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retained, called into existence in virtue of the principle of absolute solidarity,—-belonging to the United States as an organic whole,-which cannot be divided, which none of its constituent parties can claim as its own, which perish out of its living frame when the wild forces of rebellion tear it limb from limb, and which it must defend, or confess self-government itself a failure.
We are fighting for that Constitution upon which our national existence reprises, now subjected by those who fired the scroll on which it was written from the cannon at Fort Sumter, to all those chances which the necessities of war entail upon every human arrangement, but still the venerable charter of our wide Republic.
We cannot fight for these objects without attacking the one mother cause of all the progeny of lesser antagonisms. Whether we know it or not, whether we mean it or not, we cannot help fighting against the system that has proved the source of all those miseries which the author of the Declaration of Independence trembled to anticipate. And this ought to make us willing to do and to suffer cheerfully; There were Hol Wars of old, in which it was glory enough to die, wars in which t e one aim was to rescue the scpulchre ch rist from the hands of infidels. The sepulchre of Christ is not in Palestine! He rose from that burial place more than eighteen hundred years ago. He is crucified wherever his brothers are slain without cause; he lies buried wherever man, made in his Maker’s imsgc, is entombed in ignorance lest he should learn the rights which his Divine Master gave him! This is our Holy War, and we must fight it against that great General who will bring to it all the powers with which he fought against the Almighty before he was cast down from heaven. He has retained many a cunning advocate to recruit for him; he has bribed many a smooth-tongued preacher to be his chaplain ; he has cage the sordid by their avarice, the timid by their fears, the
rod gate by their love of adventure, and thousands of noblcr natures y motives which we can all understand ; whose delusion wa pity as we ought always to pity the error of those who know not what they do. Against him or for him we are all called upon to declare ourselves. There is no neutrality for any single true-born American. If any neck such a position, the stony finger of Dante’s awful musiiuts them to their place in the antechamber of the Halls of ‘ l n '
'--“with .that ill band
We must use all the rnr-nns which God has put into our hands to serve him against the enemies of civilisation. We must make and keep the great rivar free, whatcvr-r it costs us; it is strapping up the forefoot of the wild, uutstncable rebellion. We rnu~t not be too nic.v in the choice of our agents. Non cyst Mdurs' jeculis,—-no African bayoncts wanted,- was wall enough while we did not yet know the might of thal desperate giant we had to deal with ; but Tron Tyri'usve, -—white or black,—is the safer motto now ; for a good s \Irllr'v, like a good home, cannot beof a bad colour.- The iron-skins, as well as the iron-clads, have already done us noble service, and many ‘a mother will clasp the returning ,boy, many a wife will welcome bark rho war-worn husband, whose smile Would nevi-r again have gl -d'lcrud his hr-rne, but that, cold in the shallow trench of the bultlr -fi' ld, ll- s' the half-buried form of the unchaincd bomlsman Whom-dusky bosom sheaths the bullet which would also have claimed that darling as his country's sacrifice! _ _ .
Even Dr Holmes in that last passngc rather forgets his brotherly love for the poor negro. But we do not misinterpret him ; he means all that is generous, and since the war must be, may the dark records of it that reach Europe he often relieved by such glimpses as this Volume gives us of the noble striving of brave hearts that liesl hidden among its smoke and clnmour.
Edinburgh and its Neighbourhood, Geological and Historical. With The Geology of the Bass Rock. By Hugh Miller. Edinburgh :; A. andC. Black. .
This, the twelfthvolume of Hugh Miller's collected works, and the sixth thnthis widow has given to the worldf’is the last of the series. In a large part of 'it' we have the latest work done by its author; The Geology'of the'Bass' Rock, standing by itself and occupying“ a third of" the" whole volume, is reprinted from a book,‘thc joi'nt'worlt of many hands, published in 1847 ;‘ but: the rest, composed of two lectures read before thePhilosOphica'l Institution, 6f twe
" and the Icelandic gull." Then the sea receded, the former islets appeared as mountain tops, and the intervening depth became dry land, laden with a rank vegetation, the abode of huge elephants, twice as large as the largest existing in Africa or Ceylon, and, with proportionate size, the other animals now found in its company. More than five thousand years ago the last elephant must have died to make room for more modern inhabitants, and at length, as in the reign of David the First, begun in 1135, the district became “ ane gret forrest, full of hartis, hynds, toddis, and sic “like manner of bestis." .
Edinburgh has grown out of three old towns or hamlets. “She had her military centre in the grand old Castle, “ whose first ages are lost in the obscurity of the pre-historio “periods; her ecclesiastical centre in Holyrood, with its “ attendant village of Abbey Hill, and burgh of Canon“ gate; and her commercial centre, of at least five centuries "standing, in the port of Leith.”
It is more than probable that the Castle Hill has formed the site ofa stronghold ever since man took possession of the island. lts fortifications would have at first consisted of a few grassy mounds, topped, like the hillforts of New Zealnnd only an age ago, by lines of palisades; it would then possibly take the second form of fortress, known in Scotland as that of the vitrified fort; and then walls and towers would encircle it, and a town would row up on the sloping talus, almost under its shadow, to shuro in t c protection which it afforded. Every succeeding age would witness new changes; there would be changes in the towers and ramparts, and changes in the gradually growing city below. In the year 1600 Edinburgh was little more than half a mile in length by little more than n quarter of a mile in breadth. It has sinco become what we now seei|,-—a great metropolis, for which man has done much, but nature more.
The ecclesiastical portion of the place grew up long after its military position. At the distance of about three quarters of a mile from the hamlet under the batllcmmis, there rosc far adown the sloping talus, as early as the year 1200, a second hamlet, separated from the first by open fields and thickets of brushwood, and which had grown around the ecclesiastical centre of the place. The old chapel of Holyreod was founded, in fulfilment of a vow by David L, on the spot where he narrowly cscnp~-d being dcsrroyvd by a furious hart at bay. On lhc third day after the cclvbrutlun of the muss, the King, yielding to the solicitations of his young nobles, set forth from the Castle, it is, said, to hunt, notwithstanding the carm-st dissunsions ofa holy canon “ At low, quhen he wos comyn threw the veil that lies to the cist fro the said Casts-ll, quhon- now lyea the Cunnongair, the staill pastthresthe wood with sic noyis and dyn of bHQllllw’ Ihat all the basics wcr I'fllrlt fra tlwir dvnnitl.” The King, Svplll'fllt'tfl from his train, was thrown from his horse, and about to be g~~red by a hurt “ with awful av d branl lyndis,” when a cross slipt into his hands, at the sight of which the hart fled away. And the King was thereafter admonished in a ,visiontn build fllr Abbey on the spot. “The account is curious," remarks Mr Dunii-l \Vilaon, “ as affording a glimpse of the city at that r arly period, contracted within its narrow limits, and encircled by a wild forest."
That extract is taken from a short essay on medioeval Edinburgh, and two or three other re-printod papers from the lVilucss deal with the social history of the city. But. nearly all the interest of the book lies in its geological information, and this is as it should be. A pleasant essayist
N uestra Senora de la Ssbdsd, N uestra Senora del Pilar, Nuestra Senora de Guamatanga, and ten thousand other Our Ladies.
A Chilian woman will not hesitate to say, with perfect conviction, that she is devoted to Nuestra Senora de la Sierra, because she is far more powerful than Nuestra Senora del Carmen, and so on with the rest.
We remember hearing one day in the church of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, at Pilar, a worthy Nacendro praying to God the Father to intorceds for him with Nuestra Senora del Pilar, so as to obtain for him a good harvest!
Novenas are kept and masses ordered for the slightest pretext. If a Chilian lady be deserted by her lover, quick a mass to bring him to her side; if a man wish to avenge himself on one of his fellowmsn, quick 0. mass that his revenge may be carried out!
There is also another way of insuring the protection of any saint, and that is by making a vow. A young man who wishes his beloved lady to give him a meeting, never fails to pledge himself by a vow addressed to San Francisco, or San~ Antonio, to perform some pious deed, if the saint will consent to advise the lady in his favonr. And these practices must not be taken for juggling; the people who accomplish them do so in perfect good faith.
Such is the way in which the Catholic religion is understood in South America.
In all the ex-Spanisb colonies members of the clergy swarm, and we are not afraid of being taxed with exaggeration when we assert that in Chili they form at least one-fourth of the population. Now, the clergy are composed of an infinite number of monks and nuns of every possible form, species, and colour. Franciscans, Bencdictines, Genovevans, Barefooted Carmelites, Brothers of Mercy, Augustines, and many others whose names have escaped us. As will be easily understood, these reli ious communities, owing to their considerable number, are not paid y the Government, whose resources would not nearly suflicc for their support. Hence they are compelled to crcate a thousand trades, each more ingenious than the other, in order to be able to exist.
In those countries—and there will be no diflicully in understanding this—the clergy are excessively tolerant, for the very simple reason that they have need of everybody, and if they committed the mistake of alienating the inhabitants they would die of hunger in a fortnight. It is worth while seeing in Chili the extension given to the trade in indulgences, Agnes Deis, scapularies, blessed crosses, and miraculous images; everything has its price, everything is sold. So much for a prayer—so much for a confession—so much for a mass.
A (Tbilian sets out on a journey, and in order that no accident may happen to him on tho road, he has a mass said. If, in spite of this precaution, he is plundered on the high road by the Ssltendars, ho Clut'B not fail on his return to go to the monk of whom he ordered the mass, and bitterly complain of his want of efficacy. The monk is accustomed to such recriminations, and knows what to answer.
