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phenomena of the Deluge have but a very slight and indirect bearing on the great truths of religion. But we allude here to this point, Inlely, to show, by an example of great power, the progress which has been made in criticism by divines of the orthodox school, and the impossibility that man, who avail themselves to this extent of the liberty of discussing the records of Scripture, should deny to others the same freedom. In the same volume we may refer to Mr Twistlctou's article on the ‘ Books of Samuel ' as a masterpiece of critical sagacity, equally remarkable for learning, ingenuity, and indc endenco of 'udgment. We believe that there is nothing in the aws and artic es of the Church of England opposed to the exercise of this freedom 2 We believe that the attempt to narrow the interpretation of Scripture to a standard adopted in the twilight of former ages, will fail; and that the Scriptures themselves, being eternal, are destined to witness the revolutions of the human mind in all its varied phases. But be this as it may, within the jurisdiction of the Church itself we have direct evidence before its that literature, which is at once the guardian and the ornament of the Church, claims a freedom which she will not forswesr. This is the greattst merit of such works as those before us—this is what we owe to such writers as the Dean of St Paul's and the Dean of \Vestminster, whom we gladly welcome under his new title and his well-deserved honours; this is that priceless right of free writing and frcc thought, which even those who contest its conclusions are well content to share with their antaorrists. 8 The ‘ Dictionary of the Bible ’ is a colossal undertaking, which has been executed with extraordinary learning, research, candour, and boldness. It combines in three massive volumes the theological libraries of past ages, with the theological researches of the present day. It deserves a tar closer examination than we can give to it. on the present occasion ; and we hope shortly to enter upon a review of it in detail. At present we refer to it simply as the measure of theological opinions in the Church of England at the present time, and We infer from it that modern criticism has not only reached the point
adopted by Dr Milman more than thirty years ago, but that it has,‘
in some respects, gone beyond it.
The next article, on ‘ Scottish Religious Houscs’ abroad, is a pleasant tracing of the remains of that: old Celtic
Church which really preceded that: of Rome in England,
and which first Christianised Northumbria, the old headartors of English intellect. An article upon ‘the Negro
u Ease in America,’ sets forth the grounds of thc writer’s| ‘ To harp and to sautré,
belief that an unexpected but assured result of the American civil war will be Emancipation of the slaves.
It is scarcely possible to conceive a more remarkable example of that power which “shapes our ends, rough how them as we will,”
than this result of the American Revolution, opposed alike to the original intentions of the acceding States and of their antagonists.
i There sat Dame Music, with all her minstrclsy,
began with the ancient inhabitants of our island. The
, Well according with their notys,
Orguys, cy tolys, monacordys. hIn the ‘ Romance of Sir Degrevant,’ we read of the hero, t at
He was a fair man and free, And greatly gave him to glee,
Well to play on a rats, And Hawes, in his ‘ Pastime of Pleasure,’ says,
“ cultivating proprietors.”
The Quarterly opens with a sketch of the present social and economical condition of China; adds to this a paper of good-natured and amusing comment on such American views of England as are to be found in the ‘ Old Home ’ of Mr Hawthorne and the ‘ English Traits' of Mr Emerson.’ Mr Forsyth's ‘ Life of Cicero,’ just published, and Captain Speke’s Nile journal are then reviewed. There is a pnpcr on the pressing subjects of Guns and Plates, by a writer better satisfied than we can be with the achieve~ merits of Sir W. Armstrong, and more ready than we think quite reasonable to congratulate the country " that, “ if we have not the best artillery in the world, no other “ nation has better." There is a capital subject, well handled in the Quarterly paper on Eels. The other papers are a review of Gregorovius's ' Rome in the Middle
Ages,’ and an article well setting forth, with some points:
of detail and comment as to which bias of party will produce diversity of thought, that general view of the case of the Danish Duchies upon which all England is agreed. As a whole, the number is a very pleasant one.
The History of the Violin, and other Instruments Played on with the Bow, from the chnwfest Times lo the Present. Also an Account of the Principal Makers, English and Foreign. With numerous Illustrations. By William Sandy's, F.S.A., and Simon Andrew Forster. John Russel Smith.
A little more attention to the rules of composition and a little more tact in avoiding irrelevant matters would have made this a very good book. Messrs Sandys and Forster are well up in their subject, and the subject itself is quite full enough of interest to justify a bulky work upon it.
Our authors do not follow Jean Rousseau in saying that, as Adam was acquainted with all arts and sciences, and as the viol is the most artistic instrument of music, he must have been a proficient in its use; but they consider that its origin is at any rate to be referred to J uhal, “ father f‘ to all them that sing in the organ or in the crowd," according to the Old English version of the Scripture narrative. Certain it is that in very ancient times the Egyptians and N inevites had instruments closely resembling the Celtic emails or chrotta, although it is probable that these were played only with the hand, and that the use of the bow
" latter part of the sixteenth century." The rest of Messrs Sandys and Forst/cr's volume consists chiefly of anecdotes concerning the leading performers on the violin and of biographical notices of the principal makers. “ The greatest care is “ necessary in the construction of these instruments; to “ ensure the proper elasticity of thevibrating plates, to settle “ the model or form of the body, the position of thesound-holes; “ and, in fact, the'whole structure is the result oflcng experi“ ence and skill." Therefore much credit is due to the two or three manufacturers of each generation, scientific and artistic enough to produce really good instruments; although 4 few, perhaps, who are not. violinists will care to read through ithe two hundred pages in which their successes are recorded. Much pleasant information, however, is scattered through these pages. It is interesting, for instance, to learn the
component parts of an English orchestra at different periods. Thus we are told that, in 1789, the orchestra of l
the time for writing it began, as Mr Jamison informs us, “ at about the gloomiest period of the great struggle “ between the South and the North, when Fort Donelson “ fell and Nashville was occupied by our enemies. The “ times to me were then too sad to inquire into the history “ of the past—the present absorbed all my thoughts; and “ now, if the prospect is less gloomy than before, I have “ no leisure from my public engagements to carry out my “ design." Therefore, the book as it was was sent to run the blockade, and present itself to English readers as evidence of what we may look for when the intelligence and skill of the South are allowed to expend themselves in bet.ter work than murderous fighting for an end which may be long delayed but cannot be frustrated.
Bertrand du Gueselin, a thoroughly representative man
of Europe in the fourteenth century, had something in
common with the bold champions of liberty in the America of to-day. He was born near lteunes, in Brittany, about the year 1320. The eldest of several children, he was, during his boyhood, made the butt of all, because of his ugly face and boorish ways, and when he was eighteen he could only prove his knightly worth by going in disguise to a tournament at which his father promised to be the most excellent jouster, and there showing himself to be still better entitled to admiration. “ Fair son," exclaimed the conscience-smitten father, as soon as the disguise was removed, “I assure you I will never again treat you so “vilcly as I have done heretofore. You shall have “horses, silver, and gold, at your desire; and for the gal“lantry you have this day shown, you may go \vhithcrso' “ ever you will to acquire renown, even if 1 have for along “ period to mortgage my lands."
He had not. to go far, however, for renown. After a few years spent in knightly exercises, he took a prominent part in tho quarrel then growing between the Count do Montfort and Charles de Blois, rival claimants of the duchy ofBrittany. The former was supported by Edward the Third of England, as a means of furthering his designs for the subjugation of the French Crown; but the latter appears to have had more right on his side, and to him Bertrand du Guesclin boldly declared allegiance. In a lawless way, not thought strange in his own generation, he wandered about with a few picked followers, slaying and plundering wherever he could. The booty did not suffice to pay his little army, and he was therefore driven to desperate expedients for obtaining money. On one occasion he secretly entered his mother's chamber, broke open her jewel casket, and appropriated all its contents to his own use, repaying the stolen money as soon as he had the chance of dcspoiling an English knight, travelling with treasures to the alien camp. In 1354, after joining in tho Battle of Cressy, and doing his utmost in all possible ways to defend the tottering realm of France, he was knighted. He was made constable of France in 1370, and in 1880 he died, “an earnest, loyal, and brave man,” says Mr Jamison, “ who found work'fcr him to do in this world, “and did it with his might."
Mr Jamison’s book is full of interesting matter for those to whom the charm of history consists in romantic details of battles and wonderful records of knightly prowess. He has mastered the ages of Froissart, and of poets and chroniclers less fami iar than Froisaart, and put; together a very graphic story of his hero’s adventures. We see du Gucscliu fighting in Brittany and Normandy, in southern France and Spain, with cavaliers of all nations, but never more stoutly than with those of England. The record is interesting and useful, as showing what was the state of society, or that small part of it which was supposed to be the only part worth thinking about, in the fourteenth century. Of boots and peasants Mr Jamison has very little to soy, and it is likely that Bertrand du Guesclin thought still less. If among many of the worthiest in England, and especially among that party in the nation comprehensive enough to include both Chaucer and Wiolif in its number, there was a philanthropy that sought the enlightenment of even the lowest and humblest, such thoughts were little shared by the knights and feudal lords who lived in the gaiety of the court and the turmoil of battle, and in medimval France the
The Infe and Times of Bertrand do Guesclin. A History of the Fourteenth Century. By I). F. Jamison, of South Carolina. In Two Volumes. Triibner and Go.
