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evidence condemned Governor Wall to death had for twenty to the secret influence of the French Government, no objections as lead us to prefer the Enfield as the more useful years kept the rope with which Armstrong was illegally attempt at revolt has been made either in Galicia or Posen. though less accurate weapon of the two. We must differ scourged, and evinced unmistakeable animus in his testi. How long will the motive continue to exist after the first in this point from Sir Emerson Tennent, and agree with mony, but the spirit hostile to the prisoner was the spirit cannonade is heard on the banks of the Eider?

the report of the Ordnance Select Committee of 1862 of retribution, without which tho ends of criminal justice

on the system of rifling for small arms. The Committee would never be attained. An officer who believes his

speak thus in their exceedingly able report on the Whitsuperior to be a tyrant who has brought about the death of

ARMS AND SHIPS' ARMOUR.

worth rifle : “Although the reduced bore has shown a a good and unoffending soldier, and that his oppression has

"great superiority in precision over the large calibre (the destroyed the harmony and is impairing the discipline of his

Such a book as that of Sir J. Emerson Tennent on the vast

Enfield), yet the wear that takes place in the percussionregiment, cannot give his testimony to that effect with stoical subject of shots, shells, charges of powder, wads lubricated "ing is so considerable that the rifle in a very short time indifference if there be real honesty and manliness in his and dry, Brown Bess, the bores of rifles small and large, “becomes unserviceable. In the course of these expericharacter. He

may

be mistaken in his view without being the Enfield, the Whitworth; guns of all calibres and their “ments, and before 500 rounds had been fired from any wrong in the moral sense accompanying his view, and which, carriages ; not omitting a word in season on some of their " one of the small-bore rifles, eleven hammers had been when an ill name is to be given to it, is called animus, as miscarriages; as well as observations upon iron-plated broken by the force of the gas escaping through the if animus must always be evil. And equally remarkable ships; was needed at the present moment, if only to " nipples." The Committee objected likewise to the Whitand unfortunate it is that these Courts-Martial, which dispel some of the pestilent notions that were beginning worth cartridge, and also remarked that every Whitworth ignore the rules and technicalities of law, are a vast deal to steal over us. Some were beginning to doubt whether rifle being dearer than the Enfield by fifteen shillings, and too ready to resort to a technicality when it may serve to there had not arisen a mighty, power, the representative the wear and tear and breakage being so much greater, convey á vague prejudice against any object of their dis- of which had founded a new dynasty of hereditary

, gun- the expense formed matter of grave consideration. The pleasure.

makers within these realms, and had by his astonishing Committee, consequently, could not advise general adopWe do not mean to contend that witnesses are to have talent created the necessity for a close monopoly, which, tion of the Whitworth, although its partial adoption immunity from any animadversion that may seem called for for the benefit of the present race and the advantage of for certain men who were expert marksmen might be at the time from their manner of giving their evidence, but posterity, was to be maintained as the exclusive privilege expedient. The report of this Committee was printed such animadversion should be very sparingly used, and of one great man. We do not find that Sir Emerson enter- by the House of Commons, on the motion of Mr Kinnaird. should not be followed up with anything in the shape of a tains these opinions; on the contrary, he is manifestly of a For ourselves we entertain a very strong opinion that judgment upon conduct affecting an officer's prospects

. It different way of thinking, and considers that the more the very fine and close shooting, at long distances, in the is true that our judges in their charges occasionally reflect manufactures of the country are thrown open to the inge. army generally is of doubtful value. When we see the upon witnesses, but this only with a view to the just appre- nuity of all-comers, the more perfect is the product of their preposterous pains men take in shooting for prizes, refusing ciation of their evidence by the jury. Courts-Martial too, in competition likely to become.

after the manner of great singers to speak above a whisper, their secret deliberations, must be quite free to discuss the The book, as we have seen, begins with a history wrapping themselves up when cold, denuding themselves bearing and manner of witnesses and the weight to be of Brown Bess, and the author pleasantly enough points of garments when warm, putting their elbows and hands attached to their evidence, with a view to the finding. out to us how long her charms had reigned triumphant over into cold water or eau de Cologne to steady their nerves, But what is to be protested against as of bad practice and the hearts of the British army. Indeed, the defenders of and then reflect that the gentleman under this treatment example and cruel effect, is the judgment carrying punish- Tilbury Fort in the days of our fair and regal Bess, pro- might, in a stricken field, be called upon to deliver a ment with it passed upon witnesses for evidence they have tected her and her fort with the identical Brown Bess, shot after running half a mile, stumbling over the dead been compelled to give, and have not given untruthfully, which afterwards asserted her power at Ramillies, Mal- bodies of his comrades, and with his nerves unstrung but allegedly with bad motive. Motives are easily imputed, placquet, Blenheim, on the heights of Abraham, at Bla- by anger, -we would not for the world insinuate a less and difficult of proof, and it certainly seems to us a great densburgh and the taking of Washington, and smiled on noble emotion,—why it seems to us that a man so cirinjustice to condemn men to ruin upon an arbitrary assump- Wellington from Assaye to Waterloo. Even that eminent cumstanced would not pay very accurate attention to tion of questionable motives, or bad feelings.

war Christian, the Bishop of Labuan, with Terry's breech- his sights, but blaze away as best he might. As regards loader, hardly comes up to the excellent practice which great guns, between the only two permitted competitors

Daniel Defoe insists upon it that Robiuson Crusoe made Armstrong and Whitworth, the narrator of their story THE POLES AND THEIR TORMENTORS.

with Brown Bess at the cannibals who intruded on his evidently leans to the latter and gives Mr Whitworth

privacy. Be this as it may, there are now produced the credit of being the first to penetrate the Warrior În his intervals of leisure as hangman-general of for us some wonderful tables of practice of this weapon, target with a flat-headed shot; but we do not observe Lithuania, Count Mourarieff occupies himself with penal the rule of which seems to be that it never by any chance that Sir Emerson refers to the fact that the flat-headed plunder. Tired of playing the vulture, he betakes himself hits what it may be aimed at; and a doubt is hazarded shot is no more the invention of Whitworth than the to the functions of the vampire. The blood is to be whether a body of cross-bowmen would not be more destruc- coil system is the invention of Armstrong. Sir Emerson sucked out of the timid and the languid when the bones tive than a body of Brown Bess-men. The French and points out that Captain Blakely asked permission at his of the courageous are no longer to be broken. The "luke- other European nations had worse muskets, luckily, with own expense to bring a piece of ordnance into the field "warm" among the middle and upper classes, says the weak locks and powder of the vilest description; conse against Armstrong and Whitworth, but met with a refusal, Russian commander, must be fleeced and mulcted into quently we were better armed than our opponents. It was by which appears as hard to explain as it is objectionable. loyalty. Love of race, of country, and of creed is the French, however, that we were first enlightened upon Captain Blakely has always denied that any engineer could characterized in his despatches to St Petersburg as an great guns and small arras; and as in this country it is, and build up sides of any sea-going ship strongly enough to epidemic so prevalent that nothing but universal cautery always has been, considered yulgar to have an original keep out shot or shell from guns which he can conwill get rid of it; and this must be applied broadly and military idea, so from the French we borrowed the Paixhans struct, and has constructed. Captain Blakely is not inwithout distinction wherever the faintest symptom of gun and the Minié rifled musket. The Americans then clined to put faith in the shape of shot or shell, but believes disaffection has shown itself. Special imposts in addition taught us that a pistol which could fire six successive shots that a gun built of such strength as will carry a large to those already existing are imposed on all owners of was a more formidable weapon than a pistol which could charge of powder with safety, is all that is requisite, and property whatsoerer, the onus being thrown on those fire only one shot at a time. When the minds of our War that opinion appears to be gaining ground. who hope for exemption of proof that they have actively Authorities were just recovering from a painful tension of There are certain axioms on which Sir Emerson Tennent tuken part with the spoilers. Everywhere, it is said, the intellect, the consequence of entertaining more than one relies, and which are quoted by him with advantage. civil functionaries of the Government who are of Polish idea at a time, that busy and clever Prince, the Emperor While we attended after he was dead to the advice of the origin have betrayed their sympathy with the cause of of the French, invented a rifled field-piece, with which he Duke of Wellington, which we had neglected while he insurrection. All have not done so openly; but in one incontinently dusted the white jackets of the stolid Aus- was yet living, and proceeded to put our country into way or other nearly all are said to have done so. The trians, from a distance then scarcely believed possible. some sort of defensive position, the consequence of class, therefore, is not only to be denounced and fined for Solferino changed the armament of the whole world, and which was the springing up of our Volunteer force; we its moral complicity in patriotism, but it is to be that change is due to the talent of Napoleon the Third. neglected the great Field-Marshal's wise advice never to extinguished. Russians, and none but Russians, are in After Europe had been completely armed with rifled great adopt any supposed improvement in our national armament future to be employed in the misgovernment of Poland; guns, and the Italians had used not only field-pieces, but which was not completely perfected. Three millions and as the service, it is apprehended, will be one of no siege guns of that description; after the Spaniards had wasted on Sir William Armstrong's crude designs, not one little discomfort, if not of danger, the salaries of the new read a lesson to the Moors with rifled ordnance