" That dual not surprise me, my son," the Franciscan, or the Benedictine, or whorvcr he may be, as tho ansvvcr is always the same, replies, " what the deuce did you expect to have for a peso? Ah, if you had been willing to pay I. half-ounce, we should have had the handle, the cross, the banner, two choristers and eight candles, and lhen most assuredly nothing would have happened to on ; but how coul-l? you expect the Virgin to put herself out oft 0 way for a peso "
Loon Dclbés, the Smuggler Chief, who is the hero of this story, was by birth a Frenchman. A destitute adventurer in Chili, he saved the life of a half-breed Indian, who became his firm friend, and helped him to organize a band of fifty hold smugglers, ready to secure for Santiago merchants the illicit passage of their silver to the coast and its
delivery on shipboard; ready also for any enterprise to
and a good Christian, Hugh Miller best deserves to be remembered for his thorough study of the world's life before man had any share in it. He is to be remembered also for, his noble, hard working life; and we are glad to learn thati Mrs Miller is now busy, in conjunction with one “com-i “ patent to the task, in telling the story of its latest and, “ busiest years.”
papers prepared for the Royal Physical Society, and of several briefessays collected-from the pages (if the Witness,l is the utterance of Hugh Miller’s latest thoughts on the subjects to which he himself was so' much attached, andl which he knew so well how to' make attractive to othersi " Whilst residing at Portoballo for the last fouryears‘ of “his life," says Mrs-Miller, “ be frequently left his home “about mid-day, and spent his time until late in the evening “ in exploring the shores of Leith,‘and the nearer towns " along the margin of the sen, givinghis exclusive attention " to the formation of the coast lines, and endeavouring to “extract. the secret of the boulder and brick clays.” Out of, these afternoon studies grew-many shrewd and valuable reflections touching the geological history of Edinburgh ground, and of all the localities resembling Win the arrange-4 ment of rock and-soil. The‘hietorygocs back very far inL deed. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of millenniums must have elapsed since the present site of Edinburgh was under water, the dwelling place of subarctic animals and plants, of like nature to those now found 'in the coldest Scandinavian seas, and with its rocksslowly. groovedland‘ furrowed'into their present condition by the long nudisteady action of icebergs and glaciers. Handled by niskilful painter, as our 'author observes, this primitive condition of things Would certainly make an interesting picture. .‘.‘. in front, a solitary group “ of islets, familiar in theirv forms, but strange in all their “ adjuncts, would rise, shaggy with the Soandinaviaaflorn, “over an ice-speckled sea; in the background the blue “Pentlands, snow-streaked at midsummer,-and with the “ glacier gleaming blue in their sloping hollows, would "stretch along the horizon their undulating line ; while in “ the submerged valleys of what is now the Scottish capital, “the whale would blow, and the seal would'raise its round “ black head; and on some drifting sheet of ice the lazy “ morse would lie stretched in the sun, amid the screaming of
premanr the Smuggler Chief as “the most powerful “story which Gustave Aimard has yet written,” and because he considers him here to have paid “ great atten“ tion to‘developing the' character of the heroines,” while heretofore the ladies introduced into ,his works " are too “subordinate,” he is inclined to think that this story "‘ will become a greater favourite with readers than any of “its predecessors." '
The scene of the tale is that Chili to which all minds have been turned this week by the terrible calamity arising from-the inumrfiery associated with the worship of the Virgin. Its' heroine is first introduced as a young nun of the Puri‘ssima Conception, and the story opens in Valparaiso, with an incident at one of the pompous Chilian celebrations of that festival of the Conception which at
Santiago 'will henceforth be an anniversary of mourning in
so many households. Thus M. Aimard, whose story with all its faults‘of extravagance is rich in a manifest truth of local colour, writes what it will interest as now to read of the superstitions and religious ceremonies of the Chilians :
The Catholic religion, which substituted itself for all the rest, has been, and still is, subjected to the action of the temperature of those countries into which it has penetrated, and which it has fecundated.
In Chili it is, so to speak, entirely external. Its wership is composed of numerous festivals, pompously celebrated in churches glittering with light, gold, silver, and precious stones, of interminable processions performed under a rain of flowr-rs, and clouds of incense which burn uninterruptedly. In this country, beloved of the sun, religion is full of love; the ardent hearts that populate it do not trouble themselves at all about theological discussions. They love God, the Virgin, and the Saints with the adoration, self-denial, and impulse which they display in all their actions.
Catholicism is changed with them, though they do not at all suspect it, into a sort of Paganism, which does not account for its existence, although that existence cannot be contested. Thus they tacitly accord the same power to any saint as to deity; and when the majority of them address their prayers to the Vir in, they do not pray to Mary, the Mother of our Saviour, but to gluestra Sonora de los
" a scull of subarctic birds,—the arctic skua, the snow fowl,
Dolores, N uestra Senora del Carmen, N uestra Senora do Guadaloupc,
which they might be led, or on which they might be sent by Leon their captain. In Valparaiso, during procession of the Purissimn Conception, Leon’s horse runs wild and carries him among the nuns, who fly in all directions. One young nun in the path of his horse kneels horror-stricken and awaits her death. But Leon makes the horse leap over her, and falls in love with her upon the spot. The “ develop“ ment of the character" of this heroine, Maria, consistsin making her also fall passionately in love with him, and suffer the usual ngonics. “ She was a delicious creature, “ scarce fifteen years of age, and her face was ravishing,” l&c., but she is to take the veil, according to a Chilinn lcustom, for the benefit of the dowry of her elder sister lines. New Ines and Maria were the daughters of Don lJuan do Dios-Souzn y Soto-Mayor, and the Soto-Mayors, from the first coming of the Spaniards into America, had been deadly focs to the Indians and deadliest in enmity l'through every generation with the Indian family of the lTahi-Maris. Leon’s friend the half-breed turns out to be , the last of the Tobi-Maris. If Maria loves Leon, he shall have her unharmed. Tobi-Mari promises him that, on condition 1 that Leon will help him to work what vengeance he will on ,‘the rest of her family. The “ noble hearted" Smugglcr ‘ Chief consents to this. But he is obliged to break with his friend after all, though the Indian retains a romantic fidelity of friendship for him, notwithstanding that he scalps alive Maria’s father, brutally ravishes her sister (as M. Aimard, in each case, circumstantially sets forth), and gives rise to "sensation" incidents of the most highly seasoned school of French romance, all agonies, ruptures, and electric shocks. Even a drawing-room, richly furnished, is said to contain articles which “ would of themselves have “ absorbed any European fortune, owing to their in“estimahle value.” Leon offers a cigarette of his own rolling to Donna Ines. Her betrothed, Colonel Don Pedro, is jealous, “but at the moment when he was about to “ light the cigarette which he held in his hand, Ines offered “ him the one Leon had given her, and which she had “half smoked, saying—‘Shnll we change, Don Pedro?’ “ The Colonel gladly accepted the exchange proffered to “ him, gave his cigarette to the young lady, and took hers, “ which he smoked with rapture.’ ’ Maria speaks of herself, sent young to the convent, as “a poor creature “ hurled within the walls of this Convent at the tenderest “age.” But at the prospect of a life of love she says, “ they are laughing pictures of an existence of pleasures “ and joys which flash and revolve around me in an infernal “whirlwind.” The Indian who scalped alive, &c., &c., is credited with “ the sublime self-denial of virgin natures.” We owe to the Persians the only true name for this order of literary architecture—Bosh. But with all its French extravagance the Smuggler Chief has interest in its own frantically artificial way, and as we said before, there is some truth of local colouring to recommend the book. ‘ The story of A Young Artist's Life is a novel in one volume not in the least frantic or sensational, and with even less than the usual supply of incident; the slight narrative seeming, in fact, to be little more than a contrivance for the pleasant expression of a certain amount of educated thought. The poor artist, Leonard, excites interest in a liberal amateur, who visits him in his city garret, where he finds lodged under the same roof tWO poor and gentle orphan girls, one of them doomed to die by con-j sumption, their lives vexed by a reprobate brother, and soothed by Leonard's brotherly kindness. A generous Dr Manley is told of their case, and puts them into a cottage of his at Sydenham, where the sick girl dies. Leonard goes to live with an old sailor uncle on the coast of Corn» wall, where he falls in love with, and is fallen in love with‘ by, a young married lady, whose father and middle-aged husband are rich partners in commerce, and whose husband, is abroad. Taken a sea voyage in the yacht of his friend the amateur and art-patron, Leonard learns accidentally that the
husband who stood in his way died on his passage home; 1 “ further, by showing the unity between the power mani-l
the yacht, therefore, speeds back towards England, but on the way there is a collision, and a man overboard. Leonard is the man, and he is drowned. In telling this story the, author has given free play to his mind, and he finds place for many carefully-written passages that might have previously existed in a commonplace book of reflections, or a diary,j and have a fair chance of being copied into angular MS. by‘ some fair gatherer of elegant extracts. There are ancient classical quotations, quoted scraps also from good old English authors, or from the French or Italian classics, and the whole effect is very pleasant, for the substance of the! book is sensible and kindly, and the manner of it that of a‘; thoughtful, well-read gentleman, who writes for recreation! wall enough to amuse others than himself. One chapter, for example, only tells that on a November day the artpatron, wishing to send help to the sick girl, walked across, Hyde park, to his charitable friend Dr Manley, in‘ Grosvenor street. That is the whole action of the chapter, l and it is told by opening with a parallel drawn from rivers; in the East and other meditations upon early recollections,i then Hyde park in November suggests to the writer Hydel park in May, which he describes with due honour to Rotten row ; that done, he describes Hyde park in! November, and through charitable Dr Manley he proceeds lastly to say some things very well upon the subject of 1 charity. The book is elegantly printed, but whether the author did or did not correct the press for him , self, there are misprints that a good printer's reader should not have allowed to pass unnoticed. To cite only one or two, the character of the book makes it impossible that, the author should wilfully have misquoted the poet Gray as Grey, although he might have written Elliott, which we find written for Eliot, Warburton. Certainly, again, it was not the author who, in quoting Bacon's Essays, made nonsense of two sentences by putting a full stop five words too soon, and giving no stop at all where thcl full stop should be in the sentence: “A crowd is not1 “ company, and faces are but masks, and talk is but a; " tinkling cymbal. Where there is no love”—-running those last words of one sentence into the beginning of the next. 1, Anne Cave, the heroine of a novel in three volumes} by Kenner Deene, is a governess, and the romantic story, of her love for an elder son, Robert, hated and plotted“ against by a step-mother, who desires the inheritance for her own elder son, George, a handsome, dissolute Guards-, man, abounds in incident that keeps attention active to the end. It is an orthodox novel of the old school, full of I. unlikely heroine business, but not too extravagant. The step-mother is rather expected to attempt murder, but it. turns out that her game is to fasten on her step-son an old family taint of insanity, and shut him up in a madhouse. ' He is, in fact, seized and ironed, rescued by the heroine in disguise as a gipsy, and finally established happily in all his rights by the honest treasons of an Italian physician.l So he is married to Anne Cave after a swift and complete disenchantment by marriage with an early idol, who dies soon enough to be not at all in the way of the consumy motion which the reader is taught to desire. Anne Cove is, 1 in fact, a clever circulating library volume, very good of its sort, with a story that keeps moving, plenty of characters, some of them well, some of them ill, some of them roughlyi sketched, plenty of scene-shifting and a clear ordering of incidents. The step-mother's own son, George, runs to tell his mamma on divers occasions, in a way peculiar perhaps to himself among dashing life-guardsmen, and the story is advanced too often by the artifice of making somebody overhear something; new little Elsie follows a dog into her mamma’s closet and overhears an; important dialogue, which is repeated to her dear friend and Q
governess; now Elsie lies awake in bed and overhears the ,
dialogue between two lady’s maids; now Anne Care is in bed at an inn with the curtains drawn, and Robert’s mother-in-law and brother George, mistaking the room for George's, come in and hatch villainy against Robert and against herself too, within her hearing; the chambermaid comes at a convenient time to explain the mistake as to the room, and mother and son thereupon quietly depart,\ the heroine, probably, having gone to bed in her balldress and crinoline, so that the room happened to contain no traces of her occupation. Another time Anne is in a cottage and gets out of the way upon the mysterious entrance of Emily and the curate, with whose secrets she thus becomes acquainted; and besides such incidents as these there is a maid, Christine, who has eaves-dropping reckoned among her duties. If we say more of defects we must go on to balance them with merits, for with all its
faults the novel is not bad, and it is certainly not tedious. '-_
Laws of Nature, the Foundation of Morals. By David Rowland, Author of' ‘A Manual of the English Constitution.’ John Murray.