On more accounts than one this is a notable book. It is a very good piece of historical writing, anecdotical but; accurate, neither too antiquarian to be dry reading for the general public, nor too popular to be unworthy of nttcntive perusal by the professed student of history. To these solid claims to notice, moreover, is added the interest arising from the fact that the volume comes to us from Charleston as the first solid contribution to literature made by tho, Confederate States of America. After seven or eight years of close study, it was almost ready for publication three years ago. An introductory sketch of European society during the fourteenth century had yet to be written. Butl
luxurious living and wanton extravagance. And this selfish policy was apparent in all their other relations. Among themselves we read of nothing like that firm friendship and mutual support which makes half the happiness of modern life; and their fidelity to King and country came far short of the patriotism which got; a name and a reality in later times. They lived in dark days, and must not be blamed for want of the light they could not have. But we may rejoice that the world has grown, in many respects at any rate, wiser and worthier.
Emeier Hall Lectures. The Power of God in His Animal Creation. By Professor ltiohard Owen, D.C.L., EILS. London: Nisbet.
There are many who will look for nothing particular in a lecture delivered at Exetcr Hall to the Young Men's Christian Association. But; the Christian young
gratify them, having, as may well be supposed, enough of useful labour otherwise to occupy his time; but being pressed, he consented. There was something in the character of the invitation, addressed, as it was, to a man of science by a body making a special profession of religion, that he felt he could not overlook. It was a confession that there could be no discrepancy between true science and true religion, and he was called upon to say something on the relations between them. Nor did he think sufficiently to discharge this duty by merely pointing out a few of the innumerable and marvellous instances of design in the formation of animals; though this he did in a very interesting manner. But he well conceived that something more might be expected of him, and that on points where religious minds had found a difficulty they had a right to be informed of the conclusions of religious scientific men. Accordingly, in the most reverential spirit, he proceeded to discuss a number of points in which science is at variance with the received interpretation of the history of Creation and the Fall of Man, and showed that biblical commentators had erred, “knowing only, or believing " that they knew, the Scripture, and ‘not knowing the “ Power of God.’ ” He pointed out that, according to the testimony of geology, the serpent is not a transmuted species suffering penal degradation from its original form, and that it is not compelled to eat dust any more than it used to be,—that death existed in the world ages before it was the habitation of man, and that the age of the earth according to past interpretations of the Mosaic records is immeasurably insufficient to account for all that has been done upon it. These truths do indeed interfere with the popular interpretation of Scripture, but they are truths and cannot be set aside. Nor is it only in our days that science has refuted what men had imagined to be the literal and necessary truth of Holy Writ. Kepler, in denying the fixity of the earth, took courage from the example of others before him who had been opposed in declaring what they knew to be the truth. “ Holy,” he said, “ was Lactantius, who denied the earth’s "rotundity; holy was Augustin, who admitted the earth “to be round, but denied its antipodes; sacred is the “ liturgy of the moderns, who admit the smallness of the “ earth, but deny its motion ; but to me more sacred than “ all, is truth."
The practical advice with which Professor Owen concludes is so admirable that we must quote a part of it:
Beware, therefore, of logically precise and definite theologies, accounting from their point of view for all things and cases natural and preternatural, claiming to be final and all-sufficient. Systems of Doctrine, Schemes of Christianity, Dogmatio Formulsrics, are of human fabrication, the works of man’s brain, of which he is as proud and jealous as of the works of his hands. They, forsooth, must not be meddled with; any ray of light exposing a hole or a bad joint in them must be shut out,—the light-bringer, perhaps, anathematized:
they must be the exception to the common lot awaiting all mortal construction I . . .
Has aught that is essentially Christian suffered—have its trut‘ceased to spread and be operative in mankind, since fLysicsl doctrines, supposed or “ declared contrary to Holy Wri',‘ have been established i Cease, then, to take alarm at each :nv ray of light that dawns upon afield of the Divine Power “it new dark to our comprehension: for, be assured, there remain many others to be illuminatcd by His predestined instruments. The light, bright as it is, contrasted with the darkness it has dispersed, penetrates but a short way into the illimitable theatre of the operations of Infinite Power. The known is very small compared with the knowable.
Allay, then, your fears, and trust in the Author of all truth, who has decreed that it shall never perish; who has given to roan a power to acquire that most precious of his possessions, with an intellectual nature that will ultimately rest upon due demonstrative evidence.
It has been desired by some of the personal friends of the great English writer who established this magazine, that its brief record‘ of his having been stricken'from among men should be written by the old comrade and brother in arms who pens these lines, and of whom he often wrote himself, and always with the warmest generosity.
I saw him first, nearly twenty-eight years ago, when he proposed to become the illustrator of my carliest book. I saw him last, shortly before Christmas, at the Athenrcum Club, when he told me that he had been in bed three days—that, after these attacks, he was trou— blcd with cold shiverings, “ which quite took the power of work out of him "—snd that he had it in his mind to try a new rcmcdy which he laughingly described. He was very cheerful, and looked very bright. In the night of that day week, he died.
The long interval between these two periods is marked in my remembrance of him by many occasions when he was an remer humorous, when he was irresistibly extravagant, when he was softened and serious, when he was charming with children. But, by none do I recall him more tenderly than by two or three that start out of the crowd, when he unexpectedly presented himself in my room, announcing how that some passage in a certain book had made him cry yesterday, and how that he had come to dinner, " because he couldn t help it," and must talk some passage over. No one can ever have seen him more genial, natural, cordial, fresh, and honestly impulsive, than I have seen him at those times. No one can be surer than I, of the greatness and the goodness of the heart that then disclosed itself.
We had our differences of opinion. I thought that he too much fcigncd a want of earnestness, and that he made a pretence of under
valuiug his art, which was not good for the art that he held in trust. '
But, when we fell upon these topics, it was never very gravely, and I have a lively image of him in my mind, twisting both his hands in his hair, and stamping about, laughing, to make an end of the discussion.
When we were associated in remembrance of the late Mr Douglas Jerrold, he delivered a public lecture in London, in the course of which, he read his very best contribution to Puncn, describing the grown-up cares of a poor family of young children. No one hearing him could have doubted his natural gentleness, or his thoroughly unaffected manly sympathy with the Weak and lowly. He read the prtpel' most pathetically, and with asimplicity of tenderness that cer
tainly movcd one of his audience to tears. This was presently after
his standing for Oxford, from which place he had dispatched his agent to me, with a droll note (to which he afterwards added a verbal postscript), urging me to “come down and make a speech, and tell thr-m who he was, for be doubted whether more than two of the electors had ever heard of him, and he thought there might be as many as six or eight who had heard of me." He introduced the leeture just mentioned, with a reference to his late electioneering failure, which was full of good sense, good spirits, and good humour.
He had a particular delight in boys, and an excellent way with them. I remember his once asking me with fantastic gravity, when he had been to Eton where my eldest son then was, whether I felt as he did in regard of never seeing a boy without wanting instantly to give him a sovereign. I thought of this when I looked down into his grave, after he was laid there, for I looked down into it over the shoulder of a boy to whom he had been kind.
These are slight remembrances; but it is to little familiar things suggestive of the voice, look, manner, never, never more to be encountered on this earth, that the mind first turns in a bereavement. And greater things that are known of him, in the way of his warm affections, his quiet endurance, his unselfish thoughtfulness for others, and his munificent hand, may not be told.
If, in the reckless vivacity of his youth, his satirical pen had ever gone astray or done amiss, he had caused it to prefer its own petition for forgiveness, long before:
I’ve writ the foolish fancy of his brain;
In no pages should I take it upon myself at this time to discourse of his books, of his refined knowledge of character, of his subtle acquaintance with the Weaknesses of human nature, of his delightful playfulness as an essayist, of his quaint and touching ballads, of his mastery over the English language. Least of all, in these pages, enriched by his brilliant qualities from the first of the series, and beforehand accepted by the Public through the strength of his great name.
But, on the table before me, there lies all that he had written of; his latest and last story. That it would be very sad to any one—l that it is inexpressibly so to a writer—in its evidences of matured. designs never to be accomplished, of intentions begun to be executed, and destined never to be completed, of careful preparation for long roads of thought that he was never to traverse, and for shining goals that he was never to reach, will be readily believe ., The pain, however, that I have felt in perusing it, has not been :eper than the! conviction that he was in the healthiest vigour of hit powers when he wrought on this last labour. In respect of earnsrt feeling, farseeing purpose. character, incident, and a certain loving picturesqueness blending the whole, I believe it to be much he best of all his works. That be fully meant it to be so, that be h (I become strongly attached to it, and that he hestowrd great psi .s upon it, I trace in almost every page. It contains one picture hich must have cost him extreme distress, and which is a master .ece. There are two children in it, touched with a hand as lovir , and tender as ever a father caressed his little child with. The" is some young love, as pure and innocent and pretty as the t1 .h. And it is very remarkable that, by resson oftho singular or .struction of the story, more than one main incident usually bclr ging to the end of such a fiction is anticipated in the beginning, .d thus there is an approach to completeness in the fragment, ' to the satisfaction of the reader's mind concerning the most i' .resting persons, which could hardly have been better attained .ne writer's breaking-off had been foreseen.