, and of which is yet perfected, is the fine that has been paid by officials are to be fifty per cent. higher than those of the France, Spain, and Portugal had armed their respective us for slighting this advice. old ones, to be paid for by an extra tax on the outlawed navies with those weapons, England began to think there

The observations made by Sir J. Emerson Tennent and outraged Poles. No other system, Europe is assured, might be something in it; and Sir Emerson Tennent holds out any hope of tranquillising the country. takes up his succinct and clear history of modern guns; judicious. But we cannot at present make further obser

upon armour-clad ships appear to us to be generally The Government of Prussia, as if it had not enough on just as our War Authorities had run the country up a bill vation on that part

of the subject. We would, however, its hands already, seems bent on kindling the flame of insur- of nearly three millions, and conferred the honour of vation on that part of the subject

. We would, however,

generally remark that no obstruction which it may be rection in Posen, where hitherto it has smouldered. Some knighthood on Sir William Armstrong for failing on one iniquitous acts of administrative oppression and pillage point or another in all he attempted. The book lays the possible to heap upon a sea-worthy, sea-going ship can

withstand the ordnance, either prepared or preparing are reported as having been perpetrated where no resistance whole account of the strange conduct of our Executive to Prussian authority is even pretended to have taken before the public without drawing deductions from the facts. from the evidence before us we fully believe that rifled

against it. Monster guns may be employed on forts, but place. We begin to think we erred in treating King Wil. But those deductions are so self-evident that its silence is

guns, not more weighty than our useless 68-pounders, may liam and his Ministers as lunatics. Madmen are defined perfectly eloquent.

be found to go to sea in our ships, and perforate the armouras those who reason rationally from irrational premisses ; Sir Emerson Tennent is not at all blind to the eminent but Count Bismark and his colleagues do not answer the scientific qualities of Sir William Armstrong; he makes plated ships of any hostile nation because they can perforate former part of the description. Their ways and means of them known to the general public so fully and generously We cannot understand any idle assertion haring weight

At present we have no such guns in our navy. misrule are as incomprehensibly bad as its aims and that the Knight of Elswick’s general reputation will be with the public, that we are on equal terms with the objects. Foolish and factious as the conduct of the Berlin raised rather than lowered by this publication of plain Americans, because we have guns with as great trajectory Chamber of Representatives has been, it has yet had facts. But at the same time it by no means appears that his

Witness the Armstrong 110-pounder gun which

power. th generosity and wisdom to liberate from arrest power of making black appear white on paper, probably may carry a shot five miles, but cannot penetrate an ironcertain Polish members of its own body who had engendered by an early acquaintance with the law, should plated target at 200 yards. It is not trajectory power but been dealt with apparently on mere suspicion. not affect to believe that the majority who thus voted have been more immediately connected with the working penetrative force that we must find and bring into our against Ministers have any desire to see Poland free. But of hard metal. Among those referred to in the story of at a moment when they are urging Germany to undertake the guns are Whitworth and Blakely. As regards Whit& crusade for the partition of Denmark, they have common worth, we are almost inclined to think that the author

THE SHORT AND EASY PROCESS TO FIND sense enough to defer provoking an unsettlement of Prussia's has yielded himself too completely to the influence of a

INSANITY, part of the past partition of Poland. The Prussian Execu- natural admiration for that engineer's undoubted talent. tive, hoping vainly to propitiate Russia perhaps at a junc- There is no doubt that the Whitworth rifle, speaking of Three weeks is rather a short time for an inquiry by ture so critical, lends itself with a meanness that is worse small arms, as far as trajectory power and precision Commission of Lunacy into a man s competency to manage than madness to the imitation of Russia's most detestable are required, deserves all eulogy bestowed upon it; but his affairs, but in two hours Mr Scott, the Derbyshire polioy. Shall we wonder if the long-suffering Poles in something more is required of a weapon before it can be Magistrate, and his three colleagues, had satisfied themPosen are convinced at last of the futility of their forbear. adjudged the best for general use of an army, and we selves of the insanity of Townley, and certified accordance during the last twelve months to join their brethren must say that the small bore of the Whitworth rifle, ils ingly. The tribunal for the occasion was composed, at in arms? Universality has been truly characterized as the liability to clog, its recalcitrant powers, and on a continued the instance of the prisoner's attorney, Mr Leech, of Mr soul of an insurrectionery war. Owing, it is whispered, fire its liability to fly to pieces, in our opinion are such Cox and Mr Scott, Justices of the Peace, Dr Good

and Mr Harwood, medical officers, the Governor and drawing the large supply formerly sent to China, and of the Arran Isles, ought to be well paid for their rough Chaplain of the Jail assisting and approving. A certificate sweeping the India market of all manner of rubbish, raising and dangerous service. Of all the waters of the British had before been signed to the same effect, but a doubt the cost enormously to the Indian wearer and consumer. As Isles the wide mouth of the deep bay of Galway is most having been raised as to its validity, as two of the magis- to the quality of the Indian cotton, it has not only under- exposed to the worst weather. It is there that south-west trates were borough magistrates, and the Act seemed to gone no improvement, but suffered a great deterioration. gales prevail in their greatest fury, and driving in the require county magistrates, that certificate was not used, India cotton," said Mr Cheetham at the Manchester wildest sea in the thickest weather, for so it always is but another obtained, as we have stated. It is to be re- meeting, “ was never more contemptible in the opinion of when it over-blows. For days together a pilot might be marked that, after the signing of the first certificate, the “the manufacturer and workman than at the present in his boat hove to, nominally on the look-out for ships, Governor, according to the statement of Mr Cox, "ex-"moment."

while he could not see the length of his own little vessel. “pressed his great gratification and approval of what had Now for this despised commodity our dire necessities com- This is not done now, because the two pilots of Galway “ been done, adding that ‘now Townley could not be pelled us to pay last year the gigantic sum of 43,000,0001., are good only for the roadstead, keeping prudently, as the “hanged."" Yet if we remember rightly, that same a sum sufficient to pay the interest of the national debt, Captain of the Anglia explained, inside the dangers. And officious official denied that he had uttered or formed any leaving a handsome balance of 15,000,0001. It is morti. we really cannot see what is to tempt them to do more. opinion as to the sanity or insanity of Townley. The mur- fying to compare this failure of mighty, large-promising The fact is that Galway is altogether a mistake. Galway derer's keeper rejoiced nevertheless at his escape from the British India with the success of little Egypt, ruled by a is misplaced for a port, and it would cost half a million to gallows and the jail. They manage matters so at Derby. mere Turk. In 1861, Egypt supplied us with no more make a safe roadstead, leaving the approaches with their

Mr Scott says that the opinions of the Governor and the than 97,800 bales of cotton, and under the stimulant of irremediable dangers. How Galway ever came to think of Chaplain strengthened his impression that Townley was great prices, furnished last year 248,700 bales, the quality the sea is indeed inexplicable, like many other things in mad, and so, after an examination lasting only two hours, of the Egyptian, tested by price, being three-fold that of Ireland, and ere this the slender traffio should have cor. he forth with signed the certificate, but without knowing the Indian cotton. Here we have not a paltry increase of rected the great mistake. But as Galway has the knack the uses to be made of it. We attach no importance to the 26 per cent., but a handsome one of 154 per cent., or close of getting its whims indulged, it will no doubt get moles last point, as the effect of the certificate under a dan- upon six times as much. This really amounts to nothing and pilots, and all the furniture of a port except traffic. gerous and absurd statute had nothing to do with the short of an indecent exposure of Indian misrule by its What will be its last cry ought, indeed, to be its first, question of fact whether the man was mad or not. own authors. We have repeatedly insisted that the pri- ships. But ships have no call there, and well it is for

It is to be observed that both the proceedings took place mordial farming of Hindoos would never furnish a substi- them that they have not, as storm and fog make their after the Inquiry of the Lunacy Commissioners, and tute for the lost supply of America, and that, in a word, favourite home of those waters. evinced the resolution to take the question out of the Hindoos were about as unequal to the production of fine hands most competent to deal with it. The prisoner's cotton as of steam engines and locomotives, and so it has attorney knew better than to leave his client's fate to the turned out. The late Lord Canning, as our readers know, judgment of the authorities most likely to come to an had passed a law for the sale of wild lands in India, which THE CONDITION OF THE LABOURER. unbiassed and correct conclusion. And so justice was would, for the first time, have put India on a level with defeated, and a most mischievous example of impunity our colonies, with the advantages of European skill and the condition of the labouring class in every country will

We fear much that, in despite of philanthropic efforts, presented.

capital and cheap India labour, a measure which, had it The question that must now occur to every mind is how been honestly carried out, would by this time have put us ment than upon

any law, whether of politics or property.