The Analogy of Thought and Nature. Investigated by Edward Vausittart Neale,.M.A. Williams and Norgate.
Small and modest in appearance, these are two very valuable contributions to philosophical literature. Mr Rowland's little book, an extension of one still less, published in 1856, undertakes, as its title implies, to find in the laws of nature " the elementary principles from which “morality springs, and by which the practice -of it is “ enforced upon mankind." Mr Neale treats of mental, not of moral, philosophy, but in the same line of thought. “ The motto of modern science," he says, “ is ‘the corre“latioa of forces;' in other words, the unity of the “ powers which affect our senses. The present investiga“tion is an attempt to carry that conception one step
“ fested in the phenomena of sense, and the power exercised “ in the operations of thought."
That moral philosophy is but a development, in the
\highest provinces of life, of the immutable laws of nature,
is an old dogma, held by thinkers of very opposite character. Grotius urged it, more than two centuries ago, in his ‘ De Jars Belli et Pacis,’ and Hobbes, to' whom Mr Rowland is by no means just in the two pages that he assigns to him, in an altogether different way taught a like doctrine, while Cumberland, setting himself to withstand the arguments of Hobbes, laid the foundation, according to Hallam, “ of the system afterwards taught in our universities, and‘ “ of the books which have had most influence in this “ country,f’ Hutcheson, Paley, Bentham, Austin, and John Stuart Mill being, with wide differences of opinion among themselves, some of his avowed or unconscious disciples. The last-named philosopher, in a masterly treatise published a year ago, laid it down as the basis of his teaching—that is, of Utilitarianisrn uttered in the noblest and most eloquent way possible,--that happiness is the chief end of human action, and therefore the standard of morality, and that this standard is defined by these rules and precepts for human conduct which aim at securing a happy existence. Mr Rowland, on the other hand, urges, and with no- little force of argument, that “ happiness is not theultimate end “ of human action ; for, underlying man’s desire ofhappi¢ “ ness, there are principles deeper in the system of nature, “ and, as deeper principles, they have precedence .to “ happiness in the moral government of God. These “ fundamental principles, again, may be guarded and pro-' “tected by lav/s, to be observed and obeyed as the con-V " ditions on which happiness must be sought, and without “obedience to which it cannot be obtained. If it be so, " then these laws, and not happiness, are the standard of “ morality." ‘
The dignity of these laws is not impaired by their being referred to the nature common to both men and brute's. Both men and brutes find themselves endowed with certain appetites that need to be satisfied. The difference between them is that, while all the humbler animals are ruled by instinct, the last created and noblest has to choose for himself, and is morally responsible for the goodness or badness This moral responsibility is the foundation of ethics. I Out of the primary appetite of man's nature springs the primary law of labour. He needs food as much as do the lower animals; and in a savage state lie can acquire it about as easily,land in ways as rude as they. But as population increases, a more.~elabo‘rate system is necessary, and the institutions of labour, properly'so dulled, and, from it, of property, trade,;-manufaot'urcs, moneysor exchange, and government, arise perforce. ' Out of the other appetite shared by men and brutes springs theinsti; tution of families; and of all these. extensions of__soeial or, domestic ties included in the idea of society. These institutions are necessary to the well-being and happinessof; mankind, but Mr Rowland's argument is, that insteadof being, according to the decline of utility, institutions set up by man himself as means to the obtaining of happiness,they are the essential outgrowth of the-appetites. or involuntary tendencies belougiag; to.,man’s..purely animal nature. ‘ If this, be true of the ,two laws out of which have been constructed the fundamental. institutions of property and marriage, it is also true, as Mr Rowland shows at length, pf twoother laws, not constructive but protective, the one for the protection, of 1human .life, .the other for the productionof truths and-this :being raved, “ the university and ubiquity of the four moral laws of “nature, and the comprehension within their jural cone “ceptions of all the laws which human society requires for its moral government. suggest the. belief, indeed the “fact, as a logical sequence, that the Great Legislator, “ when He repared mankind for receiving those laws into “ their min and hearts and thus enacted them, determined “ that they are sufficient for the moral government of the “ human race in all the relations of life."
We have attempted to show, in a few sentences, the nature of Mr Rowland-’s book, full of noble thoughts well expressed, and much in need of enforcement now-a-days. It would not be possible, within the same limit of space, to give anything like a fair notion of the purport of the other work, whose title we have quoted. Mr Neale’s volume is divided into three parts. The first is explanatory of Hegel’s law of thought, not very intelligible in Mr Neale’s formal definition—to the effect that “ the action of " thought consists in producing a unity of subject and "object through a perpetual process, wherein the subject
“ continually distinguishes itself from itself to form its “own object, setting itself over against itself as the other " of itself, in order to use this other as the means of its "own realization," — but pleasantly illustrated in an orderly examination of the characteristics and conditions, the development and process of thought, inductive and
. deductive, subjective and objective. This is followed by a
very brief but interesting review of the history of thought among the most thinking nations of the world in ancient and modern times. " Greek thought began by asc'ribin , “ reality to the objects of sensation, and sought aprincipli “ of physical unity beneath their variable appearances." By developing this conception, it attained to the opposite " conception, of a spiritual essence manifested through “ these objects and constituting a reality transcending the "shows of sense. With this conception modern European “ thought began. After a series of developments, answeri i" ing step'by step to the older series, and occupying nearly "the same time, it has arrived at the conclusion that this “ spiritual essence implies a sensible body through which “it may manifest itself. In each case the true subject. “ matter of the successive philosophical systems has "been' “ the action of our own thought; " and the result or all, according to Mr Neale, is the verification of that'Hcgelian [law of thought which we have already quoted. The third 'part of the book treats of the relation of thought Aol'tlsi world outside it, to inorganic being and organized ‘llfe, to human intelligence, and to so much as' man can hope tov know of the Divine nature. No part of Mr Neale’s book is altogether satisfactory. Itsraage of subject is” wide for thorough treatment within the short space of his volume, and one is‘disposed to think that, had the volume been larger, the treatment would have been more, hazy. It is too German in its style fully to accord with the blunt straightforward character of English-philosophy. But it is a thoughtful and thought-suggesting booh/ and one worthy of very careful reading. "'
What is Your Name 7 Al Popular Account-10fv the Meanings and Derivations of Christian Names. “By, Sophy Moody, Author of ' The Fairy Trc'e,’ ‘ The Palm Tree,’ &c. Bentley. , ' ' , ‘3
It is unfortunate for Miss Moody’s book, written a year!
.ago, that it has been anticipated in publication by Miss
1 YI-nge's much fuller and more elaborate work, now some'
mix monlhs old. There are many readers, liowever,- to.
whom the short sketch will be more welcome, perhaps more
instructive, than the longer history» Judged by its compeer,‘ it is incomplete and sometimes frivolous; hut‘it abounds“ in Welcome infbrmation given in an interesting-'waypand with just enough anecdote and humorous comment to‘ make it easy r to read and hard to forget. Miss Moody is‘
,mislaken‘if she really sees in such names asChristophsr’
Columbus, signifying Christ bearing dove, and Angela
Burdett Courts, anything prophetic or anything conducive
to the good deeds of their bearers; but‘in these days, when
names almost as ill-sounding and ill-meaning as many quoted by her—Anna Maria Julia Statira Johnson Thomson
Kettleby Randall, and Joyful Moses Lazarus Solomon, for
uhmlere given by the hundred in every year, it is
well that an earnest protest, none the worse for being
a little exaggerated, should Itarwould certainly
be unwise for us tostud , euphouy, and court the favour,
supposed. to come with, _ appy names. asrealausly as did
the parents of the Portuguese princess, ,yet alive, ,who ,was.‘
christened Maria José. Beatrix Joannayh‘nlalié Leo oldins.
Adelaide Isabel Carlotta Michaela. Raphaela‘ abriella
Francisco ,Panla In'ez So his Jopqpiua Theresa Benadieta
Bernardo; but it is well at cohesive?! Should be urged
to choose for their children agraeahlo names, with pleasant
sound and meaning. JThe urgng ofthisoccupiqsscrqe two hundred , seesaw“ If"! Moody's bask ; .tts' remaining han' dred‘or so cantaip‘two lists ,of names, the one arranged according to significationand nation, the other alphabetical.
. Miss Moody finds four broad. classea'of names. Thelfirst‘, havingaeligionserigin, are either the' titles of deities assumed by men. and women, asCymbelise, 10le the Sun, and 1Pbmbe, the Moon, or names relating to the‘lleity, as mmel,\Godir myzstrength, Elisabeth,.a-wmlu'pper of God, Godwin, beloved of. God, md-rAngeliam‘wmesscngcr' frmnGod. lThe second'sre derived from abstract qualities, and signify life, 1 Ambrose, immortal; and Zoe, life; virtue, 188 Simon, .obedimt,.and Anne, endowed with grace ;' long, or, that whichv awakens love, as Edwin, happy, and» Adelinepnobla wife,- uprighraess; as Albert, all bright, and Katharine, spotless,“ sincerity, as Roger,“ sum. of his word, and Gertrude, a maiden frustedandtme; help-giving, as Alexander, a. brave protector, 'and Bridget; mowing; courage, asltichard, valiant, and Matilda, brave; wisdom, as Gregory, 's'igilant, and Sophia, wisdom;- ‘pow'er, 'ao' Henry, amighfy lord, and-Magdalene, magnificent,- gentle-‘ sees, as Solomon, Peace, andMildl-ed, sweet spoken ,- grace,as Rebekah. one who draws; and- joy or good fortune, as Isaac, laughter, and Edith, blessed. The third class of names owe their origin - to personal characteristics, and signify either beauty or youth, as Naomi, beasufid room; plexion, as Maurice, dork compleximed, and Blanche, white,- or personal defect,- as Claude, lame. The fourth class is a miscellaneous heap, referring chiefly to animals, plants, and places, a Nimrod, a leopard, and Penelope, a silent worker. This classification is far from complete, and here and there its details are erroneous ; but on the whole the book in very carefully written, and there is no lack in it of interesting matter. '
BOOKS OF THE WEEK.
124.) Saunders, Olley, and Co.