The last line he ' .ne, and the last proof be corrected, are among these papers thr' an which I have so sorrowfully made my way. The conditi', of the little pages of manuscript whcro Death stopped his ban", snows that he had carried them about. and often taken them 01",. his pocket here and there, for patient revision and interlineaadn. The last words be corrected in print, were, “And my heart throbbed with an exquisite bliss." Goo grant that on that Christmas Eve when he laid his head back on his pillow and threw up his arms as he had been wont to do when very weary, some consciousness of duty done and Christian hope throughout lile humbly cherished, may have caused his own heart so to throb, when he passed away to his Redeemcr's rest ! 1
He was found peacefuin lying as above described, composed, un- 1 disturbed, and to all appearance asleep, on the twenty-fourth of December, 1868. He was only in his fiftydhird year; so young a, man, that the mother who blessed him in his first sleep, blessed him in his last. Twenty years before, he had written, after being in a white squall: ‘
And when, its force expended, ’
The harmless storm was ended,
Those little girls had grown to be women when the mournful dsy broke that saw their father lying dead. In those twenty years of: companionship with him, they had learned much from him ; and onel of them has a literary course before her, worthy of her famous name.
On the bright wintry day, the last but one of the old year, he was laid in his grave at Kcnsal Green, there to mingle the dust to which the mortal part of him had returned, with that of a third child, lost in her infancy, years ago. The heads of a great concourse of his fellow-workers in the Arts, were boWed around his tomb.
BOOKS OF THE WEEK.
Human-4 The Statesman's Year Book: a Statistical. Genealogical, and Historical Account of the States and Sovereigns of the Civilized World for the Year 1804.’ By Frederick Martin. (Post 8vo, pp. 685.) Macmillan and Co.
Taiwan—The Travels of Ludovico di Viarthema in Egypt. Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix, in Persia, India, and Ethiopia, A.n. 1003 to isos.’ Translated from the Original Italian Edition oflolo, with a Preface, by John Winter Jones, Esq., F.S.A. ; and Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by George Percy Badger, late Government Chap lain in the Presidency of Bombs , Author of ‘The Nestorians and their Bituals,’ &c., &c. (svo, pp. 464. Printed for the Hskluyt Society.—
BlOGRAPllY.—‘ Autobiography of Thomas Wright, of Birkeushsw, in the Count of York. 1736-1797) Edited by his Grandson, Thomas Wright, h .A., F.S.A., &c., Corresponding Member of the lm erial Institute of France. (chp. flvo, pp. 344.) J. R. Smith.—‘h emoir of Bishop Mackenzie.’ B Harvey Goodwin, D.D., Dean of Ely. (Post gtifdpp. 439.) Cambri gc: Dcighton, Bell, and Co. London: Bell and
Pohrrrcs.-—‘The Empire in India: Letters from Madras and other places.‘ By Major Evans Bell, Madras Staff Corps. (Crown 8vo, pp. m.) Triibnerand Co.
Lr'rnnll'runn.—‘ Life Portraits of William Shakespeare: a History of the various Representations of the Post, with an Examination into their Authenticity.‘ By J. Hain Friswell. Illustrated by Photographs of the most authentic Portraits. and with Views, &e., by Cundall, Downcs, and Co. (Svo, pp. 158.) Low, Son, and Marston.-—‘Shnkspere and Jensen. Dramatic versus Wit Combats. Auxiliary Forces: Beaumont and Fletcher, Marston, Decker, Chapman, and Webster.’ (Fcap. avo, pp. 122.) J. R. Smith.
Flcrion.—‘Bella Donna; or, the Cross before the Name.‘ A Romance. Gilbert Dyce. In Two Volumes. (Post 8vo, pp. 329, 381.)
The ‘Statesman's Year Book’ is designed to aid the reader of contemporary history in the newspapers of the day with “a book of reference giving an account, so to “ speak a portrait, of countries and States, in the same man“ nor as a good biographical dictionary would give a sketch “ of individuals." Sir Robert Peel more than fifteen years ago, says Mr Martin in his Preface, frankly confessed that he often felt the want of a hand-book presenting in a compact shape a picture of the actual condition, political and social, of the various States of the civilised world. A first attempt to supply this want is now made by the publication of the ‘ Statesman’s Hand-book.’ Of each State of the world there is described the reigning Sovereign and family, wherever there is a ruling house—constitution and government--church and education—revenue and expenditure—army and navy forces—population—trade and commerce, and the colonies where there are colonies. The aim is to produce a well-arranged statement of accurate facts clearly set forth and divested of political theory.
The last of the Hakluyt Society’s contributions to history of travel is almost sufficiently described in its long title. ‘The Travels of Ludovico di Viarthema,’ translated by one learned man and annotated by another, is as amusing and instructive a book as one could wish to read. A part of it, “ conte nyng many notable and straunge “thingcs, both hysterical and naturall," was incorrectly given by Richard Eden in his ‘ History of Travel in the West and East Indies,’ published in 1577; but this is the first proper giving to the World of the quaint narrative hitherto to be accurately studied only in the rare and badly-printed original of 1510.
In a volume uniform with Mr J. Russell Smith’s admirable ‘ Library of Old Authors,’ Mr Thomas Wright, one of our pleasantest writers upon early English literature, has edited the autobiography of his grandfather, Thomas Wright, of Birkenshaw, set forth originally for the amusement of its writer’s children and descendants. Yorkshire in his day was a stronghold of Calvinist nonconformity, and against this 'I‘homas——familiarly known as TommyWright, who had a small farm at Lower Blacup, and also made cloth, battled as a local chief of the party that was upholding the Arminianism of Wesley. In its defence he wrote in verse 0. ‘Modern Familiar Religious Conversation,’ publishcd in 1778, his advocacy winning him the friendship of Wesley himself and of Fletcher of Madeley. The autobiography is regarded by its editor as “ a remarkable historical record, which gives us a curious “ and striking picture—I may, perhaps, add almost unique “ —of domestic life among a very important class of Eng
‘ “ lish society during the latter half of the last century, in
" what has since become one of the greatest and most active “ manufacturing districts in our island. Moreover, it pre“ seats a very remarkable view of the effects, even on the “ relations of the domestic homestead, of those violent re“ ligious party feelings and contentions which raged more “in this part of England than anywhere during the last “century.”
The Dean of Ely has written, and publishes this week, dedicated to the Bishop of Oxford, a life of one of the victims of Dr Livingstonc‘s disastrous zeal for a Central African mission,-—Dr Mackenzie, who was consecrated missionary bishop to the Zambcsi, and lies buried among the savages by the river Shire, dead for want of necessaries. “ I had been with him,” says Dr Goodwin, his biographer, “ under a variety of circumstances, and had never seen a “ cloud upon his brow or heard him say anything which “ I could suppose he would wish to recall.”
Major Bell’s volume on the Empire in India we have described this week in another column.
Messrs Sampson Low and Co. add this week to the Shakespeare publications of the day a series of Photographs of Shakespeare's monumental bust, the Chandos Portrait, the Droeshout etching, the Stratford Portrait and the Jansen Portrait, Shakespeare’s house, Anne Hathaway’s cottage at Shottery, and the Chancel of Trinity Church, Strathrd-on-Avon. Mr J. Hain Friswell has supplied text to the pictures. The author of a little book or pamphlet on ‘Shakspere and Jonson’ seems to be the same finder of mare's nests who produced a very absurd book called ‘The Footsteps of Shakespeare,’ noticed in a former number of this journal. There can hardly be two men so absurdly wise in discovering how the Elizabethan dramatists quarrelled together and pilloried one another through the characters of their plays, how their plays were, in fact, pugnacious pamphlets, strong in personality; Shakespeare’s King Lear, for example, being his reply to the Vohwnc of Ben Jonson, who in that play had ridiculed Shakespeare as Sir Politick Would-be, and described himself as Peregrine, a gentleman traveller. “ In King Lear," says this writer, “Jonson is marked out most clearly and “unmistakeably as Edmund. As Gloster loses his eyes “ through the treachery of Edmund and by the hand of " Cornwall, the latter must be Mar-ston, and Albany, “ Dekker; which opinion is confirmed by the first sentence "in the tragedy: ‘Kent: I thought the King had more “ afiected the Duke of Albany than Cornwall.’ The “ faithful Kent represents Chapman, who was born in 1557, " ‘ I have years on my back forty-eight ;’ and Gloster must “ be Lyly." Who can conceive the effect of King Lear upon a man who reads it in this idiotic way! '
Two of the five novels of the week, ‘ Ella Norman,’ and ‘ Bella Donna,’ we have reviewed in another column. The previous tales of Mr Kenner Deenc will secure attention to his ‘ Anne Cave;’ the other two novels have the great merit of being each limited to a single volume.