always depend more upon its industrial state and developit is that so long, minute, and searching an inquiry is in the way of a large permanent supply of good Indian Adam Smith said, long ago, that the condition and wages necessary to ascertain sanity or insanity with a view to the cotton. It was smothered in the smoke raised by the of the labourer

depended upon the progressive or stationary management of property, while, where justice is concerned, Council of old Indians, for which, and for various other any four gentlemen-two magisterial, two medical-can short-comings, Sir Charles Wood, its responsible head, is is not so true as it was, the efforts of progress in all

nature of that upon which he was employed. Even this all doubt in a couple of hours

. This latter self- soundly, and we think very justly, rated by the unsparing being directed more to the use of machinery than the appointed commission does not require the examination of magnates of Manchester. These hard-headed men by no every soul who has had any knowledge of the party; it means measure the value of the right honourable gentle Australia are out of the question. There the demand for

employ of increased labour. Of course America and needs no throng of witnesses, no counsel to argue the pro man's services at his own estimate of them, especially labour, from the quantity of unoccupied soil, renders the and con, cross-examine, and browbeat

, no array of medical objecting to his flashy exposition of them before the electors peasant's condition eminently progressive. But there are authorities. It goes into a prison chamber, looks at the of Halifax, men no doubt very knowing in wool, but very countries, at no great distance from us either, which offer prisoner, asks him questions upon which he knows his life ignorant of cotton and India, depends, takes his answers, marvels that they are not as

fair tests of the value of what Mr Bright alleges, viz., coherent as the rope waiting to hang him, and in two short

that the condition of the labourer must be very much imhours by the clock comes to the most positive conclusion.

proved by a wider distribution of political power. Now all that we ask is, why this short and easy process,

GALWAY'S WANTS AGAIN.

France is one of those countries. Universal suffrage, if good for criminal justice, is not equally good when It is difficult to understand the wants of Galway, we know, prevails in it. And the manifest effect of this property is concerned.

Galway wanted a subsidy for a direct communication with universal suffrage in France is to make the representatives been in question, does any one believe that he would have packet line not direct but

a Liverpool line touching at In fact, the

French agricultural peasant has the suffrage If Townley's competency to manage his affairs had North America. Galway got the subsidy, but made the of the rustic districts, where peasants unquestionably pre

. been found unqualified ? He wants the reason to qualify Galway. Galway boasted what a fine safe port it was, him to be hung, but has all that is necessary to qualify wanting no pilotage, as vessels could find their way in and completely in his own power. He has thus the political him to conduct affairs. There is only one explanation of out in all weathers. But this would not last, and Galway state which Mr Bright recommends, and he has also the the different treatment of the same question when it relates is now crying out for pilots. Galway has only two pilots

, property is divided equally amongst sons and daughters.

Landed to property and when it relates to justice, and that is, that and

those shore pilots. Galway now calls out for four pilots

. It is, however

, so plain, even to the rustic mind, that a property is considered of incomparably more importance The Anglia got stranded for want of a pilot, for whose than justice, and the protection of life is regarded as of less guidance she had waited and signalled in vain for many cannot be divided without considerable loss, that the heirs

farm, with dwellings and farm houses and a certain area, concern than the protection of money, or money's worth. hours, and her Captain explained that Galway pilotage was The history of the Townley case is now

complete
, with only to be had inside the dangers while it was only wanted and mortgages it to pay their

shares to his co-heirs, together

One takes the farm, one exception, which is rather a considerable one, namely, outside the dangers. But in the fine port of Galway there is whether he has been found mad in Bedlam, and is now this difficulty, that if it blows at all from the westward a The consequence, as is well known, is the gradual im.

with the slice that the French law of succession takes. actually and properly under treatment for insanity. Two pilot carnot, without great peril, if at all, be got on board an poverishment of the French peasant proprietors to a point hours sufficed to settle the question at Derby, has a inward-bound vessel nor got out of an outward-bound one. month's trial confirmed or reversed that judgment in the One of the mail packets was delayed many hours as she as low as the state of the British

farm servant. Wheaten great criminal lunatic asylum? could not get delivered of her pilot, and had to put back

bread is unknown to large numbers of the population. Its to smooth water, where a boat could be got out without place is supplied by rye or by chestnuts. Beef and mutton

swamping. It was on that occasion announced that for the are unheard of, pork is rare and bad. And as the French THE MANCHESTER CHAMBER OF COMMERCE future pilots would be dispensed with, as there was more peasant abhors salt and dried meats, bacon he knows not. AND THE COTTON SUPPLY.

trouble with them than need of them; but then happened It may be said, however, and perhaps with some justice, The Manchester Chamber of Commerce held its anni- the mishap of the Anglia, and more pilots has become the cry. that France offers an unfair field of experiment. For versary meeting on Tuesday last. We have a full report At a recent public meeting at Galway respecting the although it may nominally enjoy universal suffrage, there of its proceedings, and what is said on such an occasion by case of the Anglia, Mr Stephen held forth as follows about is a Constitution which destroys and neutralizes all the

liberty it falsely promises and implies. In France, though its leaders, the Ashworths, the Masons, the Penders, and pilotage : the Cheethams, the very princes of British industry, is well It was in a very inefficient state, and uplike what should exist in a

there may be no aristocracy of elder brothers, or rotten worth hearing, for it is sure to be pregnant with sound great port like Galway. There was no pilot from the roadstead to boroughs, there is still the Government, its officers and knowledge and instruction.

Arran. The two they had were shore pilots, and were not authorised to agents, which rule the country and oppress it, much as an It appears, then, that after ransacking the whole tem-90 beyond the roads, and be therefore thought they ought to appoint aristocracy might, and thus destroy all the naturally good

a committee to inquire into the present state of the pilotage, and with effects of political and social equality. perate and tropical world from Italy to Japan, and giving a view to having two more appointed. On their booke, so far back as enormous bounties for cotton, our present supply is equal July last, they bad a notice for the appointment of another pilot, but Well, then, let us turn to another country, in which we to no more than three and a half days but of six of the from

that hour none had been appointed. If the safety of the ships are very much interested at the present moment, and of quantity necessary to work our looms in employ. Sup- to be protected in the bay of Galway ; and with that view he begged

was not to be considered, the lives and property of passengers ought which our readers will be glad, independent of economical posing that no increase in our supply had taken place for to move that a committed of inquiry' be appointed to report to the dispute, to learn something. That country is Denmark. three years, which would be contrary to the experience of board on the present state of the pilotage, with a view to the appoint. It was a country once very much like England; its soil fifty years, our supply was short last year of what it was ing of two more. If the man who got a vessel down the bay was was possessed by a feudal aristocracy and gentry, who in 1861 or before the American Civil War, in the pro- allowed to bring her into dock, they would establish a competition ground down the peasant class certainly to as low a level portion of seven to twelve, or a deficit running close They had forty pilots at Limerick, and there were only two in Gal: as could be found in England or elsewhere. With the upon one-half. The full supply of 1861 cost us about way. How could one man be expected to watch vessels in a bay twenty- progress of time came, however, revolution. The lower 30,000,0001., and the present year's scant one it is esti- seven miles long and nine miles wide ? By getting two additional classes rose in mutiny, and awarded to the Crown despotio mated will cost us not less than 90,000,0001., so that for pilots to go down the bay the chances were that no vessel would be power for the purpose of cutting off the entails and

allowed to pass. the scant supply we are paying about three times what we

destroying the privileges of the gentry. The Crown did did for the full one.

The fallacy throughout is the assumption that Galway is its bidding. And the Danish aristocracy, obliged to pay India is the country which has furnished us with the a great port. Galway is not a port of any importance. To its debts and abide by the non-thrift of possessors, sunk largest supply to make up for the loss of the American class it as a third-rate port is, perhaps, to class it rather too gradually away. Their lands were first mortgaged, then cotton, but India, as we always predicted in this journal, high. It ranks far below Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Belfast, let, last of all sold to capitalists; and men of a comwill never supply the place of America, and its failure to Limerick, and Londonderry, and a little above Skibbereen, mercial class, Germans very often, became the propriedo so has been most exemplary. In 1861, the price of Sligo, Tralee, and such small places. If, then, Galway had tors. These are the farmers, called Verpachters, of Surat or the best Indian cotton in the Liverpool market more pilots what would Galway do with them, how would Denmark and Holstein. The revolution has since been was from 3 d. to 4d. a pound; it ranges at present at from Galway find employment for them, and how would they carried further. The King is no longer despotic. There is 20d. to 23d. a pound, so that we'are really paying a bounty subsist? Pilots live upon traffic, but small is the traffic of a legislative assembly elected, all but about a dozen memof some 500 per cent on the normal price, and what has | Galway, and we doubt whether Galway uverages two small bers, by a very democratic franchise. The assembly is been the result? In 1861 India supplied us with 968,000 ships in and out in a week, exclusive of the subsidized our friend, the Rigsraad. Mr Bright would highly approve bales of cotton, and last year with 1,220,000, a paltry packets. How, then, could Galway support the four pilots of its composition. The agricultural labourer, however, increase of no more than 26 per cent., and this, too, is not of which Galway is ambitious ? And Galway pilots, fares no better under it than he has fared under preceding he produce of increased growth, but the result of with-I expected to go knocking about, looking out for ships abreast governments. The climate of Denmark, with its long

winter, its need of peat supply and cattle stock, with the

Correspondence.

both what Canon M'Neile himself alleged and what the

Bishop of Oxford represented him as alleging. pasture requisite, does not admit of small peasant pro

My object, in making any comment on the speeches of perties or proprietors. They would starve; and therefore democratic institutions can do nothing for the labouring

OUR 68-POUNDER PEA-SHOOTERS.