Tunonoor.—‘Enghsh Biblical Criticism and the Pentateuch, from a German Point of View.' By John Muehlcisen-Arnold, B.D., Hon. Sec. to the Moslem Mission Society. (Bro, pp. 181.) Longman and Co. —‘Pslmoni; or, the Numerals of Scripture a Proof of Inspiration.‘ A Free Inquiry. By M. Mahan, D.D., St Mark's-ln-the-Bowery, Professor of Ecclesiastical Histo in the General Theological Seminary. (Poet 8vo, pp. 176.) New Yolk: Appleton and Co.-—‘Brokeu Lights: an Inquitg into the Present Condition and Future Prospects of Religious Faith.’ y Frances Power Cobbe, Author of an ‘Essay on Intuitive Morals,’ &c. (Fcap. Bvo, p . 192.) 'l‘riibner and Co.-—‘Reasou and Revelation.’ By Robert S. Candlish, D.D., Principal of the New Collegs, and Senior Pastor of Free St George's, Edinburgh. (Post Svo, pp. 186.) Nelson and Sons.
Enucarron.—-‘An Elementary Grammar of the Greek Language: containing a Series of Greek and English Exercises for Translation, with the requisite Vocabularies, and an Appendix on the Homeric Verso and Dialect, by Dr Raphael Kiihner, co-Rectorof the Lyceum, Hanover. Translated by S. H. Taylor, LLD. A New Edition, Revised and Edited, with numerous emendations and additions, including upwards of a Thousand Examination Questions, by Charles IV. Batemau, LL.B., sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Dublin. (Fcap. Bvo, p . 663.) Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Dublin: Kelly.—‘The Aldine Wir il.‘ Virgil the 1Eneid. Books I to XII, complete with English Notes, .x
lanatory and Critical. The first six Books by Robert Campbell, Esq,
ead Master of the High School. Waterford; and Books VII to XII, with a Mctrical Analysis of the Eneid, by Roscoe Mongan, A.B., exClassical Scholar, Trinity College, Dublin. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 8'21.) Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Dublin: Kelly.--'A Handbook of Rhetoric, for Schools and Private Students: based on the Works of Stirling and Holmes.‘ Revised and Enlarged by the Rev. Professor Barry, of Allhallows' College. (Fcap. Svo, pp. 81.) Dublin: Kelly.
Essars.—‘ Soundings from the Atlantic.’ By Oliver Wendell Holmes. gl’o‘st Bvo, pp. 468.) Low, Son, and Manton. Boston: Tickuor and
The ‘ Hundred MerryThles,’ out ofwhich Shakespeare‘s Beatrice heard it; said that she had her good wit, was a lost book till the unique fragment of it, now extant, entitled ‘ A. 0. Mary Talys,’ Was picked up by the Rev. J. J. Conybeam at an old bookstall. The leaves of'more than one copy of the once popular book, first printed as a folio of twentyfour leaves, about"l525, by John Rastell, were used by a binder when the book was new as material- for the pasteboard of another volume. In that state Mr Conybeare recovered to literature the fragments of the jest~book to which Shakespeare so "familiarly referred. It Was reprinted at various times in the 16th century, but the copy thus partially rescued was the only one extant till it was reprinted some years ago, togethcrwith the ‘Mery Tales and Quicke Answeres,’ for private circulation by the late Mr Singer. Of the ‘Mery Tales and Quicke Answeres’ only two old copies are extant, one printed about 1535 in 4to by Thomas Berthelet, containing 114 anecdotes, the other in 12am, printed in 1567, by Henry Wykes, and containing twenty-six new stories. These old jest and story-books of the people are now reprinted and for the first time illustrated with notes as an elegant little volume, published this week, and having Mr W. Carew Hazlitt, a scholar well acquainted with old English literature, for its editor. It may be worth while again to remind our readers that in this place we only tell what the new books look like, and what they profess to contain, reserving criticism except in the case of a few works that can be read quickly and admit of a decision on their merits both immediate and brief. We shall speak critically of this volume of Shakespeare jest-books in the series of notices for which we have been reserving the whole body of recent Shakespeare literature.
Mr Christopher James Riethmiiller, whose poem on the Germanic Race and Life of Frederick Lucas have established for him the character of a refined and thoughtful writer, now sketches the story of the ‘ Rise of the American Constitution,’ in connexion with the life and opinions of Alexander Hamilton; “ the remarkable man,” says Mr Riethmiiller in his preface, “who did the most to call it “ into existence and to bring it into working order, while
“ he foresaw its dangers from the beginning, and laboured 1 “ incessantly to guard against them.” “ In the career of “ Hamilton,” he adds, “ we trace the progress of the Con" stitution, from its first germ in the mind of the young , “ soldier, through all the difficulties of its establishment, “and the trials of its early years, until its administration .“ passes from the control of its authors, to fall into the “hands of the champions of an absolute Democracy. But, “ apart from all political speculations, the story of Hamilton “ himself, his character, his service, and his fate, are well “ worthy of record, and ought to be better known than “ they have been—especially in that England which he “ understood with the instinct of genius, and loved with the " enthusiasm of a high and generous nature."
The two octave volumes by Dr Thomas Nichols, entitled ‘ Forty Years of American Life,’ consist of sketches of different; t0wns and districts in the United States, of American institutions, and of points of American character and customs, all serving as contemporary evidence to help Englishmen to the understanding of the present Civil War.
A sketch of the proceedings in relation to the Alexandra, and the question of the Liverpool Rams, is given from the point of view that best satisfies the Liverpool shipbuilders, in the publication of this week on ‘ The Foreign Enlistment Acts of England and America.’
Towards our own Colenso war, Mr John Muehleisen Arnold contributes, as a German in England, trained at German Universities and holding a German degree that qualifies him for office as a German divinity Professor, his own view of “ English Biblical Criticism, and the “ Pentateuch." His opinion is that “if there be no history “ there can be no truth in the Pentateuch,” and that “ the “ historical veracity of the Pcntatcuch is so intimately “connected with the Gospel, that both must. stand or “ fall together." Here we may point out that among the pamphlets of the week is a duodecimo of 405 closelyprinted pages of doctrine and argument, containing all that was set forth by the accusingjudges at the nominal trial of Dr Colenso before the Bishop of Cape Town. Dr Mahan’s Palmoni explains its purpose in its second title “ The “ Numerals of Scripture aI’roof of Inspiration," audits name in its motto: “He created Wisdom and saw her and “ numbered her, and poured her upon all His works. Why “ else is He styled Paurosr (Dan. viii, 13) which is “ rendered in the margin of our English Bibles, The “ Numberer of Secrets, or. The Wonderful Numberer. “ Bibliotheca Biblica, iv, p. 8." Another theological book of the week, the ‘Broken Lights’ of Miss Frances Power Cobbe, sets forth as the three fundamental canons of the Faith of the Future the Absolute Goodness of God, the Final Salvation of Every Human Soul, and the Divine Authority of Conscience, and looks for the development of this faith not to dogmas, but to prayerful advancement in a life of sympathy and labour, with complctcr acceptance of the fundamental duties, love to God and Man. Dr Candlish’s ‘ Reason and Revelation' is a reprint with a controversial preface, in which the author replies to strictures on his consistency made by Dr Colenso, and to impressions of his views expressed in the Duke of Argyll’s speech at Glasgow on the 11th of last January.
A new edition of Dr S. H. Taylor's ‘ Translation of Kiihner's Greek Grammar,’ a new School zEneid, and a small ‘Hsndbook of Rhetoric’ explained in rhymes and illustrated with examples, are the educational books of the week. >
Of, Dr Oliver Wendell Holmes’s ‘Soundings from the Atlantic’ we have spoken in another column.
The one new novel is Philip Wharton’s ‘ Heart or Head.’
The Art-Union of London has issued among books of the week its handsome volume of Coleridge's ‘ Ancient Mariner,’ with Mr Noel Paton’s Illustrations, the guinea's worth of art prepared for the subscribers of the current year. We shall speak fully of this work, for it seems to. us the best fruit we have yet had of Ir l’aton’s genius, and forms a volume immeasurubl better than the Art. Union's prize illustrations to the ‘Idylls of the King.’ We shall speak separately also of the Fine Arts Quarterly Review, of which an excellent third number has this week been published. The February number of the Art Jmtrnal contains a steel engraving from the popular statue of the ‘Reading Girl,’ and is otherwise particularly rich in text and pictures.
' The movements of the Russian troops in the palatinatc of Cracow, in compliance with orders from St Petershurg, to surround and crash the corps of General Bosnk, have been without result, and only gave the Poles an opportunity of gaining several victories. Colonel Suchonin, the Russian officer in command during the engagement with Rcmhajlo, on the 17th January, hos died of his wounds. The bands under Lewiscki, Marecki, and Gozdawa are now operating between the rivers Bog and Wiepra ; Wroblewski’s cor s has gone into the interior, where it has been joined by that of 'omorowski, now under Roditnicki ; and Szydlowski, utter an expedition to the Galiciuu frontier, has returned into the interior ofthe polatinnte of Lublin. Do the 14th Mareclri, with about three hundred infantry and cavalry, was attacked by the Russians while encamped in the woods near Wola Skromowska. Though taken by surprise, the Poles formed in line, and, after beating back the enemy, retired to the village of Pozarow. Here they were again attacked, and the Russians received a second repulse, ttte Poles continuing their march to the village of Tarkowice, where a third engagement took place, and the Russians finally abandoned the pursuit. Letters from Lithuania state that, on the 12th Jun. Alexander Kuczewski was hanged at Szawlo. On the 21st Mouravicff issued a decree ordering schools to be erected only in the vicinity of Greek churches; and the Greek prelate, Siemiaszko, has directed the Russian popes to take particular care that the people of Lithuania should pray out of Russian prayer-books. Any neglect of tho fulfilment ot the rites of the Greek Church by the Catholic population of Lithuania is to be severely punished. ' Caaoow, Feb. 8.—The news that the Russian authorities had
‘ who has in vain challenged inquiry into and
discovered traces of the National Government in Warsaw reduces itself to this. A boy was arrested having in his possession fourteen copies of a notice from the town captain advising persons not to be present at the ball of the General Ritkowski. A piece of paper was also found on the boy, on which were written fourteen initials, probably of the names of the persons to whom the notices were addressed. After being bastinadoed, the boy confessed the full names of those persons, who were thereupon arrested. The Russians have definitively failed in their attempts to surround and destroy Bosak. Colonel Sucltonin has been wounded. Rembajlo is dead.
Baum—The Brazilian Chambers were opened on the 1st of January. The following are the principal passages of the speech delivered by the Emperor on the occasion. I feel it my duty to communicato to you that our diplomatic relations with Great Britain are interrupted. The Brazilian Government was with regret forced to this resolve, as the British Government had refused to give us the satisfaction and indemnity demanded on account of the conflict with the Legation at this Court. His Majesty the King of the Belgians, to whose arbitration one of the questions respecting that conflict had been submitted, was pleased to decide that in the execution of the Brazilian laws on the officers of the frigate Forte there was no premeditated offence, neither was there any offence to the British navy. The Government of his Most Fuithlul Majesty offered its mediation in order that the diplomatic relations between Brazil and Great Britain might be renewed. Much as the Brazilian Government might and do wish the successful issue ofso benevolent a proof of friendship and interest, it could not take advantage of that noble and valid offer so long as there did not exist on the part of the British Government any explicit acceptance of that offer. Our friendly relations with all other Powers continue unaltered.