There is one new volume of ‘ Sermons.’ Their writer, Mr John Robertson, preached at the request of Mr Samuel Courtauld, a gentleman who is well known as a helper of the working classes, in the Essex village of High Garrett, and it was meant that his sermons should not be doctrinal; but the preaching represented by those sermons led to the forming of Unitarian congregations at High Garrett and at Halstead.
The one volume of verse, published this week as ‘Old Saws Newly set,’ is a fresh rhyming of a few old fables in the measure used by Guy.
The trial of the Bishop of Natal was concluded on December 16. The news by the last mail brought down the report of the trial to the evening of Thursday, November 19. On the morning of the following day the Archdeacon of George, one of the accusing clergy, resumed his arguments in support of the accusations, by considering the alleged errors of the Bishop of Natal as respects the Holy Scriptures. His address occupied nearly the whole of the day, and in the course of it he discussed with great minuteness the bearing of the church formularies upon each of Bishop Colenso’s views as set forth in the extracts from his writings referred to in the citation. This closed the case for the prosecution. The registrar then read a letter from the Bishop ofNatal, which was put in in his defence. The letter was dated Bishopstown, August 7. 1961. It is very voluminous, occupying nearly three columns of small type in the local journals. With great closeness of argument it categorically went through nearly the whole of the impugned extracts. The tone of the arguments being clearly shown in their exordium, which said, “I have no doubt whatever that the canonical books of Scripture do contain errors, and some very grave ones, in matters of fact, and that the historical narratives are not to be depended on as true in all their details. I have never stated this publicly; but surely in this age of critical inquiry every intelligent student of the Scriptures must be aware of the truth of what I say. It is vain to deny what is patent to any careful and conscientious reader who will set himself to compare one passage of Scripture history with another. And Imust say I had supposed that there were very few in the present day, except in a very narrow school of theology, who would contest this point." The Metropolitan asked Dr Bleek if he desired to say anything on behalf of Bishop Colenso. Dr Black said he came there for two purposes—first, to protest; and secondly, in tlie cvent of their lordships, notwithstanding that protest, assuming Jurisdiction, to give notice of appeal. He had no instructions to do anything further. The court then adjourned, and on re-asssmbling on Nov. 21, the Very Rev. the Dean of Cape Town delivered a long reply. This closed the case. The court then adjourned, and re-assembled by notice on Dec. 14, when the suffrngan bishops, as assessors, delivered their opinions. The presenting clergy had accused Dr Colenso of heresy on nine counts. 1. His disbelief in the Atonement. 2. His belief injustification without any knowledge of Christ. 3. His belief in natal regeneration. 4. His disbelief in the endleasness of future punishments. 5. His denial that the Holy Scriptures are the word of God. 6. His denial of the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 7. His denial that the Bible is a true history of the facts which it professes to describe. 8. His denial of the divinity of our blessed Lord. 9. Ilia depraving, impugning, and bringing into disrepute the Book of Common Prayer. The Bishop of Graham’s Town said he considered all these charges proved, and painful as it was to him to arrive at such a conclusion, he considered that by the false teaching proved against him the Bishop of Natal had wholly disqualified himself for hearing rule in the Church of God, and for the cure of souls therein. The Bishop of the F rce State announced that he had come to asimilar conclusion. The court was then adjourned to Dec. 16, when, on its rte-assembling, the Metropolitan pronounced judgment, depriving Bishop Colenso of his see, unless on or brfore the 4th of March next the bishop shall file a full. unconditional, and absolutesretractation in writing of all the objectionable extracts, in London, or a like retractation. by April 16 in Cape Town. Dr Bleek handed in a protest against the legality of, the proceedings and the validity of the jud ment, and'gave notice of appeal. The Bishop of Cape Town sai he could not‘ recognise any appeal except to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, talpd he must require that appeal to be made within fifteen days am
TERRIBLE Cammrr is (Duran—Two Tnousnw LsnmsBmta'sn To Deana—The mail steamship Atralo, which arrived at Southampton yesterday, brings intelligence of a most terrible calamity at} Santiago, the capital of Chili. Since 1857, the year of the promulgation at Rome of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, the church of La Campanis, in Santiago, has been the shrine of the devotion of , a large number of ladies of that city during the time of the celebration,l lasting from the 8th November to the 8th December. On the cveningi of the latter day over three thousand ladies and several hundred men' had crowded into the church. The ladies were mostly young. and, belonged to the higher classes of the capital. Twenty thousand lights in long festoons filled the church, which was also hung with drapery: of every description. The service had hardly commenced when the‘
crescent of lights, at the foot of the image of the Virgin over the altar, communicated fire to the drapery. The tire spread rapidly to all parts.
of the building, and a terrible scene of horror ensued. The congrega
tion endeavoured to escape by the door which was blocked up by the; multitude outside. Most of the men escaped, but the ladies tell in allf directions; their arms were wrenched from their, bodies, and the“ passage became a crushed heap of mangled bodies. From the roof at" lbolt), ‘who was made prisoner in Paraguay by the dictator Francis;
upwards of 2,000 ladies were blackened corpses. mostly of the richest 1 and also an atl'air at La Plata, where
rain ofliquid fire poured on the people below, and in fifteen minutes
PROCEEDINGS OF THE FRENCH LEGISLATIVE CHAMBER.
Tun DEBATE on rat: annaass was continued in the Corps Législatifon the 25th inst. Paragraph 5 was adopted, after the rejection, by 225 to 16, of the amendment of the Opposition requiring education to be gratuitous and obligatory. Paragraph 6, relating to distant expeditions, was next discussed. Three amendments were brought forward referring to Mexico, all demanding the termination of the expodition and the recall of the troops.
M. Guéroult made a forcible speech against the continuance of the French occupation. He gave a sketch of the circumstances which had served as a pretext for the occupation, and significantly pointed out that it was not until the present stmgglc in America between North and South had been maintained for several months that active intervention by the three Powers was determined upon. M. Guéroult concluded in the following terms: “Be sure that we shall obtain nothing from Mexico; be sure that if Franco obstinately determines to remain there to cover the expenses of the expedition, she will make as bad a bargain as she did in spending three hundred millions to obtain payment of sixty millions. Obstinately continue now, and you will not be let off under a thousand millions. It is not an easy thing to occupy Mexico. I read in the newspapers that Maximilian, before accepting the crown, requests that the Mexican people may declare themselves by universal sufl'rage. To arrive at that Mexico must be mastered ; it must be occupied. Now, permit me to tell you that we do not possess the twentieth part of it. (Contradictions) Mexico is an immense country, intersected by plains almost uninhabited, often uncultivated, in which everything, even water, is wanting. lf you wish to havca permanent army of occupation there, it is not 30,000 men that will do, not even 100,000. Recollect that in Algeria, the sutfaos of wliiclr'is only about a third thatof France, we had for a long time 100,000 men to chase Abd-el-Kader without catching him, and to keep down the Arabs. (A Member—Ho was caught.) He was caught at last, but it was at the end of seventeen years. Now, if we remain in Mexico, if we wish to occupy it in a permanent manner, we must have garrisons in all the large towns, and we must have flying columns. . The Mexican people are accustomed to partisan wars. Long years of civil war have created a population perfectly familiar with this kind of business. Ifyou antisr upon such an affair, I don't know how you will get out of it; Let me add, that if the civil war ceases in the United States, the American Government, without declaring war against you, without engaging in a direct struggle with France, may allow 60,000 volunteers to slipinbo Mexico, filibusters that peace will set at liberty in North America; it is impossible to foresee the number of regular troops that will be necessary to keep the field'rand maintain the security 0f the country helore bands of thiskind. There will he, in my opinion, the most serious danger in prolonging the expedition. The object it was desired.to attain I consider has failed, as I said just now. 7 We ought not. consoqnently, if you will believe me, to be particular about the conditions of the evacuation. We will leave to the Government all necessary time for preparing it, for doing it worthily, honourahly, for protecting those who have confided in us, and in the choice of whom we~have unfortunately not alwavs been sufficiently rigid, and than we will begths Govern ment to recall ’6? troops to France. As to tho-questionsof indemnity, as to the benefits you may derive, believe me, do not ask for any; i! with the 200 millions we have paid this year we have only 100 or 200 more to pay, We shall have made a relatively good-bargain; for if we remain, I tell you it will not be by hundreds, but by-v thousands of millions we shall have to reckon.” ' . in .