Canon M'Neile, is not to defend the Bishop of Oxford, but

to inquire : Danish peasant. He is what he was and ever will be.

Sir,- When the able Special Correspondent of the Times, 1. How far certain opinions, implied or expressed in the And yet he is extremely well educated, and can read and writing from Richmond, Virginia, conjugates the verb caveo, speeches of Canon M'Neile, are countenanced by the Articles write to perfection. But even this will not give him a and echoes the burden of my song on the subject of our de- of the Church of England. farm, or a joint, or a spit to turn it.

ficiency in artillery, it is certainly “confirmation strong." 2. What effect the enunciation of such views as those of Whilst detailing such facts, we are very far from saying assured us that Parrott's guns in the North and Brooke's Ireland.

In a former letter the Special Correspondent of the Times Canon M'Neile is likely to have on the Roman Catholics of that the condition of the English agricultural labourer is not guns in the South possessed a penetrative power against Canon M'Neile is reported in the daily papers to have to be discussed, inquired into, and bettered. But it is not which no armour-plates were of avail, and a Frenchman, ad- spoken at the Church Congress as follows: a question to be advanced by being made either a party or dressing the Emperor of the French and relating his expe “But, on the contrary, if the object of the Church were to Chris. a class one, or by being treated with either rudeness or riences of the siege of Charleston, fully confirmed every word tianise the country-a country which, without it, must remain un, dogmatism. The Times was inconsiderate in accusing the so written, and gave practical instances of the penetrative Christianised, or anti-Christian-then to say that it did not succeed British Gracchi of agrarianism. They know England too power of a gun of 9-inches calibre, constructed by Brooke, was a good reason for strengthening its hands, and no reason at all well to broach such a doctrine; and the Gracchi ought to with four shots, at the range of nine hundred yards. which destroyed an iron-plated monitor, named the Keokuk, for withdrawing support. Was this the object of it or not?

If Romanism were saving Christianity, then withdraw have known public opinion better than to hope to enlist it on the side of a funkeyish dislike to see journalists laughing as I called to mind the speech of that true-hearted sustain it.”.

While perusing these opinions and facts, I could not help the Church of Ireland; but if Romanism were anti-Christian, then associating with their natural equals in polite and well- tar” (as old Dibdin hath it), Rear-Admiral and Secretary to The Bishop of Oxford then remarked : informed society. A great part of political information in the Admiralty, the Lord Clarence Paget, and the audacious

“I for one dare not hold, and, being obliged to speak, most solemnly this country is oral, and confined to the upper classes. If buncombe with which he indoctrinated the Mayor of Sand- enter my protest against the statement-and we have no right whaia journalist may not come near them, he must doom him- wich at a dinner in that burgh, eaten not long

since. In that ever to say it—that no member of the Church of Rome is in a condi

tion to be saved." self and his readers to a certain amount of unnecessary speech the noble Secretary assured the Mayor that his diges

In consequence of Canon M`Neile affirming, “I never ignorance, an effect that Mr Bright and Mr Cobden, liberal the armament of our gallant ships was never in a more efii- said so," &c., the Bishop of Oxford rejoined, and intelligent as they are, would certainly be the last cient and satisfactory state. Bearing this speech in mind,

“ I understood him to say that we could not maintain the Church men to desire.

now let

us read a few words from the Special Correspondent in Ireland unless we distinctly stated that there was not saving truth Beyond that answer upon its own low ground to a of the Times, in a second letter on the same subject, dated in the Popish community. That I distinctly understood him. I frivolous suggestion, it need hardly be said that, whatever Richmond, December 21, published hero on the 23rd of rejoice, however, to hear that he did not mean what those words

convey to my mind.” their calling, if it bring them into contact with the world, January. Thus he writes : it is impossible that liberal and educated men should not Again I feel tempted to raise a warning voice about the disparity

From the above it is clear that the Bishop of Oxford conestablish mutual relations of goodwill

, aid, or companion of the armament on board of the English and American navies. It ceived himself justified in understanding the language of ship among persons of almost every degree.

is impossible for those who have been many months absent from Canon M'Neile's first speech to imply, that we could not England to be well informed as to the actual state of public opinion maintain the Church in Ireland unless we distinctly stated at the present moment upon this vital subject. But, judging from that Romanism is not saving Christianity, and that no bona the officers of her Majesty's navy who have at rare intervals brought fide Roman Catholic can be saved. Such a view, I think, vessels of war into Confederate ports

, it appears still to be held that every attentive reader will presume bis Lordship intended to GROUNDLESS PROCEEDINGS FOR DIVORCE.

the 68-pounder or 8-inch smooth bore is England's best weapon of express. It now remains to be seen whether such a view is

offence against iron-clad vessels. The experience gained at Charleston confirmed by Canon M'Neile's explanatory rejoinder, which The Lords Justices have decided against the claim for enables me confidently to-affirm that as well might you pelt one of the

runs as follows: costs in the Divorce Court, which we noticed in our last Yankee Monitors or the Ironsides with peas as expect them to be in any

“I am, therefore, committed to this statement, that in my opinion number. The presiding Judge regarded the proceedings itself upon an Englishman's attention when he is cognizant of the statement, that no individual member of the Romish Church can be

way damaged by 8-inch shot. Another disagreeable question forces Romanism is not saving Christianity. But I am not committed to the as wholly groundless, and observed, that the attorney terrific broadside thrown by the eight 11-inch guns of the Ironsides saved. I believe there are members belonging to the Roman Catholic should have exercised more caution before he took up the one of the most formidable broadeides, in the opinion of the de Church who are not Roman Catholics, and do not worship the cross, jealous woman's case, and might easily have satisfied fenders of Charleston, which has never been throwar by any, vessels and do not say prayers to the Virgin, which I believe is as rank idohimself that his client was labouring under delusions.

Have we any ship in existence which could successfully resist such latry as,” &c.

a broadside, and respond to it with anything like commensurate But an attorney's judgment is very much influenced by the weight and vigour? I should be faithless to my duty if I did not Wherein he pledges himself to the statement, " that Roprospect of costs; and farther, as the true Amphitryon is mention that it is the universal opinion of all the English officers manism is not saving Christianity;" and further, bis strange he with whom Sosia dines, so the lawyer thinks the client serving in the Confederate army with whom I have conversed that language about Roman Catholics who are not Roman Catho. rational who has the discernment to employ him. Where England is behind America in the weight and power of the guns sent lics, seems to imply his belief, if it implies anything, that then, again we ask, is the security against groundless proby both nations to sea.

no bona fide Roman Catholic can be saved, which is also, I ceedings, carrying with them scandal and defamation. See Your readers will not misunderstand the Times' Special conceive, a sentiment the Bishop of Oxford thought to be in the following petition all that is necessary to commence Correspondent, and suppose that he refers to the pea-shooting fairly deducible from his first speech.

In his oration at a meeting of the above-mentioned Society, a suit; how easy the first step, after which there is a halt , he refers entirely to the glorious family of Brown Bess, of the Canon alludes to the Bishop of Oxford in the

following during which evil-speaking, lying, and slandering have 8-inch calibre, in which the British Lion at present rejoices, full swing. And though the charge may not be credible, and which have the power to burn with safety a weak car

“Now, in saying all this I must not be misrepresented as I was at it gives opportunity and occasion for all the worst that can tridge containing only sixteen pounds of powder. Such is the Manchester Congress by the Lord Bisbop of Oxford. I was there be said or conceived against the object.

the Britishers' best naval gun at present, and such is the pea- misrepresented as having said that no Roman Catholic could be saved. In the matter of Timothy Joseph O'Kane, of No. 26 Inverness shooting implement which Secretary my Lord Clarence Paget viduals at all; and the Lord Bishop of cofford know that as well as I road, Bayswater, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, assures the Mayor of Sandwich is the perfection of naval did - I take the liberty of telling him so now.