Tnn Coon-r or Pnona'rs. arm Divoncn has been engaged twice this week with the case 0t O’Kane v. O'Kanc and Palmerston. On Tuesday Mr Wells, the petitioner's solicitor, presented an affidavit, sworn by himself, of a very extraordinary character, referring to pretended "ncgotiations for a settlement of the cause," alleging his belief that “ the petitioner had a good case on the merits," but followed by a letter from O'Kanc himself, instructing him to drop the suit. This letter is worth giving. It was in these words :
"47 Moorgute street, City, Jan. 16, 1864.—Myselfv. Palmerston and O’Kane.-—-Dear Sir,-Yielding to the advice of my friends, I have decided to drop the above suit; and I hereby instruct you to stay all further proceedings. I adopt this course solely for the sake of my young children, and not from any inability to establish the allegations contained in my petition, or to prosecute the suit to a successful conclusion, as the letters I submitted to you, and the other evidence laid before you, offered primaflzcl'e every probability of success. On these letters and correspondence, fortified by the opinion of counsel, you undertook the suit by my instructions, and I feel perfectly satisfied with your professional conduct as well as that of your managing clerk, Mr Weston, who were not deterred from undertaking the just cause by the frantic bowl of a venial and corrupt press—the cause of right against might. I beg to girls the most emphatic contradiction to the assertion made by some of the London and other papers, that I was in the employment of either of you—my own resources and those of my friends having enabled me to live independent of such aid. I was lawfully married to my wife, the respondent in this suit, by a Catholic priest regularly ordained, and acting with full jurisdiction, and celebrating the marriage with all the rites and essential formalities of the Catholic church. This could have been satisfactorily proved had the case gone into Court. As to the alleged acts of adultery the correspondence and other evidence would leave no doubt had the case one before a jury. I am, yours truly, (Signed) “ . J. O'Kaul." Mr Horsley, the respondent’s solicitor, also filed an affidavit stating that no compromise of the petition had emanated. directly or indirectly, from himself or had been sanctioned by Mrs O‘Kune, and after a long discussion on account of certain formalities, the case stood over till Thursday, when the Court dealt with the whole case. That Lord Palmerston had not consented to any compromise, was shown by the following singular conversation between the petitioner's counsel and the learned Judge :—Mr Browne : The letter of my client (O’Kane) to his attorney is a confirmation of the statement that there was no complicity between the parties in the arrangement of the suit.-—Tho Judge Ordinary : What do you mean by “ arangcment?" The Court has nothing before it to lead to the conclusion that there was any arrangement. If there was, you had better state it.—-Mr Browne: There is an allegation that there was an arrangement, but not one between the parties.—The Judge Ordinary: What is the meaning of an arrangement not between the parties ?—Mr Browne : It may have been made with third parties—The Judge Ordinary: Oh, is that the meaning?— You mean that your client made an arrangement with some other party that the suit should not go on ?—Mr Browne : Yea—The Judge: That is a very improper mode of speaking of it. A term should not be used which would lead any one to suppose that it was an arrangement between the parties to the suit—Mr Browne: I have all along disclaimed anything of that kind.—The Judge Ordi then said : The result is that the suit must be dismissed. The etttioner came into court with his complaint and he now retires from It without any I'mlmtation upon either of the other parties to the sail, and without a suggestion of an arrangement between himself and either of them, on grounds best known to himself, and in consequence of what he by his counsel calls an arrangement with his friends. It is no doubt much to be regretted that a man should be able to attack the character of a woman whom he calls his wife, and to hold her up to public censure without cause. Owing to the publicity which happily attends every case in our courts, that evil is unfortunately aggravated, but the remedy is to be found in the same publicity. The chastity of the respondent, roof of the charges against her, has received no tarnish from this or cal; and as for the petitioner, he retires from the suit with the evil words still upon his lips, and will probably meet with the censure of some and with tho contempt of many. The Court cannot part with this suit without one word respecting the co-rcspondent. It is a matter of great satisfaction to the Court that a name never mentioned in England without just pride should have passed from its annals without a stain. His lordship nttered these words with great emphasis, and they were followed by expressions of applause from the persons who crowded the court. Later in the day Mr D. Seymour said he had omitted to ask for 005b, and he understood that a formal order was necessary. The Judge Ordinary : Certainly. The man who has presented a petition to this Court and has voluntarily abandoned it ought to pay the costs. The petition is accordingly dismissed.
The Parliamentary Session of 1864 promises to be one of great interest, and, contemplated together with the expected return of her Majesty from her protracted retirement, u brilliantseason is anticipated. Families who are returning to town and intend refurnisbing and decorating their residences should pay an early visit to the immense show-rooms of Nosotti's decorating, carving and gilding, and lookingglass manufactory, 398, 399, and 399a Oxford street, where may be inspected a magnificent stock of gilt furniture and glasses, and a new gallery of decoration most artistically and exquisitely finished, containing some superb specimens of this work, for which Mr Nosotti's
hence is in so much repute.
Advices from New York to the 23rd ult. state that all is quiet in General Meade's army. Descrters from the Confederates continue to come in, and it is said that General Lee has doubled his line of pickets to prevent desertions from his army, in consequence of the effect of Lincoln’s amnesty proclamation among his troops. The Washington Government is taking measures to get that document more generally circulated at the South. The Confederate cavalry encounter a serious difliculty in the scarcity of forage.
There is nothing further from Chattanooga or Knoxville. General Schofield has been ordered to the latter place to supersede General Foster, who retires on account of ill health. There are rumours of heavy reinforcements having reached Longstreet, but they can be traced to no reliable source.
Advices from Texas to the 6th of January state that the 13th Maine Regiment disembarked on the Matagorda peninsula, driving in the Confederate pickets, who were soon supported by about 1,000 cavalry. The Federals fell back to the cover of a range of sand hills, and, aided by the gunboat Gmm'le Slate, succeeded in repulsing several attacks of the enemy, who finally retreated at dark. The Federal troops then embarked for operations elsewhere. The Confederate gunboat John St Carr was burned, to prevent her falling into Federal hands. The Confederates are reported to have four “ cotton clads" in Matagorda Bay, and General Magruder promises the people that they shall soon have a repetition of the Galveston affair. The coast is strongly fortified by the Confederates, and they have formidable works at the mouth of the Brazos River.
In the Maryland House of Delegates, on the 22nd, resolutions were ofi'ered endorsing the administration of Abraham Lincoln, and re~ nominating him for the presidency. The resolutions were adopted. A disloynl resolution, denouncing the administration, was laid over. Mr Murphy, of Baltimore, submitted a resolution providing for the expulsion of any member using disloyal language. The Speaker doclarcd this resolution out of order.
The Diplomatic Correspondence with England.
The correspondence was laid before Congress on the 20th ult. The following is a summary ofits contents:
In April last Mr Seward requested Mr Adams to inform Earl Russell that the negotiation of a Confederate loan brings to an end all concessions made by the Federal Government for mitigating the rigour of the blockade in regard to the shipping of tobacco or cotton, nor will the Federal Government respect the title of any person, whether acitizen of the United States or a subject of a foreign Power, to cotton or merchandise, when such title is derived through insurgent authority, or agents hostile to the United States. Such proceedings as a negotiation of this loan have come to be regarded by the people and the Government in America as tending to complicate the relations of both countries in such a manner as to render it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain and preserve friendship between both countries.
In July Mr Seward, referring to the Alclandra decision, writes Mr Adams that if British law must be left without amendment and be construed by the Government in accordance with the rulings of the Chief Baron, there will be left for the United States no alternative but to protect themselves and commerce against armed cruisers proceeding from British ports as against the naval officers of the public enemy. They will also claim and insist upon indemnities forinjuries committed by such expeditions. 1f the Federal naval force is not sufficient for the emergency, the United States must employ a printe armed force afforded by the mercantile marine. As these pimicnl vessels are received in British ports to obtain supplies and land prisoners, can it be an occasion for surprise or complaint that, if this condition of things receives the deliberate sanction of the British Government, the Federal navy will receive instructions to pursue these enemies into the ports which thus, in violation of the law of nations and the obligations of neutrality, become harbours for pirates. The President perceives the risk such a naval conflict will bring to commerce and even the peace of both countries, but he is obliged to consider that, in the case supposed, the dcstruction of American commerce will probably amount to a naval war waged by a portion of the British nation against the Government and people of America-a war tolerated, though not declared or avowed, by the British Government. If, through the employment of such means of national defence, such partial war shall become a general one between both nations, the President thinks the responsibility of that result will not fall on the United States. It il not the President’s purpose to resort to the measures of defence referred to, unless they shall be rendered necessary by the final decision of the British Government that it cannot and will not interfere to restrain the hostilities now apprehended. This is not written in aspirit of demonstration, as it is well understood that the British Government is the last .in the world to yield to vchemence that which cannot be conceded in equity or justice; so, on the other hand, it should be understood that the United States, if they could ever be presumptuous, are sufficiently chastened by civil war to seek peace and friendship with all nations through any concession compatible with the interests of the national life and honour. In April last Earl Russell requests Mr Adams not to repeat complaints about British subjects entering the Confederate service, unless he can prove that all British subjects 1n the Federal service have been discharged, and orders given not to
In september Earl Russell, in a letter to Mr Adams, disclaims all responsibllity of the British Government in regard to the proceedings of the Akrbama or any other Confederate cruiser, and trusts that Mr Adams Will not again be instructed to put forward claims which the British Government cannot admit to be founded on grounds of law or
Justice. Mr Seward writes Mr Adams that the Navy Department has not any vessels that can be spared from Charleston adequate to resist those rams which may be expected to attack New York, Boston, Portland, Charloston. or New Orleans. “ Can the British Government (says Mr Seward) suppose that such an assault can be made with British built, armed, and manned vessels without arousing the whole American nation, and rendering a retaliatory war inevitable? The political debates throughout the country show that the United States would now accept an unprovoked foreign war with more unanimity and cheerfuluess than at any former period. The nation, after two years war, has overcome the sense of fear, while‘ its temper is highly excitive. It believes there are no limits to its ultimate ability of selfdefence. For the interests of both countries I hope no blow will fall from the hands of British statesmen which will render peace impossible." After the detention of the rams, Mr Seward requests Mr Adams to inform Earl Russell that the Federal Government will hereafter hold itself obliged with even more cause than heretofore to endeavour to conduct its intercourse with England so that the civil war, when terminated, will leave to neither nation any permanent cause for discontent. - in October Mr Seward writes to Mr Adams that the United States ment, and must continue to insist, that the British Government is responsible for the damages which American citizens sustain by the Alabuma’s deprcdntions, and Mr Seward cannot instruct Mr Adams to rcffam from pressing the claims he has in his hands referring to Mr Laird s rams.