M. Thiers said that he would not discuss this or that amendment, but treat of the question of Mexico generally. Having a great'deal to say on this important subject he had been anxious to speak early in the debate, lest at a-later moment the attention of the chamber should be exhausted. He was not. without hope that after hearing him they would forgive him for having thus pressed himself upon their notice. As to the different amendments of which they had the choice, he would prefer that one which might be thought to lay the truth at the fcot of the throne in the most deferential and respectful way. If they had only to passjudgment upon facts gone by, he would be very happy to imitate the conduct of those merchants who write off unlucky affairs to profit and loss in order that they might think no more about them. But merchants only acted thus with regard to affairs which involved no further sacrifices. Unfortunately this could not be said of Mexico. They had heard that the expedition cost twelve millions of francs per month, and mouths rolled away very rapidly. They were operating in a country 3,000 leagues off, and which required a voyage of fifteen days to reach. They had in that country 40,000 soldiers and 8,000 sailors; and what was the object of that great and costly force ? They were informed that in a very few days the prince destined to reign over Mexico would pass through Paris to embark for Vera Cruz. They had therefore undertaan this distant expedition for the purpose of founding in great empire in the new world. He had, perhaps, been brought up in narrow ideas, but he must confess that such an enterprise in the present state of the world, and without any useful purpose, that he could see, utterly confounded his reason. After a passing observation enjoining the chamber to imitate the example of England, which patiently suffers every subject whatever to be discussed, hesaid he proposed to inquire by what series of ideas France had befn'led from the first act of protection of its citizens established in Mexico, 05 that most considerable, enterprise of founding a monarch in that country. What connexion Weathers between the trio things 1 It sonable hope of success; and if per-chance they didiiucceed, what good would they get b it'?_ M.‘Thiers their 'descrlbed'the; rdat didhreitrte between North and ‘Sodth Amé'rida i'u 'respect‘of relation with'Ehro . In the north Erirope' fbuhd'aniiiiitncnsd trade, and, in getierlil‘ plei- ect security, though of itth owing to the‘civil war and'de'mocra c rough
me“. there might have been some slight ground for complaint. But in
South America, with the exception of the Brazils, there was nothing but anarchy. When thp southern pepulatimsofi America separated from the European countries which had colonised them and held them in subjection,'tbey, like the North, proclaimed republicansgovs'rnm‘ent. But the inhabitants of 'SOutlt America were turbulent ‘and idle, their republics did not succeed. Theso states'were' always in diflictflties, ever borrowing and never paying. In consequence of‘ continual agitation, the towns, the villages, and highways Were inse'cure.’ Robbery was frequent and murder not uncommon. Thelp‘ohcewas good for nothing, and justice weak. The custom with‘these states when they broke treaties had been hitherto to follow the English system, viz., to punish them severely when they could be got at by can, but other' wise to wink agcod deal at. their: delinquencies. It mightperbaps be said that such 0 mode of dealing with them was not very haughty',‘ but national honour itself must brook a check in'the face of physical irapossibilltics. As illustrations of his meaning, M. Thiers/cile the case of some ‘Rifl' outrages which Prussia thought it not expedient to avenge b an expedition; of, Bonpland (the companion and, friend, oil l‘lum—
French citisens d been tortured
families in Santiago. Upwards of two hundred cartloada of burned'by that, f‘abominahls little tyrzuit" \Rosas. Well, roach. ships, had
gone to Buenos Ayres and Montevideo and demanded severe repression, but, not being- able‘to obtain it, they putrhp, by. way of satisfaction, with a treaty which was not. so advantageous as might have: been L‘a'ter,‘an insult in Mexico had been punished by a vigorous ' Bot-as or equitable-and dis
observing that the country was
versaries clericals and reactionists; and the liberals, called by their adversaries anarchists and rcvolutionists. In the conservative party
as there any rea- , from,
there were many great families of the old re'gr'ma who wished to make Mexico a second Brazils. The Brazils instead of going for a republic had stopped at constitutional monarchy—a word not in favour, but he could not help speaking his own language. Under the constitutional monarchy—(some murmurs)—-Brazil had found Order, liberty, and growing prosperity. But to procure similar beatitudes for Mexico was a work of difiiculty. In the first place they had had to look out for a prince. Hw analogies been followed, Spain would have been asked to furnish one; but recollections of the war of indopendence had left in Mexico a great repugnance tothe Spaniards. Then a somewhat arbitrary, not to say fantastic, choice of a candidate had been made. They had fixed upon a prince who had certainly no parLisans in the country. . . . The Conservative party had for its allies a Catholic clergy which was wanting in the virtues and intelligence of the clergy in Europe. That clergy had been very wealthy and was mixed up in all the political troubles of the country. Its properiv hflll been confiscated, and now its great object was to get it back: M. Thiers then came to the struggle between Miramom and Juarez. The first was aooursgsous, but not very wise young man. The second was an Indian by birth, a lawyer by profession, and, though now the enemy of France, it was only just to say that his countrymen did not look upon him as a dishonest man. He had shown remarkable strength of character. Miramon was installed in Mexico, and at the head of the publinforce, while J uaroa was at Vera Cuuz without a piastre ; and yet by patience and perseverance he succeeded in the course of a few months in making his entry into Mexico, and Miramon took to flight. Juarez founded a moderate government and showed great firmness in checking his I congress, in which the'm0stl radical opinions prevailed. When the tanaty with M; daSal'rgny, the French minister, was broken, the right and prqdeub thing to have done would have been to take possession of Tam ice and Vera Cruz, and receive the customs duties at these ports untilpthe debt had been liquidated. That was the English system' in such cases. Not a very brilliant one, indeed; not one by which intndlr ‘glory could. be acquired, but safe and effectual. After referring to the dcmptiva report spread by the clerical party in Europe, that the Mexican people were , so tired of Juarez‘s Government that the would rise, as one man on_ the first appearance of an invading flag, an acclaim the Luropean prince proposed to them, M. Thich reviewed the driginal 'negotiations‘witli London andMadrid, showing that England steadily declined to'interfero in ‘nuy way whatever with the internal governmental“ the country; and that Spain, while prompting France to establish a. monarchy, wanted to El" up a Spanish prince, which France would not consent to. The zeal of Spain in the affair being thus cooled, she consented—hut not; as be (M. Thiers) thought, without-ah arv'i'fii's pended-tome English convention of Oct. 31, 1861. That convmtinii was in rs:er but a negation, for England only intended to Jake poneasion of era Cruz and._.Tampico. Spain wanted to found a monarchy for the benefit of a Spanish prince, and France had in her mind a monarchy with an Austrian sovereign. Under such circumstances the treaty, though in 'form obligatory, could only in point oH'acli be negatitre. The Spaniards-wore the first to set out on the eppeditionx They sailed from. Havannab, and arrived at Vera Cruz on Dec. 1. General Prim, their commander, andywho had been accepted by France as generalissime of the expedition, was a brilliant soldier, but full of Castilian pride.‘ 11s closely observed the state of the country, amiaooir found that Europe had been altogether deceived when it fancied that the monarchicnl party would rise as soon as the European troopa, landodu About three weeks later the French force, under the command of anableflmaa, Admiral Jurieudo la Graviere, landed plan. He agroed,,witb General Prim,that it was rudent to wait,er the promiseddemonstrations. But they waited an waited in voila; no mount-chiral movements took place, The forces could not, however, remain much longer at Vera. Cruz, disease making great havoc among them. , The Spaniards had 2,000 sick. How many French were sick had never been stated, but the number was known to be large. The English force was only 700 strong, and of that number 150 were in hospital. The three commanders, French, Spanish, and English, agreed that it was impossible to remain any longer in Vera. Cruz. They marched a few leagues into the interior of the country, where the troops found themselves a little better; and then, as it was felt necessary to do something, they issued a proclamation to the Mexicans, telling them that they had not come to conquer or revolutionize their country, but merely to claim pecuniary indemnities due to French, Spanish, and English subjects. The form of an ultimatum was given to this proclamation, and therefore exact sums were stated. England claimed 85 millions of francs, Spain 40 millions, France 60 millions, and 20 millions were demanded on behalf of some other nations. The total, amounting to 200 millions, seemed rather high in regard to, the capabilities of the Mexican budget, but when, in addition, the, Jecksr bonds, amounting to 75 millions, were brought forward, the Mexican Government was startled and hesitated to pay. He would only say of the Jackal bonds that they had a very bad reputation. However 't was a cod that the question should be referred to the three lEirropbdu ' ammo. " But meanwhile three oflicom weref .dsspatcbed to the city- of Mexico with an ultimatum which'could. not have, been very peremptory or precise, because no amount was 'fixed. , These oflicers Were most politely received, and told that if the European troops 2had come ibi- justice they should most assuredly-have it, and that General Doblado, a most distinguished, man, would go . and treat with the pleaipotentrades. The; plenipotentiariag, finding thattbo. number of sick at Esra, Gnuz- increased every, day, that they could have no answer Europe for. two .moutha, and that the generals were only at the head of six‘ or seven thousand men without means of transport, negotiated~ with General. Doblado, and agreed that their troops should occupy ,the healthy heights of Qrizaba, on condition that they should retire from ,them if the negotiations came to nothing. The Mexican flag was again hoisted at Vera Cruz, side by side of the flags of the, silica, but the custom-houses were still kept as a pledge. ,Here was the history ofthat famous convention of Soledad, which had been regarded. as so dishouourablc. It was a convention which had saved the three little armiea, for they would, have been destroyed by the pomilo at Yarn CruL—M. Grauier do Cassagnao: We should not have stayed there.