The Dated 19th day of October, A.D., 1863. armament.

question is, Is Romanism saving Christianity ? A very different Showeth:-1. That your petitioner was on the 2nd day of October, It is curious and instructive to read the naval columns of question from-Can a Romanist be saved ?" No. 2 John street, Sutton street, Commercial road East, in the said and Armstrong's

useless 110-pounders continue to be placed Christianity ? may be a different one from the puerile query 1851, lawfully married to Margaret Matilda Augusta Morris, of our daily papers, and to observe how our old 68-pounders

It is manifest that the question—Is Romanism saving county of Middlesok, spinster, at St George's-in-the-East, in the said on board our ships as they are commissioned and hoist their Can a Romanist who is not a Romanist be saved P. But if 2. That, after his said marriage, your petitioner lived and coha- pendants, just as if each ship so armed were not a disgrace the question-Can a Romanist be saved P refer to a bona

fide bited with his said wife at No. 2 John Street, Sulton street, Commer: to our gallant navy, and only useful as a reminder that for Roman Catholic, it is quite clear that it is involved in the Dingle, Killarney, and Tralee, all in the county of Kerry, in Ireland; Admiralty have been more resembling the acts of lunatics ascertaining the significance of the interrogation Is Romanand at No. 26 Grove place, Brompton, in the county of Middlesex} than those of men possessed of ordinary intelligence. and that there was issue of the said marriage-viz., one son and four

What is the War Office doing? What has become of following: Can the creed of Roman Catholicism secure the

ism saving Christianity ? This is clearly equivalent to the daughters.

Armstrong and his Dear Bill? What means this painful salvation of those believing in it and endeavouring to live 3. That on or about the 16th day of June, 1863, and at divers silence in Printing-house square ? Is there something rotten according to it? Hence it appears that this is a personal other days and times at Cambridge House, No. 94 Piccadilly, in the in the state of Denmark? You know it will be necessary to said county of Middlesex, and at divers other places, the said Margaret do something to make a splash and delude the public just as in the negative, Canon M`Neile (notwithstanding his asser:

question, and does refer to individuals; and, in answering it Matilda Augusta O'Kane committed adultery with one Henry, John Parliament meets, or members will be hunting, up Lord Har: tion to the contrary) does judge his fellow-servants-viz., all Temple, Viscount Palmerston, K.G., First Lord of Her Majesty's tington and taxing his powers how not to tell it. The Times' Your petitioner, therefore, bumbly prays that this honourable her tremendous battery of guns. There is, I suspect, a petitioner, therefore, humbly prays that this honourable Special Correspondent speaks of the Federal Ironsides and genuine Roman Catholics.

Having ascertained from the Canon's own words, and by

plain inference from them, to what statements he is pledged, petitioner and the said Margaret Matilda Augusta O'Kane to be dis- \ typographicl error in the statement that they are 11-inch

guns. I shall
now inquire, as at first proposed, whether

those statebol ved ; and that your petitioner may have such further and other The 11-inch Dahlgren is the gun commonly used in the ments are countenanced by the articles of our Church. relief in the premisses as to this bonourable. Court may seem meet. American Navy, but the Ironsides carries a battery of 13. And your petitioner claims 20,0001, damages against the said Henry inch guns, and the Times' correspondent is quite right in of the Romish Church contained in the Articles of our

As the severe censures on certain doctrines and practices John Temple, Viscount Palmerston, K.G., First Lord of Her Majesty's designating it as the heaviest battery ever used in naval Church are familiar to every one, I need not enumerate them. Treasury. And your petitioner will ever pray.

warfare.
TIMOTHY JOSEPx O'KANE.
Well, what are our able engineers about in these threaten-

But I venture to affirm that no approach is made in them to

an explicit statement that 'Romanism is not saving ChrisAnd there the matter rests, a day having only just been ing times. The Mersey Company, which produced the tianity." or that " no genuine Roman Catholic can be saved. fixed when the petitioner must either go on with his suit Government, have had the cold shoulder ; they are construct, by a Church claiming infallibility; and such a claim the or drop it, having libelled the Prime Minister with ing guns made on the principle of Captain Forbers, and Church, in her twenty-first Article, emphatically disavows impunity for months, if the charge be groundless. We sending them abroad extensively. They are steel guns, for herself, even when assembled in General Council; and ask again, who is safe against a proceeding like this, 12-pounder breech-loaders, thought by foreigners the best such claim to infallibility she surely does not make in the and might not adultery be charged against á Bishop in his breech-loaders extant, stronger and more simple than Armpalace, as easily as against Lord Palmerston in his house, strong'a guns. Șir W. Armstrong boasts in the Times that one under discussion, the Church has pronounced no authorion a certain day, and at divers other days and times he does not make for foreign nations. Quite true. If his tative decision ; and what she has wisely left in doubt, the Lambethi is not a jot safer than Cambridge House. What patriotism would allow him to seek a foreign market, he Bishop of Oxford, although seeing ample reason to prefer is wanted is some respectable voucher for the grounds of would have some difficulty to find one. What is Blakely the creed of his own

Church, is content, with like wisdom, to the petition, primâ facie.

about? Making monster guns for Russia, with never a leave in doubt. A striking passage, corroborative of this "iDear Billamong them. What is Whitworth at ?

view of the question, occurs in the Essays of the late ArchAttempting to squeeze his guns in for a fair trial against bishop of Dublin, Dr Whately, whom no one, I conceive, 3:11bjunim

Armstrong. "The Captain is a bold man." Where is our
The Cape of Good Hope.—The accounts from the Cape are of host of engineering talent ? Ignored by Government, and The passage runs as follows:

ever thought of charging with any leading to Romanism. the 21st ult. The barvest prospects were good. Provisions were nowhere.

CAVETO. abundant and chenp, and money plentiful. The vineyards promised

"To decide what persons can or cannot be members of the same well, and the orchards were loaded with fruit. The supply of wool

religious community on earth, uniting in public worship and other was considerably greater than in former years in both the western and

CANON M'NEILE AND THE CHURCH OF observauces, is no more than it is possible, and allowable, and requieastern districts. The inquiry into the death, at Angra Peqnina, of

ENGLAND AND IRELAND.

site for uninspired man to undertake; and this is implied, and is all James Gray, mate of the barque Saxon, took place at Cape Town on

that is necessarily implied, in the ordinances and formularies of every the 2nd of December. The murder of Gray, without provocation, by

Sir, -As Canon M‘Neile complained, at a recent* meeting Church; but to decide who are or are not partakers of the benefits of Donoghan, an officer of the Federal steamer Vanderbilt, and the in- of the Society for Promoting the Scriptural Education of the Christain covenant, and to prescribe to one's fellow-mortals, as the salting conduct of the Vanderbilt's men to the crew of the Saxon, in Roman Catholics in Ireland, of being

misrepresented, at the terms of salvation, the implicit

adoption of our own interpretations, is addition to seizing her, had been proved. Messrs Rowley and Miller Church Congress, by the Bishop of Oxford, I purpose,-for

a most fearful presumption in men not producing miraculous proofs of

an immediate divine mission.”+ had returned from Zambesi. Dr Livingstone had received the news of the subject is one of more than temporary interest, to inquire his recall, and had admitted his expedition to be a failure. A rumour

t 'On the Dangers to the Christian Faith, which may arise from the had reached the colony of his having been murdered near Lake Nyassa.

December 17, 1863.

teaching or the conduct of its Professors.'

manner :

in Ireland as chiefly acceptable to such a class of persons... insanity, what does this amount to ? Only to this, quoad bis coming of the Anglo-Saxons, and where its oldest Churches of the earth. Least of all can she afford at the prements, or to deduce their logical consequences, just as the ten thousand herrings; in 1199 the neighbouring town of

I presume to think it has been shown that the doctrine of

Commissioners, that he is no more ingano now than he was

THE WEIGHT OF MEDICAL EVIDENCE IN Canon M'Neile in regard to Romanism and Roman Catholics

when he committed the murder, and must regret that the is in no way affirmed or countenanced by the Articles of the

CASES OF INSANITY.

law's verdict has been set aside by an authority which should Church of England. Further, it has been evidenced that

Sir,– It is a consoling reflection that the inevitable result

not exist.

I am, &c., two eminent dignitaries of the Church (although of opposite of the abuse of power is, sooner or later, a reaction against

A PAYSICIAN.