On Mexican affairs Mr Seward wrote to that the United States held in regard to Me towards all nations. They have,
Mr Dayton in September ' xico the same principles as he said, neither the right nor the
disposition to intervene forcibly in Mexican affairs, whether to establish a re ublican or domestic government, or to overthrow an imperial or foreign government. The United States' practice in regard to Mexico is non-intervention, which they require all foreign Powers to observe in regard to the United States. Notwithstanding this self-restraint, the United States knows well that the internal normal opinion of Mexico favours republican government. The United States do not deny that in their opinion their own safety and the destiny to which they aspire are ultimately dependent upon the continuance of republican institutions throughout America. These opinions are submitted as worthy of the Emperor‘s consideration in determining how he would conduct and close what might prove a successful war in Mexico. If France adopted a policy in Mexico adverse to American opinions and sentiments, that policy would scatter seed fruitful of jealousies which might ultimately ripen into a collision between France and the United States and other American Republics.
In October, referring to an intimation of M. Dronyn de Lhnys that an early acknowledgment of the Mexican Empire by the United States would be convenient to France, Mr Seward writes : The United States are of opinion that the permanent establishment of a monarchical government will be found neither desirable nor easy. The United States continue to regard Mexico as the theatre ofa war which has not yet ended in the subversion of the government long existing there, therefore the United States are not at liberty to consider the question of recognising a government which in the further chances of war may come into its place. The United States cannot do otherwise than leave the destinies of Mexico in the keeping of her own people, and recognise their sovereignty and independence in whatever form they themselves shall choose that this sovereignty and independence shall be manifested. In December Mr Seward writes to the American Minister in Mexico: No contingency is now anticipated in which you will be expected to address yourself to any other government than that to which you are accredited.
WAR IN DENMARK.
0n the morning of the 31st nlt., Field-Marshal von Wrangel sent a desputch to General de Meza, the Danish Commander-in-Chief, demanding the immediate evacuation of Slesvig by the Danish troops. General de Moss, in reply, stated that the orders of his Government were totally at variance with such a demand, and that he was ready to resist any act of violence by force of arms. A proclamation to the pervilo of Slesvig was then issued by von Wrangel, in which be said: “ e come to protect your rights. The Civil Commissioners of Austria and Prussia will assume the administration of the dachy of Slosvig, and you will follow their orders." The proclamation con-‘ cluded by advising the inhabitants to abstain from any party agitation, which would not be suffered by the Commander-in-Chief, in the interest of the Slesvigers themselves. As the immediate consequence of these pourparlers, the Prussian and Austrian forces commenced hostilities on the let inst. The former crossed the Eider into Slesvig, in the direction of Gottorp and Eckernfo'rde. The Austrians entered the Kronenwcrk at Rendsburg, and the Danes retired from it, after a slight skirmish between the outposts, and took up a position on‘the Slei and occupied the works of Missunde. - ‘ l '
SLISVIG. Feb. 4, 1 p.m.—The attack was contiunedto-day without making much impression on any part of the Danish line. Grenades fall on this side, and one has fallen into the town. The King has left this place. _ '
2 p.m.—The firing has now ceased. -I 'l'
Baffle before Missiindc. '
On the morning ofthe 2nd, a severe engagement took place in front of the strong position of Missuude. The attack was begun at 10 am. and lasted six hours. Nothwithstanding repeated assaults, all the works remained in pessession of the Danish troops.
The following particulars of the battle and subsequent military operations have been received by telegraph: f
Paussiax Hmo-Quamsas, Feb. 3.—-Prince Frederick Charles 0 Prussia employed seventy-four guns in the attack upon Missnnde yesterday. His Royal Highness was convinced that the Danes will oppose serious resistance to the Austrian and Prussian advance. There were nearly 100 killed and wounded in yesterday’s engagement. The troops behaved with great velour. The vanguard and the 11th Infantry Brigade were under fire. Missunde was in flames.“ ‘ ' ' 1‘
Cornnnaoas, Feb. 3.—The attacks on Missnnde yesterday wer made by 9,000 Prussian troops and two batteries of artillery. The Danish force consisted of nine companies of infantry and two squadrons of dragoons, in all about 2,000 men. The Prussians madetwopttachs, but were repulsed. They at first left their dead and wounded on the field, but the greater pert were subsequently'remdved.. The Danish loss was from 150 to 200, including three oflieers» killed” andhfour wounded. The river Slei is free from ice. ..m 1!. a )1?!
Rnsnaauao, Feb. 3.—.The Danish. prisoners taken-in the attack upon Missunde were brought in here yesterda afternoon. The cannonading of Missuude was continued to-day. The Prussian regiments who were principally engaged yesterday have been ordered to rest to-"
day. The loss of the Prussians up to theipvcsent is fronl‘200 to 800 '
killed and severely wounded, including many time!!!” 1 HI' ivl 'r‘
KIEL, Feb. 3.—The loss of the Prussians in the attackupoaMiss made is estimated at 150 killed and wounded. The Prussians have retired to Eckemfo'rde. Rain 'has set in. In the engagementqncar Missundo yesterday the Danes maintained a heavy cannonade from their forts against the storming parties of German infantry. ‘Tha'loal of the latter is estimated at 100 men, amonl Whom are several superior officers. The Danes continue the cannonade to-dly. The. Prussians have brought heavy artillery to the front. ‘ Boats are ready for the transport of troops over the Slei. The King and ‘the Crown Prince of Denmark, accompanied by Bishop -Monrad,*—nnexpectedly arrived in Flensburg yesterday, and immediately left for the Danewirke. They were expected to return to Flenshurg the same evening. During theirlstay in Flensburg the King and his suite will takrup their residence at the Busch Hotel. v . - -' .
Stssvic, Feb. 3.--To-dny, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the Austrians attacked the positions of Bustorf, one English mile south of Slesvig. The Danes held their ground. 'l'here was sharp firing until after dark. The King walked towards the outposts. No casualties are known. The Danes lost one field-piece.
The Danish forces engaged in the field to-day were the 2nd battalion of the lst Regiment, the 9th. 11th, and 7th Regiments of Infantry, and the 11th Buttery of Artillery. The Danes lost one gun. The Daniin loss in soldiers and officers was not unimportant. Seine prisoners were made. The outposts of the Prussian army are at Kongshor, near Vodelspange. Field-Marshal von Wrangel's headquarters are at Kropp.
Feb. 4, 4 p.m.—The Germans attacked the outposts of Battery No. 12 in the Dannewcrk. There was random firing all along theline in the morning. The afternoon was quiet. The Gemmns are posted at Fartorp, across the Slei, exchanging shots against the island-fort Muwcnburg. One shell almost reached Slasvig. The town is barricaded against a coup de main. The King has left Slesvig, probably for Flcnsburg.
Coraxuacsa‘, Feb. 4.-—The Berlingsks Tidemba of this morning publishes the following account of the events of yesterday at the theatre of war: The day before yesterday our troops engaged the Prussians, yesterday the Austrians. The engagement of yesterday
points to an approaching general attack, but was attended with no less good fortune to our arms than that ofthe previous day. Our de-patch is dated from Slesvig. Feb. 3, 8.15 p.m. “ From half- ast three this afternoon the Austrians attacked the position of the annewirke at Bustorf. Artillery and columns of infantry advanced against Haddcly. Towards dark the enemy withdrew, leaving a few prisoners in our hands. Later in the evening firing recommenced, but ceased fora time. The King, with one of his aides-de-camp and the President of the Council, inspected the works at Missunde in the foreuoon. Upon his return his Majesty heard the firing at Bustorf, and witnessed the retreat of the enemy from the extreme point of the Bustorf works.”
Bananas, Feb. 4.—An engagement is expected tcwday between Missunde and Jags]. The Austrians csunonadsd Jagel yesterday. Preparations are completed for throwing a bridge across the Slei. Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia is said to be wounded in the arm. The Prussian losses at the attack u n Missunde were considerable. Many officers Were among the woun ed, and one company alone had 130 men killed and wounded.
Bream, Feb. 4.—-'l‘he following despatch has been received from F laid-Marshal von Wrangel, dated Prussian head-quarters, at Dameudorf. Sleavig, Feb. 4: " The Austrian vanguard, led by General von Gablenz in person, with the vanguard of the Prussian division of the Guards, advanced against Slssvig yesterday. At the third charge with the bayonet the Goudreconrt Brigade repulsed the Danes posted between Lottorf and Geltorp, and stunned Konigsberg and Oberselk. The attacking force captured a rifled gun, and advanced till they came beneath the fire of the cannon arming the Danuewcrk. The losses were not inconsiderable."
Convocation of the Rigsmad.
At Copenhagen, on the 80th ult., the President of the Council announced the speedy assembly of the Rigsraad. He said: “The best proof of the policy pursued b Prussia is afforded by the following fact;—-Herr von Bismarck tel Denmark Prussia takes Slcsvig as a pledge to compel the fulfilment of the agreements of 1851-52. On the other hand, he tells the Prussian Chambers that in taking possession of that pledge. Prussia pursues plans calculated to overthrow those agreements." The provisional law for the convocation of the Rigsraad contains the following passage: “As circumstances may perhaps render an earlier assembly of the Rigsraad necessary than is provided for by the electoral law. the elections to the Folksthiug are to take place upon the 5th of March, and tothe Lnndsthing upon the 29th of March next.” > A provisional law was published on the 1st inst., enabling the accelerated assembly of the Rigsrand. A royal patent was issued at the same time, ordering the elections to the ltigsraad. King Christian, accompanied by the President of the Council, left to join the army at midnight. Large crowds assembled at the railway station to witness the King's departure. His Majesty was continuously and enthusiastically cheered.
I a The Amtro-Pmssz'an Ultimatmn.