-M. Thiers : \Yhenlwpuld on have gone away ?— M. Granierlde Cassagnac: Immediately, swor in hand—M. Rouher: We shouldhave gone to Mexico—M. Jubinal (a member of the majority) '- Ilow could that have been, when we had not a single horse ,to draw a gunf—M. ,Thiera, resuming, said that for his own part he gave great credit to Admiral Jurieu dela Graviere for having concluded the convention. (Applause on several benches.) If anybody was to be found fault with, it was those who had fancied it possible to conquer Mexicomvithp few thousand men. It was right that ju-tica should be done to a brave officen (Several voices—~"Hear, bran") M. Thiers thensliowad thaLAlmonte's party in Europe had succeeded in getting the French Government to decide that it would not treat at all with Juarez, and, to espouse the project of making Archduke Maximilian Emperor. , Ile regretted that the Government had never published the minutes of the conference of Orizaba of April 15, where these things clearly appeared, from what M. de Saligny and Admiral Jurien de la Graviiiro said of their instructions. Well, the war had gone on. Afters year takcn'to repair General Lorencez's check before Puebla, the gallant Marshal Forey had been sent out with large reluforccmeata, and, as was to have been expected, he had taken the city of Mexico. lle would,_afrer these indispensable prelirninaries,_coine to the. immediate and practical question. They were in Mexico, and what ought they to do now? Why, he would say, treat, With Juarez, as they ought to have done long ago. General Buzarne, who was reputed to be an able negotiator as well as a good general, had already quarrelled with the Archbishop of Mexico, who represented the old eigime, and had admitted that the liberal party was in the right as to
the national property. That fact showed that the liberal party could not be such very great barbarians. It was no doubt disagreeable to treat with Juarez after having protested so long that they would not do so; but that was the only rational thing to do, as it had been quite ascertained that he was at the head of the strongest party in the country. If they did not do so, the prospect was a permanent army of 40,000 men in Mexico, and a drain upon the budget of 13, 14, or 15 millions per month. As to the notion of setting up the Latin against the Anglo-Saxon race, he did not think it worth the consideration of serious men. The Archduke was going out, they were told. He would arrive in April, just in time to receive congratulations before the wet season set in. He would admit that he would be well received ; he never knew of a new prince who was not. But the rains would prevent any military operations between May and September or October. During all that while the new monarch must be
rotected, for they could not be so ungenerous as to take him away from hisfamily and country, and leave him to himself in a state of fearful embarrassment. They must recollect that he would arrive there without a piastre. Mexico was greatly indebted, and did not pay her debts. England and Spain held the custom-houses as a security for 200 millions, and nothing could be got from that source till they were paid. The Archduke would want, therefore, 300 or 400 millions to start with. Where were they to come from ? A loan had been talked of. A loan was no doubt easy if France guaranteed it; but if such a thing were proposed, he would venture to say that the habitually small minority in opposition would be singularly augmented. Without the guarantee of France a loan was out of the question. M. Thiers then made the following declaration in answer to an audacious statement of the Messiaen—“It was said yesterday—geography being treated rather cavalierly-that we occupied already seven-eighths of the country. I tell you that we do not occupy a twentieth part of it; and that out of a population of eight millions, two at most are subjected to our rule." A consideration most important to be borne in mind was, that although both the North and the South of the United States might for the present affect no displeasure at what was doing in Mexico, the only reason was that neither party wished to offend France, whose interference one way or the other at the present moment (an interference which he was glad had not been attempted) might so materially affect their interests. But it was tolerably certain that once the civil war over, the United States would forget all her present politeness, and if she did not actually declare war, would let loose hosts of disbanded soldiers, who would desire no better employment than to overrun Mexico.
M. Chaix d’Est Ange defended the expedition as being just, affirmed that it was impossible to treat Willi Juarez, and expressed a hope that tranquillity will soonibe re-establisbed in Mexico. "Then,the speaker said, “our troops will be able to return.” M. Berryer, in reply, said that France had been misled. He maintained that the Government was unpopular in Mexico, and ought to retire. The Left then withdrew its amendment. ‘
The debate was continued on the 27th. M. Tbiers explained the amendment of the Opposition upon paragraph 6, referring to the Mexican expedition, and supported the necessity of negotiating with Juarez when vanquished—M. Rouhcr replied. He declared that France would neither treat with Juarez nor with Almonte, the one being couquered and an enemy, the other devoid of any official position, but only with a ruler elected by universal suffrage.—M. Jules Favre dwelt upon the strange and difficult position in which the Archduke Maximilian will be placed, and compared the Mexican campaign to the campaign in Spain under the First Empire.—M. Rouber warmly defended the expedition. He said—“ Our presence in the Gulf of Mexico is the safeguard for the prosperity of our maritime commerce, which will be lost if we withdraw. The Government desires to evacuate Mexico as soon as possible, but not until universal sufi‘rage shall have spoken. The establishment of a monarchy iii Mexico is possible, and the result will be the prosperity of the country.” The amendmch was rejected by 201 to 47, and the paragraph was adopted.
The debate was continued in the Corps Legislatif on the 28th. The discussion referred to Poland. M. David enlarged upon the amendment advocating the recognition of the Poles as belligerents. After speeches from :MM. Kalb-Bernard and Corneille, the amendment was rejected. M. Pelletan explained the amendment of the Left, proposing a rupture of diplomatic relations with Russia. The Due de Morny defended Russia against the accusations of M. Pelletan, and declared that Russia was more democratic than the whole of Europe. The speaker explained why the committee desired to reconcile its sympathies for Poland with its respect for Russia, and said, “ Besides, no other solution is possible. It is necessary, even in the interest of the Poles, not to encourage the insurrection." M. Gusroult demanded that Poland should not be exterminatcd under Napoleon 111., after having been partitioned under Louis XV. Upon the motion of M. Jules F avre, the debate was adjourned.
The military and political news brought by the Bohemian, which reaches to the 16th inst., is unimportant. The following are all the particulars worthy of notice: Chattanooga despatches of the 11th inst. report that General Longstreet has been reinforced by twelve thousand infantry. His entire force consists of thirty-four thousand infantry and twelve thousand cavalry. He is fortifying himself at Bull's Gap. It is expected that he will shortly resume the offensive. A heavy cavalry fight occurred on the 10th, near Strawberry Plains, eight miles from Knoxville; the Confederates being repulsed with serious loss. General Johnson has been largely reinforced by extra troops, and maintains a bold front at Dalton and Tunnel Hill. General Grant is making a tour through his department. Two blocks of buildings and several large warehouses are reported to have been destroyed in Charleston on the 201h by Gilmore's shells. The city was almost deserted by the military. It is rumoured that Stuart has made a raid into Lcesburg, the Federals falling back to Fairfax. The gucrilla leader Morgan has had a public reception in Richmond. General Burnside has been appointed to recruit and fill up the 9th Army Corps, of which he is commander, to the number of 50,000 men. General Meade has made a speech in Philadelphia, stating that as soon as the weather moderated, and the season allowed, active operations in Virginia would recommencc. The first would have to be ended by hard fighting, and be trusted peace would be restored by next summer. General Lee is being reinforced by conscripts, and is organizing his cavalry for the spring campaign.
An animated debate has taken plucein the Senate on the resolution to expel Senator Davis, of Kentucky, for submitting treasonable resolutions. Davis defended himself, declaring that if expelled he Would go home among the people of Kentucky, and raise a cry of oppresIIOll. usurping tyranny, and revolution against the faithless men having charge of the Government. There were men in the Administration recreant to their trust, trying to subvert the Constitution. In the condition of the States he had a _right to call a convention, and do away with the best Government on earth, and be called for such aconventiou that the people might take the war into their own hands and reconstrut-t the nation upon the principles of a compromise and a liberty, upon which Washington and associates acted. It is not believed that the resolution for expulsion will pass. Senator Lune has introduced a bill into Congress prohibiting the sale of gold at a higher price than that paid in New York for United States’ Six per Cent. Bonds, except for exportation to pay debts. A bill has been introduced in the Confederate Congress to tax outstanding Treasury notes at 50 per cent.
Jan. 27.—Orders received at Kiel for the Vanguard of the AustroPrussian Army Corps to advance upon Slesvig. The President of the Danish Council declares to the Landstbing that no Danish Government can submit, unless compelled by force, to German aggression upon Slesvig.‘
Jan. 23.—-The Paris papers publish news from Japan, received by telegraph from Malta, asserting that Prince Satsuina had refused to pay the indemnity until the English should have evacuated Yokohama.
Count de F lahaut, recently French Ambassador in London, is selected by the Emperor for the post, vacated by Admiral Hamelin’s death, of Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honour.
26.—The subscriptions to the new loan are said to amount to about four milliard francs.
Jan. 26.—The Conapondencia states that the Finance Minister has drawn up a project to improve the revenue of the State, and limit the expenses of the public service.
The Opposition agree not to ask questions of Ministers until after the acconchement of the Queen, which is expected shortly.
27.-—At the sitting of the Cortes a vote of censure is passed upon the President on a question of order by 46 to 31.
Jan. 26.—The Brussels journals state that the Duchess of Brabant is again pregnant. The King has called for public prayers to be offered up.