Hanley, 21st January, 1864. schools) have interpreted ber declarations relating to Roman. the wrong; and the respite of Townley as effected by the ism conformably to such showing; This fact

alone might opinion of Dr Forbes Winslow in favour of that murderer's restrain any Anglican, endowed with ordinary modesty, from indulging in such perilous assertions as those of Canon abuse of power that will lead to good results in the amendinsanity may very well be adduced as an illustration of an

THE LITERARY EXAMINER. M'Neile ; indeed, does not the Canon perceive, in making ment of our criminal law proceeding. Among such amendthem, how nearly he approaches Romanism in its great cha- ments,-perhaps it might be placed first in importance,-may racteristic, without which it would cease to be-viz., its be stated the restriction of medical evidence to the proof of

The Herring; its Natural History and National Im.

portance. By John M. Mitchell, F.R.S.S.A., F.S.A.S., Popery? Having disposed of the first branch of the inquiry, I will this

result I would now desire to place this question before

facts, not of conclusions, in matters of insanity. In view of F.R.P.S., &c., Author of The Natural History of now proceed to the second-viz. :

the Herring, considered in Connection with its Visits What effect the enunciation of such views as those pro- cases of insanity actual or presumed ? the public-What is the true value of medical evidence in

to the Scottish Coast,' British Commercial Legislapounded by Canon M'Neile is likely to have on the Roman

tion,' Modern Athens and the Piræus,' &c. With Catholics of Ireland. In law and public opinion medical authority is beld to

Illustrations. Edinburgh : Edmonston and Douglas. In order to do this efficiently, I find it necessary to cite determine the sanity of insanity of a man, to the exclusion the following extraordinary passages from the speech deli- of supererogation of all other evidence. Í express myself Never by cod or dogfish, seagull or cormorant, has the vered by Canon M'Neile before the Missionary society. In thus broadly, because though other evidence may be techni, herring been half so eagerly pursued for

greedy ends as speaking of the Church in Ireland, the Rev. Canon observes : cally required and taken, yet experience proves that medical here it has been hunted down by Mr Mitchell, on its own * It is very irritating, especially to educated men, Catholic gentle evidence is really

the determining proof. And the cause of behalf. With zeal and thoroughness of purpose, that it physicians, surgeons, and artists. Many of these are men of talent merging into metaphysics, it may be stated that it is held by does one good to think of in these days of hasty thought and industry, and consequently men of influence, and they feel keenly all authorities that brain and

mind hold the like relation to and reckless writing, Mr Mitchell, during five-and-twenty the position they are placed in by men of the Established Church, each other as, for instance, nerve to sensation, muscle to years, has followed the fish which it delights him to not inerely as a matter of creed, but as a matter of caste. They feel motion, lungs to respiration, &c.; tbat, in short, brain is the honour through all the ages in which it has been cared for by that the Established Church gives a higher social status to its minis organ and mind its function. And, consequently, as medical man, and through all the seas that it is known to frequent. ters and its members than they can attain to, and this is a matter of opinion is held conclusive as to the derangement of the com- He has read every antiquarian work that seemed likely to deep and serious vexation to such gentlemen. * They are mortified, and naturally mortified, at the aristocracy of valid when that other organ, the brain, is in question. But and a no less important encourager of seafaring and com

monly called bodily organs, so should it be deemed equally illustrate its history as an important element of man's food gentility—if I must say it-the aristocracy of gentility which the there is a fallacy in all this reasoning, as will appear if we of fact they feel at this moment, there is a species of society, a higher examine the process by which the conclusion is arrived at. merce. He has visited and re-visited every large fishing grade of society, in Dublin and other places in Ireland, connected with A pick persone consults

, his physician, ander detaile the promoz and Norway, and has been careful to get accurate reports

station in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Holland, the members of the Established Church, into which they cannot force toms of his complaint; the physician infers these symptoms themselves, notwithstanding their education and intelligence.” to their cause in the disordered condition of some one or other from America and other distant parts; so as to give a full

If the persons here referred to be what Canon M'Neile of the bodily organs, and prescribes such remedies as by and true account of the herring's life in the sea, and of alleges them to be-viz., gentlemen, they can feel no irritation altering that organic condition will remove the functional the different ways in which it is caught and prepared for from the “matter of caste;" for I am quite unaware that derangement--the disease. Now

what have we here ? Clearly eating. The result is as seasonable and well-seasoned a gentlemen are in the habit of forcing themselves into any

these things—information of the deranged functions (the dish as the greatest gourmand among books could wish to society where they feel they are unwelcome, even though it symptoms) given by the patient to the physician, and the con- have before him. be a " higher grade of society," an " aristocracy, of gen. gives rise to these symptoms. But in the case of actual or sequent conclusion by the latter as to ibat condition which

Herring-fishing has for many centuries been a favourite tility." Equally unaware am I that Anglican gentlemen are in the habit of excluding

from their society any other gentle feigned insanity we not only allow the physician to determine pursuit of Englishmen. It is, indeed, almost the oldest men whatever, whether they be members of the Roman the conclusion—the seat of the disease and its treatment, constituent of British commerce. Solinus, writing about Catholic or any other Church. Indeed, that must be a which in the former case he had first himself to obtain from “ do not know the cultivation of grain, but live much on

but to determine the presence or absence of those symptoms the year 240, says of the people of the Hebrides, “They strange society which claims to be irritating mainly to gen. the patient or others before he could enter upon his proper" fish and milk," and the most ancient relics of our island tlemen, men of talent and industry, &c., and, as a consequence, chiefly agreeable to the un-gentlemanly, the unintel: cedure be adopted in the one case from what is held abso- habitants for fishing purposes

. Herrings were caught at duty. This is surely wrong. Why should a different pro- are boats or canoes, evidently used by its primitive inserves his Church by representing the society she maintains lutely necessary, in the other? Let it be granted that a Yarmouth very soon after, if not also long before, the

medical “ has had The Irish Priests, I fear, will not fail to make it practically professional knowledge that certain derangements of the church was built, 4 godly man was placed in it, to Little as may be the irritation caused by the 'aristocracy the best remedies to remove the diseased condition of the came to fish at Yarmouth in the herring season."

brain-function existing, his knowledge teaches him the use of “pray for the health and success of the fishermen that by Canon M'Neile against the Irish in regard to their reli- organ itself, just as wben, he having acquired from other Domesday book shows that herrings and other fish' formed gion, cannot fail to produce deep and even justifiable irrita- sources

the information that, we will suppose, certain symp. the staple of most coast towns in the eleventh century, gion, cannot fail to produce deep, and even

justifiable irrita: toms affecting the respiration exist, his special knowledge is although the trade with foreign countries was at that time be expected to interpret such epithets as "un-Christian” necessary to determine the requisite remedies. Every intel less extensive in England than in Denmark. and anti-Christian," except as implying that they are ligent observer, when bis attention has been given

to the “Danes," says a contemporary traveller,"

formerly clad worse than heathens? How can they fail to consider them- point, can say as surely as the most skilful physician whether “ like simple seamen, are now clad in scarlet and purple, selves stigmatised as reprobates, if, being foolish enough to certain symptome area or not tloose of healthy simply become and every nation carries them abundance of gold and the Church, they are told the English Church positively ledge, but as to the external signs by which this

internal con- the old romance, it was Grim, a Danish fisherman, who,

himself or others. The organic cause lies beyond bis know silver in exchange for their herrings.” According to absolutely unsaving one. I therefore affirm that the lan- dition is fevidenced, he is equally competent with his physi- coming to our island long before this period, founded the guage of the Rev. Canon has an undoubted tendency to cian to determine the fact of their existence or not. Now town of Grimsby; and Grimsby was a favourite resort of inflict the most serious injury on the Church of England by

all men of even moderate powers of observation know what the herring fishermen and merchants of the middle ages. representing her, in her relation to other Churches, in a found psychologist does, and that simply by referring them than those of the north. In 1188 Yarmouth was made a

are healthy, mental phenomena just as well as the most pro- The Norfolk fisheries, however, were more prosperous walk independently, but withal peacefully, amongst the to the standard of the healthy mind in themselves or others. burgh,

on condition of rendering annually

to the Crown sent hour to indulge in evil-speaking any In conclusion, 1 may remark that the public enunciation of deduce all the other derangements that would follow them; by the sea, received a charter, to be paid for with a quarter

Dunwich, its formidable rival until it was washed away formerly instanced patient could not analyse his symptoms or merely as regards the Roman Catholics in Ireland and else but as to the plain external facts presented to them--the as many herrings, besides a sum of money; and in 1286 where, but as indicating a spirit which is certain to manifest words and deeds of the mind, under examination they Edward the First granted a charter for land at Carleton, itself by intolerant utterances not only against Roman surely are competent to say whether such words and deeds in Norfolk, “ by the service of twenty-four pasties of Catholics, but against members of our own Church: a spirit

are the symptoms of a diseased or healthy brain. But I go "fresh herrings at their first coming in.” For centuries dominant for the hour amongst a certain class of the clergy further, and say that they are even more competent in the there was a continual strise between the men of Yarmouth wbo, usurping the authority of the Church, exbibit a pro

one case than the physician is in the other, because in the and the men of the Cinque Ports, touching the right of pensity to erect themselves into a tribunal of orthodoxy, and standard of comparison, whereas in the other the physician fishing for herrings and selling them when caught, the to publicly stigmatise all, whether clergy or laity, who happen has nothing of all this unless he has had every disease in his gain being steadily

with the people of Norfolk propensity, which threatens to overturn all order and disci. own person, with a perfect recollection of all the leading the few omissions that we have noticed in Mr Mitchell's pline in the Church, is plainly revealed by the assertion of symptoms, which is an absurd supposition. Hence it can be volume concerns the famous William of Trumpington, Canon M'Neile, when, prefacing his judgments with the for- explicitly inferred that as to the fact of insanity every intel- Abbot of St Albans, but not hindered from mercantile mula “I judge no man," he asserts there are Anglicans in ligent man may be an expert, not as to the treatment of the success by his clerical calling, who bought an immense name who are Romanists at beart.” By what authority, by disease but as to the existence of it. What is it that makes house at Yarmouth, and in it employed numerous

agents what right, I ask, does Canon M'Neilo venture to call in a man an erpert in cases of, say mechanical engineering is to collect and cure herrings for sale, " to the inestimable question the reality of their Anglicanism who elect to be called Anglicans? And whence does he know

the thoughts chine in its, so to speak, healthy condition! Then is not " advantage as well as honour of his Abbey." of their hearts? Does he who judges no man presume, in every intelligent man well acquainted with the healthy opera Very numerous were the laws passed during these cenrespect of such knowledge, to place himself on a level with tion of bis own mind, and therefore a judge of the healthy turies about the privileges of catching and trading in herHim who knew all men, 'And needed not that any should operations of the mind of others,.,-his own mind having the rings. Quite as many were passed in later times, although testify of man; for He knew what was in man”? For only muscle, and lungs are alike in their healthy operation to those branches of commerce has thrown them somewhat into such a Being as he, of whom this is recorded, would be jus- of other men. Now how do we judge of the sanity or in. the shade. However much Canon M`Neile may fall short of that sanity of a man? Is it not by a like comparison. In the for example, their majesties, considering how much

