best form of gun both for garrison and field service.

The Committee, having made few trials of the Whitworth gun, and those without giving Mr Whitworth himself an opportunity of being present, having visited the Elswick Works, and abstained from visiting the works at Mauchester, in three months reported against five of the seven guns it had professed to consider, damned Mr Whitworth’s with faint praise, and recommended “ the imme“diate introduction of guns rifled on Mr Armstrong's “ principle, for special service in the field.”

On the decision being made known, Mr Armstrong was applied to,


to state on what terms he would be ready to transfer his discoveries, ‘ and the patents which protected them, to her Majesty’s Government. l To this he replied by declining to negotiate on the basis of a purchase; 1 but expressed his readiness to assign them unconditionally, being desirous and preferring to make them a gift to her Majesty and her 1 successors, “ without any pecuniary or other valuable consideration." A deed to that effect was accordingly executed on January 15, 1859, thus completing what General Peel, in communicating the fact to the Earl of Derby, described as “the liandsomest offer ever made by a private individual to the Government.” Mr Armstrong was paid by grants from the Treasury, in reimbursement of all expenses attendant on his experiment between the years 1855 and 1859, when his gun

l was adopted. l But a difficulty arose on the very threshold ; the gun, whatever its ‘ excellence, was still incomplete, and no one but its inventor was competent to conduct the further experiments requisite to render the invention more perfect. It was, as Sir William Armstrong subsequently said, “a special manufacture, known at that time only to himself; and the Government, after they had obtained a grant of these inventions, had no means of putting them in practice, except under his direction." Within three days, therefore, from the signature of the deed by which he so generously made over his interest in the patents, he, on January 18th,1859, addressed a further communication to the Secretary of State in which he made a suggestion as to a return for his exertions, since he could not engage to give up gratuitously all future as well as past inventions connected with the subject. His proposal was that he should give his future services, in the capacity of a public officer, at an adequate salary, and with the title of Director of Rffled Ordnance. With regard to the lamount of that salary—I may fuirly estimate the entire value of my time, in a professional point of view, at 6,0001. per annum; and I should consider that fully half that time Would be absorbed in performing the duties of the supposed office. I would, therefore, repose 3,0001. 5 year, a proper amount to cover services and future

I inventions." | This proposal of 3,0001. per annum, be modified by reducing it to ,2,000(. a year, with the understanding that retrospectively it was to idate backwards so as to include arrears for three years past, and 1prospectively that it was to endure for seven years to come. In gaddition to his official duties, he was to remain at liberty to carry on his private business at Elswick as heretofore, or any other in which ;hc might think proper to engage. With these terms the Secretary for |War complied, convincu-d, he said, that to take his patents, without wearing his services in the making of the gun, would be useless; land Mr Armstrong was accordingly appointed Engineer to the War ,Deparfmml, on February 23, 18.79, with an income of 2,0001. per lannum, and travelling expenses not exceeding $001. a year ;—his

|salary to be calculated retrospectively from 1856, as some compensa

tion for the labour and outlay he had incurred.

As his functions were to he consultative and directory, ho was at the same time provided with an Assistant, Mr Anderson, to take The functions of

‘Mr Armstrong (who on his appointment received the honour of

‘moluring and per/Eating his gun, and to conduct all experiments and vinvestigations for developing his syshm, and for the improvement of lrifled ordnance generally :—and all patents taken out by him for these purposes were to be the property of the crown. He was to furnish designs and drawings for guns, to visit the establishments for making those designed by himself, and to direct the processes; but without the responsibilities or duties of a resident superintendent.

At a later period Sir William Armstrong received the further apppintment of “ Superinlmdent of flu: Royal Gun Factory " at Woolwie .

Simultaneously with the transfer of his interest in his patents, a contract of an important character was entered into for the manufacture of his guns, by a private company upon highly advantageous termm This contract was made on the same day (January 16, 1859) on which Sir William Armstrong signed the deed of assignment to the crown ; and the parties to it were the Secretary of State for War, Sir William Armstrong, and Sir William’s partners, who formed what has since been known as the Elswick Ordnance Company, in which they were joined at a later period by Captain Andrew Noble, of the Royal Artillery, a gentleman whose services as Secretary to more than one of the Select Committees on Ordnance had rendered him thoroughly acquainted with the properties of the Armstrong gun.

The reason ostensibly assigned for creating this special establish


and so much depended on the mode of putting it together, that it was represented to be unwise to get them in the open market, or to entrust the manufacture to ordinary contractors.

To this Company Sir William Armstrong furnished capital at a fixed interest, reserving to himself the right to join it in the event of his retirement from the public service.

Another contingency was also provided for;-regarding the extent of employment to be given by these contracts, as liable to fluctuation and its continuance uncertain ; it was stipulated that in the event of the Government curtailing or withdrawing their ordcrr, so as to have the works at Elawick either wholly or partially unproductive, compensation, not exceeding 85,0001, was to be paid in respect of so much of the capital ssmigbt be invested with the previous sanction of the Secretary of State. To the latter condition the Earl of Derby and General Peel were induced to assent, inasmuch as the naranteo was only to be enforced in case of actual loss,- such as mig t accrue in the event of a superior gun being discovered, or of Government transferring the entire manufacture to Woolwich. General Peelalso considered that the guarantee had reference to guns alone, and did not extend to the manufacture of projectiles.