The following are the terms of the ultimatum addressed to Denmark by Austria and Prussia on the 30th. ult.: The Governments of Austria and Prussia had hoped that the joint constitution for Denmark and Sleavig,sanetioned~on.tbe 18th of November of last year by his Majesty King Christian IX., and which was to come into operation on the 1st January, 1804; would ere'this have been annulled. Thar hope has not been fulfilled. 0n the 1st of January of this year tbls constitution came'into force and thereby the incorporation of' Slesvi was consummated. The Bbyal'Danish Government has thus nndou tedly broken the engagements which it entered into in the year 1852 towards the German Diet, and especially towards the two German ers, and has called forth a state of affairs which cannot be consider in accordance with treaty stipulations. The two powers are, in consequence of the attitude they took up during those negotiations (the result of which was approved of; on their recommendation, by the German Diet) in duty bound, both to themselves and the German Confederation. not to allow Inch a state of things. 'They address, therefore, once more to the Royal Danish Government an express demand to withdraw the constitution of the 18th of November, l863, which does not rest on any just basis, and thereby at least to re-esrablish the status quo, as being the necessary condition for all further negotiations. Should the Royal Danish Governmentv not comply with this demand, the two powers Would find tliemsclves‘co'mpelled tospply the means at their disposal to ro-establiah the status goo and to, secure the duch y of Slesvig against the unjust incorporation with the kingdom of . Denmark. The undersigned, hitherto ambassadors of 'the- two powuw-altbough'not formally accredited, in this case acting by ilpedll order their Governments, have been instructed “demand the,I withdrawal bf the constitution of u... 18th of November of an Maddie telvs meninges in decla
ratiqn to. the e ectthat' ' demand haa- ,_ plied with does pot ,reach'tb‘etdlielqore 'the .dfvthis mortififgizundersigned Iavail mm at thls’bppcrturiity &c.*‘;(8l8llvd)’ 'Baas'nn', Baum. iLI-injaj .v .-1.- .1 n ,; i ' .; w! --i', Iva! ...,“J' , L 1%,Poltcy 41w. Danishflooermnent. v i _. Thfollowinb 'I'mflladliII-dme'apae'eh-id Bishop Konrad, the Floridan» of Methodists“ handset-lag Wears House @511“ Danish Rigsdag) a 25mm t.: i assume that on pro, ousted filth w at I have’Z’irehdy's'iaid upon this 'questidn (t_ e esvig-I olstein) ill ' her place (this: Fbll's’thiug, or 'Lowér ouss‘bf’tbe‘Rigsdag). I shalftherefbnionfiudimyleh' peritoneum spanning the- political posit-ism whicthhaGovei-nmetl D'foreed mtahd up, and that so dearly and definitely thatno doubt can be enterme .A political. duon is mainly determ'néd by the political questions ,which pxist. , 'o are. therefore,'prope y concernedneither with past our future events, but mlywieb those dying before us in the immediate present. Gentleman. you: alillzalt admit. that a certain. settlement“ the relations of tbe,Stat0 wps announced-in the'proclamatloo olden. 28, 1862, pm! that certain, negotiationaand assprancasipreceded that proclamation, which in their entirety constitute what- may perhaps be briefly termed the agreements ef'185l-52. ‘I shall not go into more detail at present taco the-form emhess assurances, but shall sitaply confine myeelf to their coriaidelltion as they new edit. "I believe we mastiall admit,— I, at least, lave not heard ' it controvertod~thst_- the present existing settlement'of State relations does notcorrespond with. the bases upon which the arrangements of 1851-52‘werelfounded, but we are certainly at the same time a}! of opinion that the fault ‘of this deviation does not liew'lth the Daan Gorernm’eus, vbut with thermal Confederation, which has forced Holstein from its'connexien with the" other portions of the msuarchy. We are also probably all more or less of opinion that the presumption hnsbcen violated upon which the entire organisation was based, as plainly and distinctly luld do'Wn by the man who conducted these negotiations. This presumption was that the Germanic Confederation‘would confine itself strictly within the limits of its territorial competence. The question may; therefore, arise, how far the agreements may be regarded as binding upon us. This is the specially vital political question of the day-how far we, for our parts, are forced to regard these agreements as binding. I admit that they contain certain obligations for the Danish GOverument, upon which~ I need not now dilate; butI maintain that they also contain certain rights for the Danish , Government, viz., that no such- state as Slesvig-llolstein shall exist. When, then-fore, an hon. member expresses his conviction that the German Governments intend to create a state of Slang-Holstein, 1 reply that our best safeguards against such a course are the agreements of 1851-52. For, although they contain certain obligations binding upon us, they include at the same tune a strong protection against the establishment of a Slesvlg-llplstein_state. in the present position of political affairs, therefore, his Majesty‘s Government recognises the agreements of 1851-15? In their full extent, in regard to the obligations they entail and the nghta they. confer, for Swedish Sympathy with Denmark.
tie two things, riuhts and duties, hang together. It is impossible to
release ourselves from the one without giving up the other. I hope
this will be regarded as so clear an expression of opinion that no further
doubt upon the subject can arise. But it is said, should war occur willthe agreements then be recognised as binding? I might reply, that it
is ditiicult to look so far into the future. I might say that the events, of the day—the events, indeed, of every day—entail the necessity of forming such important resolutions that we may well be justified inl leaving the solution to the lature. It has also been said, when war isi undertaken, we ought to know for what we are about to fight. I will} tell you, gentlemen, for what we are about to fight. We are about to
fight to preVent a foreign power forcing itself into Slcsvig; we are
about to fight to expel those from the province who intrude into it.‘ But, gentlemen, you will perhaps ask further, if war is commencedj what settlement is intended to be introduced? To that I reply, tell me , what will be the result of the war, tell me in what position we shall‘ stand when war is concluded, and I shall then be able to inform youi what settlement may be attained. Not even a powerful nation cani say at the commencement of a war what settlement the result will
render necessary, and just prior to the outbreak of hostilities it would . be only empty words and hollow phrases to declare, “Such or such is
the programme for which we fight." The programme, I maintain,l which we have to follow, simply, clearly, and without evasion, is this :l not to allow a single German soldier to pass the Eider without offering the best resistance in our power, and to use every effort to expel from j Slcsvig all who shall venture to intrude.
A letter from Stockholm of the 26th ult. says: " The ultimatum presented to Denmark by Prussia, and the prospect of its resulting in an' invasion of Slesvig, have called forth here manifestations of the[ liveliest sympathy for the oppressed nation. Up to the present this sympathy had only been displayed with a certain reserve, because the,' Government had expressed itself throughout in a sufficiently clear and , evident manner; and the public know well that its actions would cone-j spoud with its words. But now, in face of such imminent dangers, public opinion has declared itself in all its force. The most distinguished ladies of this city, among whom imay be cited the Baroness Geer, wife of the Minister of Justice ; the Countess vou Manderstrbm and Madlle F rederika Bremer, whose reputation is European, have formed a committee for the collection and despatch to Slesvig of warm clothing and other necessaries of great utility. This committee has already sent some considerable parcels, and every day brings them abundant donations. Similar committees are being formed throughout Sweden, and the ladies ardently seize these opportunities of manifesting in a practical manner their sympathy for their Scandinavian brethren. Another committee has been formed in Stockholm composed of the highest personagcs, such as the presidents, of the royal courts, the delegates of the estates charged with the administration of the National Bank and of the bureau of the public debt, the ProcuratorGeneral of Justice, generals, admirals, &e. This committee has published an appeal to the Swedish people, and opened a subscription for the families of the Daniin soldiers.
FRANCE. Reply of the Emperor to the Address of the Corps Légt'sluit'f. The Mom'leur ublishes the reply of the Emperor to the address of
the Corps Legis tif. The following is a translation : “ Monsieur lo Pnsideng—The address which expresses to me the approbation of the Corps Legislatif deeply moves me. The discussions upon the verification of powers and the address have been long and profound, and although they have occupied nearly three months they have not been without utility. In all im artial minds, in fact, what are the definitive results of these debates; Accusations cleverly disseminated reduced to nothing ; the policy of the Government better appreciated, a majority more compact and more devoted to the maintenance of our institutions. These are great advantages obtained; for after the sterile attempts of so many different regimes the primary want of the country is stability. Upon a soil without consistence, and which is continually shitting, nothing durable can be established. What have we seen during the last sixty years? Liberty in partisan hands become merely a minersive weapon. Hence incessant fluctuations; hence, by turns, power succumbing to liberty, and liberty succumbingto anarchy. This ought not to be, and the example of the last few years shows that what so long appeared irreconcileable may be reconciled. Really fruitful progress is the result of experience, and its advance will not be quickeued y systematic and unjust attacks, but by the close union of the Government with a majority inspired by real patriotism, but never seduced by vain popularity. Let us await from concord and time the amelioratious that are possible; do not let the deceptive hope of chimeriual improvement uncessingly compromise the present good that we have at heart to consolidate together. Let us each remain in our right place, you enlightening and controlling the progress of the Government; I taking the initiative In everything conducive to the grandeur and prosperity of France." His Majesty's remarks (says the official journal) were received with shouts of " Vivo l’Empereur 1"
THE FRENCH IN MEXICO.
The advices received in New York on the 22nd ult. reach to the 6th of January. They state that Uragtt, with 8,000 men, was prepared to make a stand to the mountains lending to Helium. It. was reported that General Busaiue intended to open a way to some Pacific port. The French had occupied Ln. Putelin. Negretc had been desperately defeated in trying to recapture San Luis. Juarez was at Zacatecas. Advices from Matamoras report that the Mexican factions in Tamaulipas had united, and were about to march, 1,600 strong, against Tampico, which was occupied by 600 French troops.
The following is the latest news ulJOIIh the Archduke Maximilian and his Mexican adventure .- Tlte deputation commissioned to lay before the Archduke Maximilian the ratification, by eighteen states out of twenty-three, of the vote 0! the Assembly ol Notables of Mexico are expected at St Nazaire, by the packet Vera Cruz, on Feb. 15. The deputation will immediately proceed to Miramar. The Archduke will leave his residence towards the end of February or the beginning of March; he will then pay successive visits to the King of the Belgians, the Emperor 0fthc French, and the Queen of England; and afterwards he Will embark for Mexico, where he may he expected to arrive early in'April. The Archduke has already selected the ofiicers of his stuff. It is very positively stated that his principal aide-de-camp will be General Well, a veteran of the Mexican army, who is universally esteemed. “ This," says the Paris correspondent of the Daily News, “isa paragraph emanating from a source inspired by the Almonte committee in Europe. The Archduke does, I believe, intend to go out, but I observe that the time for his departure is constantly deferred, and new prciitniuarica are continually turning up. Of one most indis. pensable preliminary, however—the raising the wind to get funds to start with—we hear nothing.”
PARIS, l-‘eb. 5.—Thc Mom'tm' of to-day publishes a correspondence
.Fcb. l.—The Austrian and Prussian armies invade Sles-rig.“
Prince Frederick of Augustenburg is proclaimed Duke of SlcsvigHolstein at Eckerufdrde.
Sweden protests at Vienna and Berlin against the decision of the two great German Powers to occupy Slesvig.
2.-—The Danes repulse the invaders at Missunde.‘
The law relative to the war tax is submitted to the Rigsdaag and the Assembly for Denmark Proper.
The J'hedrelandet states that the mission to Stockholm of Mr Kirkpatrick, the English Secretary of Legation at this Court, has for object to prevail upon Sweden to act in the Danish question only in common with England.
Jan. 22.—General Schofield supersedes General Foster at Knoxville.
23.—General Rosecrans is appointed to command the department of the Missouri.
The Maryland Legislature nominate Mr Lincoln for the Presidency! FRANCE :
Jan. 29.--The official report of the Minister of Finance on the new loan shows that the sums actually paid in as deposit reached 230,000,000 francs, or 9,200,000l. sterling.