Jan. 28.—The Swedish officers who had asked permission to take service in Denmark are refused by the Government, on the ground that Sweden herself requires them. The Norwegian Minister of War has arrived at Stockholm. The King and Royal family of Sweden have given a considerable sum of money to the fund for the support of the families of Danish soldiers.
Jan. 23.—The Turkish Government is strengthening all the defences
of the Danube. Great agitation prevails in the Moldo-Wallachian
provinces, and it is rumoured that Turkish troops will be concentrated on that frontier.
Jan. 22.—-At an inquest held at Leamington on the bod of Mary Ann Walker, who was found dying and covered with bloo in a field on the 18th, T. Wat/rim, her husband, suspected of murdering her, is committed for trial.
23.—An in uiry is opened at Hoyle, in Cornwall, respecting the death of Mr . C. Millett, who it is alleged was poisoned by his brother Mr R. O. Millett, a surgeon. The case is adjourned, and in the mean time ball is refused.
The Lords Justices of Appeal give judgment in re Hooper—Baylis v. lVatkins, arising out of proceedings in the Divorce Court, as follows : To confirm the certificate, no costs to either party up to the date of their Lordships' order, viz., the 10th of December, 1862; the appellant to pay all costs from that time, but by the consent of the respondents the appellant was to pay costs out of pocket only.
25. — The Rev. E. H. Browne, Norrisiau Professor of the University of Cambridge, is nominated to the vacant bishopric of Ely. The Rev. F. C. Cook, prcbcndary of St Paul’s and preacher of Lincoln's inn, succeeds to Bishop Browne's canonry in Exeter Cathedral.
The Leeds blercury says: “The electors of the borough of Pontcfract are raising asuhscription for the purchase of a piece of plate, which is to be presented to Lord Houghton, their late representative.
Sir J. B. Earl formally announces his intention of retiring from the representation of Winchester on the opening of Parliament.
At the weekly meeting of the Lancashire Distress Committee Mr Maclure reports that 40!. 17s. was received during last week, and that the balance in the bank was 2013,1731. 175. 5d.
of lust year.
An inquest is held on the body of a dressmakcr named Priscilla May, aged nineteen, who was greatly frightened a. few days before by a servant in the house where she was working, who persouatcd a ghost. Death was the consequence of this practical joke.
S. Wabey, accused of robbery on the body of a. man found near Hitchin, is committed for trial. liis companion, a boy of fourteen, named Harman, who was accused ofbeing his accomplice, is discharged. The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce take under consideratiouu
The Governor of New Jersey, in his message to the Legislature, re
postal committee, and will form matter for discussion at the annual meeting of the chamber on Feb. 1.
26.—Mr Bright delivers a remarkable speech to his constituents It Birmingham.
Mr J. H. Erskine Wemyss, M.P., is appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Fifeshire.
At the petty sessions Sittingboume, the county magistrates investigate two charges against Mr William Rumble, engineer and machine inspector in her Majesty's dockyard at Sheerness, for having infringed the Foreign Enlistment Act, by assisting in the equipment, &c., of the Confederate ship Roppahannoclt. Rumble is committed for trial, but. allowed to put in bail.’
~27.—-A meeting of merchants and bankers in the city of London takes place at the Mansion House, to open subscriptions for the interior decoration of St Paul's Cathedral.
Mr Walker, M.P. for Beverley, announces his intention of resigning his seat.
Meme Jones and Wilding are charged before the Liverpool magistrates with infringing the Foreign Enlistment Act, by aiding in shipping men and ammunition on board the Confederate steamer Georgia. They are committed for trial, but admitted to bail.
A further correspondence on the Townley case is published. It is an explanation on the part of the magistrates who signed the certificates of insanity!
Letters from Lubliu describe several engagements as having recently taken place in that palatinate. On the 3lst ult. the Polish cavalry, including Szydlowski’s regiment, which according to the ofiicial .Dzienm'k had been “ completely out to pieces at Kozuchowka" a month ago, gained a brilliant victory at Ossow, near Hansk. After the battle of Rock, the Russian leader Heine sent the whole of his cavalry in the direction of Wlodnwa. Hearing of this, the Polish leaders assembled their troops and so harassed the Russians by their manoeuvres that most of the horses of the Russian uhlnns perished of fatigue. At length, having occupied an excellent position in a Wood at Ossow, they accepted battle, and after two liours' fighting the Russians fled with precipitation, leaving upwards of seventy of their dead on the field. The Poles captured some horses and ammunition, and their loss was insignificant. The Russians seized the horses in the villages as they were retreating, and afterwards sold them by auction, saying they had captured them from the insurgents. The last transport of prisoners from Warsaw to the interior of Russia consisted of 500 persons. The detachments of Poninski and Wroclewski, which had proceeded on a foraging expedition to Lithuania, have returned to the Kingdom reinforced by several hundreds of Lithuanian volunteers. Ejtmanowrcz and Leuiewski gained a victory on the 6th ult. at Uscimnw, which was however dearly purchased with the death of the gallant insurgent leader Ejtmanowicz.
Caaoow, Jan. 23.—On the 16th inst., the insurgents, under Rsmbailo, defeated three companies of Russian infantry at Dalesxyu, near Kielce, in consequence of which all the Russian garrisons in the Cracow district have been sent out to operate against them. Meanwhile, Rembailo is said to have united his force with Wagner’s cavalry cor s.
2P4.-A sanguiuary engagement took place on the 18th inst, between the Russians and a band of insurgents under Colonel Komorowski near 'l‘vszowa, in the government of Lublin. The Polish loss was considerable. Komorowski himself was killed while leading a cavalry charge.
25.-One thousand five hundred insurgents under Bosak are said to have been victorious in an engagement with the Russians at Sienna, in the neighbourhood of Zawichost, in the government of _deorn. A fresh cavalry detachment of 300 insurgents has shown itself in the vicinity of the frontier railway station at Losnowice.
ill—Advices received here from the Kingdom of Poland announce that several engagements have taken place in the vicinity of Cracow (government of ltadom). The Russians attacked the insurgent chief Dauilowicz, at Dombrowa, near the Prussian frontier, but were repulsed. On the 19th and 20th inst. unimportant engagements occurred near Mnczki and Mslkowice. Rembailo attacked the Russians, who wei'e advancing on all sides to surround the strong position of the St Croix Mountains.
BRESIAU. Jan. 24.-According to news received here from Poland, General Berg has ordered that every insurgent captured shall be shot. Two strong insurgent detachments are encamped in Winter quarters in the neighbourhood of Zeudm-jow, in the government of Radom.
Immu—We take the following summary of news from the Bombay
Gazette of the 29th of December: “The Commander-in-Chief of India has his head-quarters at Rawul Pindce. Sir W. Mansfield, Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army, has returned to the Presidency. On the morning of the 5th inst. a party of the enemy on the INHIIL'I' made a raid on our outpost about fifteen miles north of Peshawur. They were driven off by the Irregular Cavalry, but unfortunately Lieut. St. G. M. Bishop, of the 61h Bengal Cavalry, was killed while charging at the head of his men. Further intelligence has been received from the head-quarters of his Excellency the Commander inChief, at Ruqu Pindec, stating that affairs on the frontier had become much more pacific. The villages of Lalloo and Umheyla were taken without any ofliccr being killed or wounded, the enemy sufl‘eriug severely. Tho Buneyree tribe seem inclined to adhere to their engage
Mr Furnall’s l ments, and the Bajouries and others who had come to their aid hnyo report states that on the 16th inst. there wns an increase in “untied. General Chamberlain has left the camp, and is improving in number of persons receiving parochial relief in the twenty-seven unions I licullh, Letters from the North-West frontier contradict the report of of the cotton manufacturing districts, as compared with the number so * the death of Lieut. W. Bettye, of the Guide Corps, who was severely relieved in the previous week, of 5,313. The cost of out-door relief wounded when combating the enemy in tho Umbeyla Pass. this week is 7,0021. 105. 7d. less than that of the corresponding week I
It is reported that the Camp of Exercise that was to have been formed at Moan Mecr will most likely assemble at Ruwul Piudce, and that Sir Hugh Rose will superintend the manoeuvres in person. The ship rllm'inn Moore has arrived here with a portion of the Persian Gulf submarine telegraph cable, and is taken to the Government transport moorings to have some fittings made ready prior to being taken in low by the Bombay marine steamer Victoria for the Gulf. The trial of the first Armstrongr gun in Bombay, at the new battery, under the Lighthouse at Colabn, was successfully made on the 16th inst. A Kurruchce paper gives out a report to the effect that Kurrachce has been fixad
communication from the Liverpool Tradesmen's Guild, advocating the upon as the head-quarters of the Persian Gulf and llugdad line of telesdoptiou of a farthing postage scheme. The matter is referred to the graph."