The Elswick Company was thus erected into a close and privileged monopoly ; but it was of course interdicted from making guns on the Armstrong principle for any party other than the Government; and the Government, on their side, consented to make advances on account of work ordered and in process of manufacture.

Sir W illinm Armstrong has recently retired from the official appointment of which Sir Emerson Tennent feels now no scruple in saying that it ought not to have been so conferred upon him. The next chapter shows very clearly its many and various disadvantages, and while there was a check put upon inventors by the establishment of a rival inventor as the adviser of the Government, the country was paying heavily for Sir W. Armstrong's generosity towards it.

It appears by the evidence taken by the Select Commillee 0/ the House of Commons on Military Organisation in 1860, that at first, so much as 2001., afterwards reduced to 1701., was paid to Elswiek for lZ-pounder guns, which at Woolwieh were made for 87!. 3s. 5d., or nearly one half. Colonel Boxer, one of the chiefs at the Royal Factory at Woolwich, stated in 1862, before the Committee of the Home of Commons on Ordnance, that the amount paid to the Elswiek Company for shot and shells alone, halvesn 1859 and 1862, was 292,8751., all of which could have been supplied at Woolwieh without any difficulty for 195,588!. (including in that sum 27,9021. for buildings and machinery). so that the Government would have benefited to the extent of 97,287l., besides possessing itself of a working plant as its own for continuous service.

For guns during the same period, the amounts paid to Elswiclt are much larger, as may be inferred from the fact that Mr Anderson stated to the same Committee, that at Woolwich he had made in three years 575 110-pounders, at an average cost of 4241. 13s. ld.; whereas the Elswick Company supplied 100 of the same guns at 7001. each, and 50 at 6501.

As the guarantee given by General Peel in 18.70 was only to take effect in the event of actual loss in the manufacture of guns for the Government, the gain upon these transactions will no doubt modify any claim on that score by the Elswick Ordnance Company.

We are next told how “the sudden resolution to get “ rid altogether of Mr Whitworth and his experiments “ followed fast upon the Report of the Ordnance Committee " in favour of the Armstrong gun." In reply to a letter he was informed of the determination of the Secretary of State “to discontinue further experiments with ordnance "rifled on his principle."

“He had not had previously,” as he stated to the House of Commons' Committee of 1803, “ the most distant idea of becoming a manufacturer of rifled arms. I took it up,” he said, “originally, solely because I was re nested by the Government, but when I received this letter from eneral l’eel to inform me that no more experiments were to be made with guns on my principle, I determined at once to become a manufacturer and to prove that my system was right. With respect to the rifle, it has already been shown that it was so; and I think it will soon be admitted that I was right with regard to ordnance also."

He founded, therefore, a rifled ordnance factory at Mon

'chester. Sir Emerson Tennent then describes the Whitworth gun, a tube of one piece of the strong ‘ homogeneous’ iron-hooped by hydraulic presshrc, a muzz1e~ or breechlonder uniform of bore, rifled upon the principle already applied to small arms, and fitted with elongated iron projectiles. From the gun he passes to its remarkable per|formanees upon the Southport shore in the spring of 1860. §Mr Whitworth having thus proved his right to a competiitive trial, claimed it and had it accorded to him, but on lofiicial conditions that he considered incompatible with fair inquiry, and to which he declined to secede. l The third part of Sir Emerson Tennent’s most timely and important book describes the rise of the iron navy, and ,the experiments made with the new artillery as to the vulnerability of iron ships. Into the details of this we need not enter. It is enough to record the issue to which they have come, an issue to which it is a particular object of this work to direct public attention.

Shortly after the startling events at Shoeburyness, at the close of 62, when contrary to general expectation the armour-plate of tho I \Varrior' was not only pierced by Whitworth shot, but penetrated l by Whitworth shell, her Majesty‘s Government came to the resoluItion to reopen the former settlement of 1858, so far as to authorise l the institution of a series of trials to determine the relative excellence ‘of the Armstrong and Whitworth systems. These comparative They will be conducted, not by the usual Ordnance Committee, composed exclusively of military and naval officers, but by another specially named, with whom two scientific civilians hat-o been associated, Mr John Penn and Mr Pole, the former distinguished in the highest walks of his profession as a mechanical engineer. The programme of tests to which the guns are to be subjected will doubtless include every point essential to determine all questions of construction, velocity, range, and precision ; rapidity of firing, powers of destruction, and length of endurance. The issue of this important contest will be watched by the public with profound and unwanted interest—but the result, to whichever side victory may incline, must not be permitted again to close the gates against the honourable ambition of other aspirants. Sir William Armstrong and Mr Whitworth are but two out of those clamouring for admission ; others in due course of time will advance their pretensions, and whatever he the result of the approaching trial, whether it attest the superiority of the Armstrong gun, or point to its supercession by the Whitworth; no judgment, as btfwee-ss them, must preclude the just claims of other rivals to an equally dispas

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