30. -— Shaw, the valet who stole the Duke of Brunswick's diamonds, is convicted, and sentenced to hard labour for twenty years.
Feb. l.—Tlie Emperor receives the deputation from the Corps Législatif with the address, and makes an important speech.“
2.-—-At the sitting of the Corps Législatif an Imperial decree is read proroguing the session until the 4th of April.
3.—The Patric publishes, under reserve, the news that the Italian Government had protested against fortifications being erected by Austria near Peschiera, in contravention of the treaty of 1859. The Pays announces that Austria is making armaments on the Mincio. ITALY:
Jan. 30.—-The bill for the suppression of brigandage in the Neapolitan provinces is discussed in the Senate. Signor Peruui announces that brigandags has decreased, and that in case of serious events taking place, the Government would be able, without danger, to withdraw a portion of the military forces at present stationed in the Southern provinces, in order to reinforce the army. The Senate passes the bill. '
.Flb. 2.——The result of the elections is generally favourable to the moderate party. Garibaldi lies not succeeded st Palermo.
Feb. 1.—'l‘ho resolution brought forward by the Opposition a short time back is rejected by 103 against 50 votes. This resolution censured the course pursued by the Government, and states that Austria had no interest in Slesvig-I-Iolstein, and that her action should be subordinate to the policy of the Federal Diet.
Jan. 3L—The project of law abolishing the tobacco contract is presented in the Cortes. The duty proposed to be levied is 1,200 reis per kilogrammc on unmanufactured tobacco, and 2,800 on cigars.
The stormy debates respecting the late loan continue. The Opp0sition is strong, and censures the conduct of the Minister of Finance with respect to the loan. The Viscount Sa da Bandiera and Sanhor Anselmo Braacamp have left the Ministry in consequence of the bad reception b the Cortes of their proposed reforms in the army.
THE DA UBIAN PRINCIPALITIES:
Feb. 4.—-In the Chambers a debate takes place upon the reorganization of the gsndarmerie. An amendment demanding the establishment of a National Guard in the towns is carried by a majority of six. Several speakers belonging to the coalition declare the establishment of such a three indispensable, to counterbalance the too absolute devotion of the army to the Prince.
Dec. 20.—Tbc Government decree the entire demolition of the remains of the Church of the Campania. where upward of 2,000 ladies were burnt to death. About 1,700 of the burnt bodies were recognised, and between 400 and 500 more were found to be beyond recognition. At least 3,000 persons were in the church when the fire broke ont.‘l
H O M E.
HER MAJEBTY held a Council at Osborne on Wednesday, at which the Royal Speech on the opening of Parliament was submitted for her Majesty’s approval. It is stated that the christening of the infant Prince will mks place at Buckingham Yalacs on the 10th of March, the wedding day of its Royal parents. The Princess of Wales was churcbed on Tuesday at St George’s Chapel, and has driven out several times during the week. The Queen of Denmark and the Princess Dagmar are expected to arrive in this country at the close of this month, in order to be present at the christening of the infant Prince. It is authoritatively announced that levéu will be held by the Prince of Wales, for the Queen, before Easter, and probably a Drawing-room. by the Princess of Wales, on behalf of her Majesty. Levées and Drawing-rooms will likewise be held by the Prince and Princess after Easter. The Queen is still unequal to the performance of State ceremonies, and her Majesty’s physicians have declared that any such exertion would be prejudicial to her Majesty's health.
Feb. l.—The Rev. T. R. Birch is tried in the Central Criminal Court for publishing a defamatory libel on Mr F. F. Taylor. He is found guilty, but being recommended to mercy is sentenced only to six months' imprisonment in Newgate.
Sir G. Grey intornis the members for Derby that, in compliance with the request of the visiting magistrates of that borough, he has ordered a medical inquiry at Bethlehem llospitnl as to the state of the murderer Townley's mind. The result is a declaration of his perfect sanity and the commutation of his punishment to penal servitude for life.‘
Mr H. dioor, vaho announced himself as the Conservative candidate for Brighton, and who some days since retired from the contest, has issued an address announcing his intention to go to the poll, and to keep it open until the last moment.
At the Weekly meeting of the Lancashire Distress Fund Mr Maclure reports that 1,2931. 45. 1d. was received last week, and that the balance in the bank was 195,8021. 1s. 2d. Mr Fat-nail reports that on the 23rd nit. there was an increase in the number of persons receiving parochial relief in the twenty-seven unions
of the cotton manufacturing districts, as compared with the number so relieved in the previous week, of 144.
2.—-At a meeting of the Town Council of Birmingham it. is decided, after a long discussion, to purchase Aston Park as public property
The London Gazelle announces that the rolls for the Kertch prize money, amounting to between 80,0001. and 90,000!., have been prepared by the Accountant-General of the Navy, and that it will be shortly ready for distribution to the officers and men entitled to shares.
The ceremonies of inaugurating the Dnrgau statue and opening the National Gallery at Dublin take place in the presence of the LordLieutenant.
Henrt/ Linguard, the actor whose case was recently reported, is tried in the Central Criminal Court for obtaining goods by false pretenccs, and being found guilty is sentenced to twelve months' inipriscnrnent with hard labour.
Tits salmon fisheries on the Severn are re-opeued for the season, which romises to be a. very good one.
3.-- t is officially intimated that the judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the cases of Mr Wilson and Dr Rowland Williams will be delivered on Monday next, Feb. B.‘
4.—The trial in the Central Criminal Court of the eight foreigners for piracy and murder, in the case. of the ship The F Land, is brought to a close, having begun on the 3rd. They are all found guilty, with the exception of a man named Carlos, and are sentenced to death.‘
In the case of O'Kuns v. O'ch and Lord Palmerston, in the Divorce Court, the petition is distnissed.‘l
In consequence of the representations made by the Visiting Justices of Derby, in a letter to Sir Geo. Grey, which ended by a request that a further medical investigation might be made at Bethlehem Hospital into the -state 0f the murderer Townley‘s mind, the Home Secretary, with the concurrence of the Lord Chancellor, appointed four physicians to institute an inquiry for that purpose. The result has been the declaration of ’I‘ownley's perfect sanity and thoannouncement cfbis commuted punishment to penal servitude for life. The following is the conespondence on the subject :
“ Whitehall, Feb. 1, 1864.
“Gontlemen,—I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey, with reference to previous correspondence with you as to the case of George Victor Townley, to Infcrrn you that, with the concurrence of the Lord Chancellor, he requested Dr W. C. Hood and Dr J. C. Bucknill, visitors of Chancery lunatics, together with Dr Meyer, the medical superintendent of the Criminal Lunatic As lum at Broadmoor, and Dr Helps, the medical superintendent of Bethlehem Hospital, to examine into Townley's state ofmind, and to report thereupon. Sir George Grsy has received from these gentlemen a report, a copy of which is herewith transmitted to you. While the letters (copies of which were sent to you on the 23rd and 25th alt? from the magistrates who signed the certificates of Townley's insanity cave no reason for doubting that they were convinced of his insanity at the time when the certificates were signed by them, the present report fi'om four medical gentlemen of great experience in mental diseases appears to Sir George Grey couclusive as to Townley being of sound mind. A certificate to that effect, as rvquired by the Act 3 and 4 Vict., c. 54, has since been reccived by the Secretary of State. I am further to inform you that, taking all the circumstances of this case into consideration, her Majesty's Government are of opinion that it would not be right that the capital sentence should now be carried into efibct, but that it ought to be commuted to penal servitude for life. This course has thercfme been taken, and the prisoner will be dealt with accordingly. I am to add that it is the intention of her Majesty's Government to propose an amendment ofthe act under which the certificates of insanity in this case were given.—I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, ll. Waomso'roa.
“ Tc T. W. Evans, Esq., M.P., and W. Mandy, Esq., M.P."
“ Bethlehem Royal Hospital, Jan. 28, 1864.
“We, the undersigned, having been requested by Secretary Sir George Grey to examine into the state of mind of George Victor Townlcy, a prisoner under sentence of death in Bethlehem Hospital, and to report our opinion as to whether he is of unsound mind, report as follows: We have carefully considered the copies of papers supplied to us, and on the 26th and 27th days of this month we have had two lenghtened interviews with the prisoner; and the conclusion we have unanimously arrived at is that George Victor 'l'ownlcy is of sound mind. The demeanour of the prisoner during each interview was calm and self possessed, with the exception that at the commencement of the second interview be displayed and earpressed annoyance at the repeated examinations to which he was being subjected. Neither in mode of speech nor in look and conduct was there any sign of insanity observable in him. His prompt apprehension of the purport of our questions and the manner in which he replied to them, indicated the possession of good mental intellectual capacity. The opinions which he avows that men, as the creatures of circumstances, are not justly res — sible for their actions, are opinions at which he appears to have arrived by ordinary processes of reasoning. That he knows that he is respon~ sible for the commission of crime is made clear by his own words used to us-—-‘ I expected to be hanged because I killed her, and am not such a fool as not to know that the law hangs for murder. I did not think of it at the time, or I should not have done it.’ We think that his statement that he ltilled Miss Goodwin to repossess himself or her as his property was an afterthought adopted to justify his crime. He acknowledged to us that he had come to this opinion after the deed was done. The supposition that he killed Miss Goodwin under the influence of the opinion that in so doing he was repossessing himself of her as his property is inconsistent with his own repented statement to us that, without forethought of any kind, he killed her under the influence of sudden impulse. He explained to us that by killing Miss Goodwin to repossess himself of her as his property, he simply meant that he took her out of the hands of his enemies and placed her in a position where she would wait, and where he would rejoin her who he died. The prisoner endeavoured to represent the catastrophe to us as due to the influence of sudden impulse, but the details which we elicited from him show that he used threats of murder for some time before he struck the first blow. We think that his clear memory of the events attending the crime, and also the attempts which he has made to misrepresent the state of his mind and memory at the time of these events, are evidence of his sanity. We are of opinion that he does not entertain any delusion on the subject of a conspiracy against him, but that he uses the term conspiracy to express the real opposition which he has met with from the members of Miss Goodwin’s family to his engagement with her, and also so express the feeling that they are hostile to him. We have considered the evidence of hereditary predisposition to insanity given in the papers supplied to us and our opinion of the state of the prisoner's state of mind has not been altered thereby. We examined the apothecary and also the hiefnttcndnnt of Bethlehem as to the conduct of Towulcy since he has been in detention at the hospital-both of them have had him under daily and special observation—and they assure us that neither in conduct, manner, or conversation, had they been able to observe in him any of the peculiarities which they are in the habit of remarking among the insane. Signed, W. Cusa. Hoon, M.D., Visitor of Chaucery Lunatics; Jons Cnss. BUCKNILL. M.D., Visitor of Chancery Lunatics ; J can Maven, M .D., Medical Superintendent of the Criminal Lunatic Asylum; W. Hairs, M.D., Medical Superintendent of the Royal Bethlehem Hospital."