6011111131110 E. 1
Tna Msrnorourax arm Pnovixciar. BANK held a meeting on Tuesday, at which the accounts for the half-year showed a balance of profit of 14,6331, and a dividend was declared at the rats of 6 per cent. per annum, free of income-tax. The balance carried forward to profit and loss new account is 1,8741. The directors' report states that, “ by a recent decision of the Court of Chancery, the bank has sustained a considerable and exceptional loss." \Viih regard to this loss, the chairman, Lord Fermoy, stated that the matter had been fully investigated, and not the slightest blame could be attached to the manager
Tits Losnox arm Paovmcrar. Mannie lnsuaarrcn Conraxr will hold a general meeting on the 3rd Feb. The balance shown is nearly equal to the amount of the company's paid-up capital, which is 71,0001. The balance brought forward from the previous account was only 40,0001. The following is an extract from the report to be presented: “ The directors submit to the shareholders, in anticipation of the general meeting, the accounts of the company, giving the result of its operations for the year ending 81st December, 1863. These accounts have been duly verified by the auditors and show, after payment of losses and claims upon previous accounts, as well as upon that of last year, together with all expenses and charges, and the half-year’s interest to the shareholders, a balance to the credit of income and expenditure of 70,0031. 4s. 8d. The shareholders have already been informed at the last general meeting that the first year of the company's business (namely, the 1800 and 1861 account) has resulted in a loss; it may, however, be satistactory to them to know that this loss occurred on the first few months of the company’s operations in 1860, that it has been paid out of income, and that the account of that year is now closed. The business of the successive
ears promises a favourable return. As it is estimated that the balance in hand is suificient not cal to re-icsuro every outstanding liability of the company, but to leave a considerable profit, the directors will recommend to the meeting the payment of a dividend for the half-year at the rate of 10 per cent. per annum upon the capital of the company, and they propose to place any surplus that may remain after the settlement of claims arising upon outstanding liabilities to the credit of a reserve fund. They will also recommend that the balance of the preliminary expenses be at once written off. Notwithstanding the increastd facilities for effecting marine insurance afforded by the introduction of several new companies, the business of this company shows a steady increase. While anxious to obtain as much as possible, it has always been the desire of the company to maintain the character of its business rather than enter into operations entailing an increased amount of risk. The result oi the last year's operations confirms the policy of this course; for while 70 per cent. of the year’s liabilities have run oil', the claims for that period do not amount to 27 per cent. of the ant premiums."
M nurses or run caanrroas or soon. sinus is run SILK ruaos wriicii anceser FAILED took place on Monday, when a balancelbect was presented in each case by Mr II. Chatteris, the accountant. The unsecured liabilities of Mr J. P. Mall, of Old Broad street, amount to 12,0151.,witli assets estimated at only 1,0841. nei, showmg a deficiency of 10,0601. The accountant stated that Mr Moll had failed in 18.37, when his estate was around up under inspection. Since that time he had carried on business as a silk broker. About three years ago he was induced, with the assistance of a house in Manchester, to purchase large quantities of raw silk. The house in question advanced him money to pay for the purchase of this sik as well as to have it “thrown.” For a period of nearly three yeaia he had paid this house a very heavy interest and commission for the accommodation given to him, His anticipation of profit on these transactions had not been realized, but, on the contrary, nearly all the sales that had been made had resulted in loss. Hence the present very large deficiency. The creditors were much dissatisfied with many of the recent transactions, and resolved to administer the estate in the Court of Bankruptcy—The unsecured liabilities of lilessrs Channell and Son, of Cot-enlry, are 40,5661, and assets 12,5841.--a deficiency of 27,0821. It was explained that the deficiency arose through the large amount of bad debts which Messrs Chappell and Bon had made during the last three years. On December 31st, 1860, when they last took stock, the firm had a capital of over 4,0001, in 'nddition to which the senior partner possessed freehold property of a similar value. The property has since been mortagcd to the Coventry and Warwickshire Bank, who are creditors for upwards of 10,0001. The senior partner had drawn nothing out of the partnership for more than two years, and thejuninr partner’s drawings had been only between 3001. and 4001. a year, so that the failure was attributable entirely to the heavy losses which had been sustained. As there were liabilities amounting to about 57,0001, the result of which could not be known forsome time, Messrs Chappell feltthcmsclves unable to make any offer which would be acceptable to their creditors. It was there
,fore resolved that the estate should be placed in th! Bankruptcy Court to be dealt with under the llOth section of the Act—The unsecured liabilities of Mr E. 8. 1141111 , of Brandon, near Coventry, reach 8,5521, and the assets 4,2931. The deficiency in this case is consequentiy 4,2591. It was mentioned that this was one of the houses which had been suppOrtcd by Messrs Chappell, and which necessarily stopped payment when their failure was announced. Messrs Chappell had negotiated bills upon Mr Ratliff amounting to 10,4781., and as they held silk of Mr Rutlifi's of the value of 4,66ll., Jhis silk would belong to the holders of these bills, and would be held for equal distribution amongst them. For the difi‘ercnce they would of course rank with the other creditors. Mr Ratliii' had commenced business without any capital of his own, but with some money borrowed from relatives, who now rank with tho unsecured creditors. His deficiency arose as to 1,2001. from Messrs Chappell having overdrawn upon him to that extent, and as to the balance, from losses on the sale of silk during the past two years. An offer 'of a composition of 8s. 6d. in the pound—viz., 8s. at two months, 3s. at four months, and 2s. 6d. at six months—was accepted by the creditors.—Tho unsecured liabilities of Mr W. Perkins, qf Coventry, 'were stated at 6,0801, and assets at 2,8711.', so that the deficiency is 2,2091. Mr Perkins suspended payment in 1861, when he paid his 'creditors a composition of 17s. 6d. in the pound. Since that time he has been supported almost entirely by Messrs Chappell. His failure arose from their suspension, and be attributed his deficiency to his having at his former failure paid a larger dividend than his estate realised. It was resolved to wind-up this estate in bankruptcy unless a composition of 10s. in the pound could be secured to the creditors.
This usu-Ymamr simian or ran Cousoains'rsn BANK was held on Widnesday, Mr T. A. Hankcy in the chair. The net profits 'for the half-year amount to 49,8421, and a dividend was declared at the rate of 10 per cent. per annum, as well as a bonus of ls. per share, both tree of income tax, being together at the rate of 124 per cent. per annum. 18,7821. is carried to the reserved surplus fund from profits, and 1,2171. in premiums on shares, while 1,0761. is carried forward.
Tna Laan Monroaoa BANK or lama held an extraordinary meeting on Wednesday, when the resolution passed on the lltli inst. in favour of the company accepting the agency of the Crédit Foncier of the Island of the Mauritius, and of similar agencies, should they offer, from cognate societies in other parts of the East, was confirmed. There is but one opinion, he added, as to the undertaking returning ‘lar e profits to the shareholders.
as FINANCIAL Coaroaarlon (Lmr'i'an).—~Mr William Francis
Lawrence (Lawrence and Fry) has joined the direction of this cor-
Lliscnanursons.—A special meeting of the National Discount Com-
association—A second call of 121. 10s. is to be paid on the 10,000 new;‘
Feb—A half-yearly meeting of the City of London Brewery C r a
and Savona Railway Company on which the last instalment of 21.,‘
be liable to lbrfeiture.—The statement of the Union Bonk of Ireland
The paid-up capital is 219,405!., and the deposit accounts amount to
146,2811. The preliminary expenses, which will have to be gradually ‘
the shares in the Wed India and Pacific Steam Ship Company
(Limited), by the 24th Feb. It is at the same time notified that “the 1
current year will exceed 51. per share."—A call of 51. is to be paid
upon the shares in the London Bank of Scallnnd (Limited). by tlic‘
21. per share free of income-tax, payable on and after Monday, Feb. 8.—
The Committee of the Stock Exchange have appointed Monday next a:
profit 01 33,1681, being at the rate of nearly 181 per cent. per annum,
and recommend a dividend of 3s. per share for the past six months,
or at the rate ofa little more than 10 per cent. per annum. The whole
of the preliminary expenses, amounting to 4,8831, are to be wriitcn
off, and a balance of nearly 10,0001. will then remain to be carried
forward—At the half-yearly meeting of the London Joint-Stock Bank
months were stated at 80,5731, out of which 61,5001. had been appro
priated to the usual dividend at the rate of12§ per cent. and a bonus of
amounts to 279,759! -'l'lio report of the Ocean Marine Insurance Com
pany, to be presented on the 1st of Feb., states that the balance on the
underwriting account how amounts to 221,1261., and recommends that a
bonus of 105. per share he declared in addition to the usual dividend 015:.
per share, the total amount required for these payments being 30,0001.—
notifying that they are “ now prepared to entertain applications for
TllE FUNDS.—Coasoi.s opened on Monday at 901 for money and closed on Friday at 901.
FRIDAY, FOUR O'CLOCK.
BANK OF ENGLAND-An Account, pursuant to the Act 7th and eth Victoria, cap. 82, for the week ending on Wednesday, the 27th day of Jan., 1864.
issoa nnaa'rlrsirr. Noteslssoed - - - 227,001,010 GoveriimentDobt - $11,015,100 Other Securltios - - - 1,684,900 Gold Coin and Bullion - 12,351,010 Silver Bullion - - - q $77,001,010 l £27,001010
M. MARSHALL, Chic! Cashier. saunas barn-nun.
Jan. 29, 1864.
Jan. 28, 1864. H. MARSHALL, Chief Cashier.