In one of William and Mary's ordinances, charity, which : Hopeth all things of all men,” one might yot actual condition of his bodily organs by a sufficiently faithful the curing and packing of herring and salmon fish, foresight to prevent his making reckless charges against his description of the symptoms ; in the instance of the insane to be exported 'forth of this kingdom, contribute brother Anglicans. For does he not perceive how readily, if In the former case no professional skill is necessary to say " of the nation,” give minute directions as to the

man he does the same as to his mind by his words and deeds." to the advancement of trade and the general good not justifiably under the circumstances, the accused

Angli- that some part of the body is diseased; in the latter the like whole management of the business. Encouraged by good sectarians at heart p How aptly might they, for instance, facility exists for determining that—some other part of the laws, and not deterred by bad ones, the herring trade of represent his statements in respect of them as substantially man-the mind is disordered.

England and Scotland increased in value every year. Why equivalent to the sectarian utterance, 'I know that their sen.

It will have been seen that I have specially reserved the it failed in Ireland is explained by Dean Swift in a timents are not my sentiments; and whatever is not of treatment of diseased brain to the physician, and here his characteristic letter printed by Mr Mitchell, written to one M'Neile is not Anglican.'

A: language similar to that of Canon M'Neile is of daily foregoing reasoning be correct, may justly insist that the who wished to promote it there in 1734 ; "A gentleman and increasing occurrence in the Church, and passes without physician be kept to his own proper duty and province-not

"s of this kingdom,” says the Dean, "about three years rebuke or protest from those occupying the highest posts in to determine the fact of disordered mind, but purely the

ago, joined with some others in a fishery here in the it; a layman may well be pardoned for venturing to arraign treatment of diseased brain.

"northern parts. They advanced only 2001. by way of a spirit which threatens to endanger the very existence of a Church its adherents are prone to believe the most liberal showing how the preceding remarks apply to Townley's case. " understood it well. But the vulgar folks of Ireland are.

I shall not transgress further on your space by plainly trial. They got men from Orkney to cure the fish, who and comprehensive in the world.-I am, &c., CATHOLICUS. He may or may not be insane. I believe, with the Lunacy |“ so lazy and knavish, that it turned to no account, nor

NEW NOVELS.

а

« beggars are always knapes, and I believe there are by the peculiar phase of their civilisation and manners, and even by, who has a sick wife, unmeaning daughters, a faithful cub 70 THE EXAMINER, JANUARY 30

, 1864. " would anybody join with them, and so the matter fell,! No congeries of States, no people on the face of the earth, were and achieves the ruin of that family, and having entered, " and they lost two-thirds of their money. Oppressed ever so disposed by their natural bent, by their historical traditions, as governess, the house of Frederick Maxwell

, Esq., Q.C., the —to , “hardly any other among us; they had rather gain a it were offered to them, the idea of an actual living Monarch, and to of a little boy, and succeeds to a baropetcy; she plays her "shilling by knavery than five pounds by honest dealing. regard with a loyalty amounting to devotion and reverence, the game for the succession to the rank of Lady Maxwell, “They lost 500l. a year for ever in the time of the plague person of that Monarch, and every member of the Royal family. But while she prosecutes the revenge on her dear friend the !! at Marseilles, when the Spaniards would have bought no such idea has ever been offered to them. It seems to have been sensible Charlotte, who has accepted her gage of defiance. "all their linen from Ireland, but the merchants and the tomed to see their own Princes, and princely families, treated with Her successful cruelty has driven Charlotte's father to “Weavers sent over such abominable linen that it was all contempt, but too many cases have occurred where everything bas suicide; in Charlotte's eyes she is a murderess, and “ returned back, and sold for a fourth part of its value. been done to make a native Sovereign contemptible in the eyes of Charlotte is resolved to hunt her down. Before we have “This is our condition, which you may please to pity, but his own subjects. A long course of this ungenerous conduct has not done with her, she has wilfully murdered Lady Maxwell, never can mend."

tended to encourage respect for Royalty in the abstract, or to create a to whom agitation of all sorts had been declared fatal, by As to the present state of herring fisheries Mr Mitchell Personage in Great Britain, endowed with those qualities of high the stabbings of her tongue; but only when by the countergives some interesting statistics. The trade of Great honour and magnanimity, which have been associated in all ages, plottings of the sick woman and the little child true to its Britain has steadily risen since the beginning of the cen- and all over the world, with the idea of a great Sovereign. outraged mother, all her plots had been blown into the air. tury from about 100,000 to nearly 700,000 barrels, the To remedy this, Major Bell would have us pay proper So far as the story goes, therefore, Miss Bell's cleverness exports for most years being something like one-third. In honour to those of the native Princes whose fidelity is failed, but she will rise to the surface again yet, says Mr 1849, a year of remarkable abundance, the quantity of known, and to use them as means for guiding the mass of Dyce, and may have better luck next time. The story of cured herrings amounted to 1,151,979 barrels, 942,617 the people. “No British Government, no imaginable this plump little damsel is told, with much clever elaborafrom the Scottish, and 209,362 from the English coast. “number of British merchants, planters, missionaries, or tion of her character, by the lightest of touches. The In 1862 the total quantity was 746,518 barrels.

teachers, can produce any appreciable impression upon success of the novel depends on the success of its character Mr Mitchell's history of herring fisheries fills two-thirds “the hundred and fifty millions of Hindoos, so long as the painting; there is no desire to rush through a rapid of his volume. In the remainder he gives a precise "inevitable effect of all our direct efforts is to exasperate succession of highly-wrought sensation incidents. The account of the habits and appearance, the food and the "and alienate the most powerful and the most influential prevalent form of the parrative is quietly ironical. The migrative habits of the herring, and a no less precise “men among them. We must gain the leaders, and the tone of the book is wholesome and the writing good. description of the different modes of fishing and curing. “flock will follow.” On all these points his volume contains much new and important information. "Many writers have stated,"

The Edinburgh Review. No. 243. January, 1864. he says in one part, “and some scientific works still state, Ella Norman ; or, a Woman's Perils. By Elizabeth

Longman and Co. “that the herring comes from the Arctic circle, in large

A. Murray. In Three Vols. Hurst and Blackett. The Quarterly Review. No. 229. January, 1864. “shoals of leagues extent, dividing into lesser shoals

Bella Donna; or, the Cross before the Name. A Ro. " on coming towards the north of Scotland, one body

Murray. "proceeding to the west coast of Scotland and to Ireland,

By Gilbert Dyce. In Two Vols. Bentley. The Edinburgh opens this month one of its most read"and another to the eust coast. Others state that, These are two of the novels published in the present able numbers by posting up its readers in one of the latest (although the herring docs not come from the Arctic week. Ella Norman is a story meant to warn gentility of achievements of scientific research, the theory which " circle, they at least come from a considerable distance either sex, especially those politest of darlings cavalry reviews the seventh volume of Mr Merivale's History

of “ northward of Scotland. gives good reasons for the more plausible view—" that the belief that they can improve fortune by emigrating to the Romans under the Empire,' with a regret, shared by " or rivers, where they resort for the purpose of spawning; daughter of a deceased cavalry oflicer, and she goes out to " Journal of the Marquis de Dangeau' has been published “the herrings inhabit the seas adjacent to the coasts, bays, Victoria. Mrs. Murray's heroine, Ella Norman, is the all who can appreciate the research of a sound mind, that

Within the last two years, the "and that after spawning they return to the sea in the be a governess in the uncivilized wilds of Victoria, with a "neighbourhood, where they continue and where they mother who contracts the vice of women of the colony and in nineteen volumes, and the Memoirs of the Duc de St "feed until the spawning season again approaches, while takes to drinking. After many sorrows, and a short re- Simon' in twenty volumes. These works, which pair "the fry, on being vivified, continues near the spawning sidence with an old schoolfellow married to a man who naturally together, yield matter for a pleasant dash of “ground until it is of sufficient size." was too much of a gentleman to be successful as

anecdotical gossip over the Court of Louis XIV. Melbourne merchant, -and wbo, for a wonder, has not Without Dangeau the Memoirs of Saint-Simon would perhaps The Empire in India : Letters from Madras and other acquired his virtues in a regiment of cavalry, -Ella

proceeds dry and frizia e daily Parinaco mohle

bangunu would never have been Places. By Major Evans Bell

, Madras Staff Corps, to be governess at a squatter farm in the interior, where the printed. Dangeau is the stock, incapable of producing palatable Author of The English in India : Letters from Nag: mistress is a raw and penurious Gael from the Isle of fruit itself

, on which the most luxuriant and aromatic growth of pore, written in 1857-68.' Trübner and Co. Skye, with a slit for a mouth, and the master is a rough, French literature in that age was grafted. Dangeau, in bis daily task "I am no alarmist,” says Major Bell; “I am not alarmed. illiterate Scotchman, recently made member of the Upper of four and forty years, never rises beyond the level of the Court “But do not let us be content to sit down and to fold our House of Legislature, and the children have run wild. reign without an expressien of wonder or emotion : even his anec“arms, and to think that to-morrow

will be like to-day, and Here there is a stockman, Jock Davies, who affects dotes are without point: he is as exact and as unmeaning as a piece " to forget the storm and struggle of yesterday. It may be roughness, but, upon first seeing him, "That man has of clock-work. Saint-Simon, on the contrary, painted in colours "soon, or it may be a hundred years, before our quiet is been in the cavalry, I know by his step,' quickly ex that will never die every figure and every scene, the bare mention of " disturbed; but events move rapidly in this nineteenth claimed Ella.” So it proved, and he departs from Australia which suffices to his mechanical anti-type. In the slender entries of "century; and if we follow the despot's example, we at the end of the story as a noble earl who has come into his of passions which might have touched the soul of even a inaster of " deserve and can expect no other but the despot's fate. inheritance. Ella has a sweetheart who had been a cavalry the ceremonies ; in the torrent of eloquence and of scorn poured

We do not deserve it yet; we are not perceptibly moving but he also turns up in the back settlements of Victoria ; and follies, its jealousies, and its power. Dangeau was on sild bil odpect; " in that direction; but unless we steadily set our faces in " the opposite direction, unless we determine to govern earl's nephew, there a duke's grandson, who see Irish standard of honour, rectitude, and truth. The former shared the

there are other distinguished and polite persons, here an Saint-Simon was a mind, intent to try the Court by the touch and “India on English principles, is there not some danger " that we shall in a few years be driven by some an

convicts and persons generally of the low and vulgar pleasures and the honours of Louis XIV. without limit: the latter "tagonistic outburst to resort to Austrian devices and orders taking the upper seats at the governor's dinner cared little for his pleasures, and never possessed his confidence ; but mere coercion ?” In very plain language Major Bell table, ruling the councils of the colony, and making the stood behind bis throne and upon his tomb to be the avenger of his

faults, even to the third and fourth generation. The easy and prosdenounces what he regards as the wanton faults and grievous money in it. For Victoria, according to Mrs Murray, is a

perous Marquis cared not to cast a look beyond the galleries of errors that have characterised our former government of

“ tremendous dust-heap of human society," and "there Versailles, in which he spent his existence; his conception of immorIndia, shows how much of their influence he finds to be

can be no rapport between rich vulgarity and poor tality, was an apotheosis on a ceiling. How little could he have still marring the good that ought to result from the improved refinement.”. There is an air of insulted gentility about

"refinement.”. There is an air of insulted gentility about conceived it possible that he was day by day preparing materials for administration, and urges the adoption of what he sets the book that is sometimes exquisitely amusing. It should one who was to speak of all he adored in the language of doom-to forth as a wiser and more Christian policy in the future

. be exported in large quantity to Melbourne, where it will and to herald by lurid and prophetic flashes the approach of that He anticipates, with some reason, that his views will be read by the prosperous scum of society there said to be storm which the monarchy of France was not destined to survive ! arouse " the very general reprobation of his countrymen in in the ascendant with applause and laughter. It is a Dangeau, born in the King's own year, had seen the dawn and the • India;” and it is likely that the excessive warmth of clever, cross book, vulgarly genteel, with a spiteful etching the royal Sun or France was at Yeast sincere. When Saint-Simon his arguments and the extreme severity of his judgments

in aquafortis of life in a colony that has not a regiment of came to Court, thirty-seven years younger, the shadows were already on many well-meant measures will prevent many from cavalry wherewith to save itself from scorn. There is a lengthening ; an age of cant had succeeded to an age of vice; the seeing the force of his observations.

sort of truth in the book that makes it interesting; many gloom of religious bigotry was followed by the shame of unsuccessful of the eighteen letters here printed, or reprinted from of its sketches of the bad side of an emigrant's experience war and the borror of unnatural deaths": long before he completed some publication not named, nearly all were written from read like studies from life; and nothing can be more true his task the grave had closed upon Louis and the heavens themselves

were gathering over France. Madras in the spring of 1861. Iwo or three, penned in than its moral that, when emigration to Victoria is in

There is an article on the tea and cotton growth, cultiLondon at the close of 1863, serve as a supplement to the question, gentility must make burnt sacrifice of its primrest, and contain Major Bell's comments on the latest rose kid or stay at home. Yet, with all its small fault of ration of indigo, the roads, the waterworks, and other Indian topics. The volume is chiefly, howerer, a review excess in the expression of annoyance at vulgarity and points in a discussion of the Progress of India. A liberal of the past, discussing, step by step, the way in which our appreciation of red coats and titles, there are not wanting in notice of the History of the Jews,' and 'Lectures on past empire has been set up. "Major Bell's severest blame this book large-bearted thoughts. The description of the fall Jewish History, by the Deans of St Paul's and Westis directed at Lord Dalhousie and his measures.

and wretchedness of the rector's daughter, Bella Dyce, who minster,' thus incidentally refers to Dr Smith's recently and always would have been, the best and noblest of having been lured to the colony fell there into the lowest completed Dictionary of the Bible :' "servants ; but he was the very worst and basest of pit of degradation, is foliowed by a stout upholding of the Dr Smith's list of contributors comprises the names of many of the “rulers. He lowered the reputation of our Government

claim of fallen woman on the pity and help of her sisters. most distinguished champions of orthodoxy. The Archbishop of 6 by repeated breaches of our pledged faith. He raised The book is in fact clever and

genuine, with all its weak-· Aids to Faith, and the theological professors of many of our colleges “many of our faithsul and submissive and unobtrusive Dess; a book to like as well as to laugh at, and on the and universities. Do these writers, speaking the language sanctioned " feudatories into the conspicuous position of victims and whole, not only well meant, but useful in its tendency. by criticism at the present day, repudiate the opinions set forth thirty "martyrs, and placed them on a moral elevation far above

Bella Donna, whose story is told by Mr Gilbert Dyce, is years ago by Dr Milman?, Quite the reverse. We must confess

that we are at a loss to explain the anathema which has lately been When the paramount power avows--as Lord Dal- Jenny Bell, a poor relation, plump and pretty, but like

hurled against some clerical writers, accused of too great freedom of “ housie did in the name of the British Government-a

u Belladonna with false seeming fruits

speculation, when we find that these right reverend and venerable " policy of consolidation, and begins absorbing the smaller

Alluring to destroy."

persons are associated with many of the most liberal commentators of "principalities, it virtually abdicates its protecting and She is a venomous little snake with all her graces. It is from the standard of "implicit belief and rigorous orthodoxy. To

ihe present day in the propagation of opinions at least equally remote " federal supremacy, and assumes a hostile and destroying her choice recreation to read in retirement prurient French quote but one or two examples. In the article on the Pentateuch “character, which can lead to nothing but alarm and in-novels, with their tell-tale covers re-covered in fair white we find the theory of Dr Astruc, as to the double origin of the Book "trigue, and which will be submitted to, and tolerated, paper, and with her legs stretched and crossed by the of Genesis, carefully described and apparently adopted as irrefragable ; "80 long as the fear of overwhelming power prevents fireside after the manner of gentlemen. . She bears grudges; sufficient, we should imagine, to satisfy Sir Charles Lyell. It is resistance, and no longer.” But there have, says the andwhen she has been baulked, by his sister Charlotte, “ the distinctly laid down on scientific grounds that the Deluge was not, author, been errors in policy since Lord Dalhousie's time. sensible girl,” of her design to marry the weak son of and could not be, universal; that the animals then existing on the Major Bell complains that if we are less eager now than her kindly protector Joseph Franklyn, Esq., of Grey earth were not, and could not be collected in the Ark, nor fed heretofore for the acquisition of fresh territory, we are Forest

, she makes in her Letts's diary, as" saith the there, if they had been so colleeted; that the description of the still at fault in our disregard of native prejudices, and he second title of the book, a “ Cross before the Name" of description of the Ark surrounded by insurmountable difficulties. It instances one case in particular:

her darling Charlotte. With smooth treachery she plots ) may be so, and from our point of view we venture to say that the

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